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Technical Paper

Real Time Simulation of Virtual Pedestrians for Development of Pedestrian Detection Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-0754
Optical based sensor systems for vehicle based detection and warning systems are under development to reduce accidents and limit injuries caused by accidents. (1, 2, 3) In order to validate these types of detection systems, it is necessary to perform real world tests. In the case of pedestrian detection systems, this is very difficult in the field for safety reasons. Instead, simulated tests are more desirable. This paper describes work to understand the effectiveness of using virtual pedestrians as surrogates for real world pedestrian detection.
Technical Paper

Sound Quality Metric Development for Wind Buffeting and Gusting Noise

2003-05-05
2003-01-1509
Customer annoyance of steady-state wind noise correlates well with loudness. A common objective metric to capture average loudness is the ISO532B or Zwicker method. However, it has been shown previously that time-varying wind noise can also significantly affect customer annoyance, independent of average loudness. Causes of time-varying wind noise include wind buffeting generated by other vehicles, and also wind gusting. This paper summarizes the development of an objective metric that correlates well with subjective impressions of wind gusting/buffeting. The model is based on a general impulsive noise model with parameters tuned specifically for time-varying wind characteristics. The model consists of a psychoacoustic processing stage followed by a gusting detection stage, where the psychoacoustic stage is extracted from a time-varying loudness model. The output of the gusting model is a time series that indicates the location and “intensity” of wind gusts.
Technical Paper

Masking Perception Analysis Software (MPAS) for Tonal Level Setting in Powertrain NVH

2003-05-05
2003-01-1500
Recent trends show a growing demand for improved powertrain NVH and sound quality. In particular, there is little customer acceptance of tonal annoyances under any driving condition. Thus, powertrain NVH and product development engineers have a strong need to confidently determine acceptable noise levels for commodities that produce narrow band noise. Components such as power steering, transmission gears, pumps, engine timing chains, axle gearing, etc., all may produce significant tones under various vehicle conditions. The perception of the tone is highly influenced by its frequency and background noise. Background noise is composed of wind, road, and engine noise. A methodology and toolset of masking perception algorithms has been developed to meet these needs. The Masking Perception Analysis Software (MPAS) is used to address the development and verification of acceptable powertrain tonal levels as well as the diagnosis of tonal-related issues.
Technical Paper

Sound Quality Aspects of Impact Harshness for Light Trucks and SUVs

2003-05-05
2003-01-1501
Impact harshness characterizes interior sound and vibration resulting from tire interactions with discrete road disturbances. Typical interactions are expansion joints, railroad crossings, and other road discontinuities at low-to-medium vehicle speeds. One goal of the current study was to validate for light trucks and SUVs the metric that was developed for cars: a weighted combination of peak loudness values from the front and rear impacts after lowpass filtering at 1 kHz. Another goal was to see if other sound characteristics of impact harshness needed to be captured with a metric. A listening study was conducted with participants evaluating several different trucks and SUVs for impact harshness. Results show that the existing metric correlates well with subjective preferences for most of the vehicles.
Technical Paper

Sound Quality Metric Development and Application for Impulsive Engine Noise

2005-05-16
2005-01-2482
Many engine tick and knock issues are clearly audible, yet cannot be characterized by common sound quality metrics such as time-varying loudness, sharpness, fluctuation strength, or roughness. This paper summarizes the recent development and application of an objective metric that agrees with subjective impressions of impulsive engine noise. The metric is based on a general impulsive noise model [1], consisting of a psychoacoustic processing stage followed by a transient detection stage. The psychoacoustic stage is extracted from portions of a time-varying loudness model. The primary output of the impulsive engine noise model is a time series that indicates the location and “intensity” of impulsive engine noise events. The information in this time series is reduced either to a single number metric, or to a frequency-based vector of numbers that indicates the amount of impulsiveness in the recorded sound.
Technical Paper

Detecting and Classifying Secondary Impacts in Door Closing Sound

2005-05-16
2005-01-2471
One of the primary correlates to customer annoyance with door-closing sound is peak loudness. In addition, customer annoyance also increases with the existence of secondary impacts, such as rattles. While these secondary impacts are typically not seen in the time-varying loudness trace (or other common sound quality metrics), it is often possible to visually identify the impacts in a time-frequency display of the door-closing sound. But the reduction of this display information to a single-number objective metric that agrees with subjective assessments has previously proved elusive. This paper summarizes the recent development and application of an objective metric that agrees with subjective classifications of secondary impacts in door-closing sounds.
Technical Paper

Wavelet-based Modification of Impulsive Sound Character and Application to Diesel Sound Quality

2005-05-16
2005-01-2271
A wavelet-based technique for reducing the impulsive character of sound recordings is presented. The amount of impulsive content removed may be adjusted by varying a statistical threshold. The technique is validated for a diesel idle sound-quality application. The wavelet-based modification produces a substantial decrease in impulsive character as verified by an objective sound-quality metric for engine “ticking”. Informal subjective assessment of the modified results found them to be realistic and free from artifacts. The procedure is expected to be useful for sound-quality simulation and target-setting for diesel powertrain noise and other automotive sounds containing both impulsive and non-impulsive content.
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