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Technical Paper

Biofidelity of Anthropomorphic Test Devices for Rear Impact

1997-11-12
973342
This study examines the biofidelity, repeatability, and reproducibility of various anthropomorphic devices in rear impacts. The Hybrid III, the Hybrid III with the RID neck, and the TAD-50 were tested in a rigid bench condition in rear impacts with ΔVs of 16 and 24 kph. The results of the tests were then compared to the data of Mertz and Patrick[1]. At a AV of 16 kph, all three anthropomorphic devices showed general agreement with Mertz and Patrick's data [1]. At a AV of 24 kph, the RID neck tended to exhibit larger discrepancies than the other two anthropomorphic devices. Also, two different RID necks produced significantly different moments at the occipital condyles under similar test conditions. The Hybrid III and the Hybrid III with the RID neck were also tested on standard production seats in rear impacts for a AV of 8 kph. Both the kinematics and the occupant responses of the Hybrid III and the Hybrid III with the RID neck differed from each other.
Technical Paper

Crush Behaviors of Aluminum Honeycombs of Different Cell Geometries Under Compression Dominant Combined Loads

2006-04-03
2006-01-0122
The influence of cell geometries on the quasi-static crush behaviors of aluminum honeycombs is explored by experiments. Aluminum 5052-H38 honeycomb specimens with different in-plane orientation angles, cell wall thicknesses and cell sizes were tested under compression dominant combined loads. The load histories of these specimens were obtained. A quadratic and a linear phenomenological yield criteria are used to fit the obtained experimental normal crush and shear strengths for three types of honeycomb specimens under compression dominant combined loads. The quadratic yield criterion is used to fit the experimental results for two types of honeycomb specimens with low relative densities. The linear yield criterion is used to fit the experimental results for one type of honeycomb specimens with a high relative density.
Technical Paper

Effects of Impact Velocity on Crush Behavior of Honeycomb Specimens

2004-03-08
2004-01-0245
Effects of impact velocity on the crush behavior of aluminum 5052-H38 honeycomb specimens are investigated by experiments. An impact test machine using pressurized nitrogen was designed to perform dynamic crush tests. A test fixture was designed such that inclined loads can be applied to honeycomb specimens in dynamic crush tests. The results of dynamic crush tests indicate that the effects of impact velocity on the normal and inclined crush strengths are significant. The trends of the inclined crush strengths for specimens with different in-plane orientation angles as functions of impact velocity are very similar to that of the normal crush strength. Experimental results show similar progressive folding mechanisms for honeycomb specimens under pure compressive and inclined loads. Under inclined loads, the inclined stacking patterns were observed. The inclined stacking patterns are due to the asymmetric locations of the horizontal plastic hinge lines.
Technical Paper

Failure Modeling of Spot Welds Under Complex Combined Loading Conditions for Crash Applications

2002-07-09
2002-01-2032
Experiments to obtain the failure loads of spot welds are first reviewed under combined opening and shear loading conditions. A failure criterion is then presented for spot welds under combined opening and shear loading conditions based on the results from the experiments and a lower bound limit load analysis. In order to account for spot welds under more complex loading conditions, another lower bound limit load solution is presented to characterize the failure loads of spot welds under combinations of three forces and three moments. Based on the limit load solution, an engineering failure criterion is proposed with correction factors determined by different spot weld tests. The engineering failure criterion can be used to characterize the failure loads of spot welds with consideration of the effects of sheet thickness, nugget radius and combinations of loads.
Technical Paper

Honeycomb Specimens Under Combined Compressive and Shear Displacement Conditions

2005-04-11
2005-01-0360
The quasi-static crush behavior of aluminum 5052-H38 honeycomb specimens under non-proportional compression dominant combined loads is investigated by experiments. Compression dominant combined loads and pure compressive loads were applied in different sequences to induce non-proportional combined loads. The experimental results show that the normal crush and shear strengths in combined loading regions and the normal crush strengths in pure compressive loading regions of the non-proportional combined loads are quite consistent with the existing phenomenological yield criterion based on the experimental normal crush and shear strengths under proportional combined loads. The experimental results indicate that the sequence of loading paths for the non-proportional combined loads does not affect the crush strengths of honeycomb specimens.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Testing of Spot Welds under Dynamic Impact Loading Conditions

2002-03-04
2002-01-0149
Failure behavior of spot welds is investigated under impact loading conditions. Three different impact speeds were selected to test both HSLA steel and mild steel specimens under combined opening and shear loading conditions. A test fixture was designed and used to obtain the failure loads of spot weld specimens of different thicknesses under a range of combined opening and shear loads with different impact speeds. Accelerometers were installed on the fixtures and the specimens for investigation of the inertia effects. Optical micrographs of the cross sections of failed spot welds were obtained to understand the failure processes in both HSLA steel and mild steel specimens under different combined impact loads. The experimental results indicate that the failure mechanisms of spot welds are very similar for both HSLA steel and mild steel specimens with the same sheet thickness. These micrographs show that the sheet thickness can affect the failure mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Crush Strength of Aluminum 5052-H38 Honeycomb Materials under Combined Compressive and Shear Loads

2003-03-03
2003-01-0331
The crush strength of aluminum 5052-H38 honeycomb materials under combined compressive and shear loads are investigated here. The experimental results indicate that both the peak and crush strengths under combined compressive and shear loads are lower than those under pure compressive loads. A yield function is suggested for honeycomb materials under the combined loads based on a phenomenological plasticity theory. The microscopic crush mechanism under the combined loads is also investigated. A microscopic crush model based on the experimental observations is developed. The crush model includes the assumptions of the asymmetric location of horizontal plastic hinge line and the ruptures of aluminum cell walls so that the kinematic requirement can be satisfied. In the calculation of the crush strength, two correction factors due to non-associated plastic flow and different rupture modes are considered.
Technical Paper

A General Failure Criterion for Spot Welds with Consideration of Plastic Anisotropy and Separation Speed

2003-03-03
2003-01-0611
A general failure criterion for spot welds is proposed with consideration of the plastic anisotropy and the separation speed for crash applications. A lower bound limit load analysis is conducted to account for the failure loads of spot welds under combinations of three forces and three moments. Based on the limit load solution and the experimental results, an engineering failure criterion is proposed with correction factors determined by different spot weld tests. The engineering failure criterion can be used to characterize the failure loads of spot welds with consideration of the effects of the plastic anisotropy, separation speed, sheet thickness, nugget radius and combinations of loads. Spot weld failure loads under uniaxial and biaxial opening loads and those under combined shear and twisting loads from experiments are shown to be characterized well by the engineering failure criterion.
Technical Paper

Relationships Between Passenger Car Seat Back Strength and Occupant Injury Severity in Rear End Collisions: Field and Laboratory Studies

1997-11-12
973343
Recent design characteristic changes in a small segment of production passenger car front seats have focused attention on the influence of seat back strength on occupant kinematics and potentially injurious loads placed on occupants during rear end collisions. The National Accident Sampling Study database from the years of 1980 to 1993 was interrogated to determine the relationship between vehicle change in velocity, and the nature and severity of injuries sustained by passengers occupying those seats in rear end collisions. The results of the NASS data analysis show that the yielding seats in most current automobiles perform well as a passive restraint system. When the yielding passenger car seats are compared to the stiffer seat/cab, the passenger car seats offered improved protection. Additionally, the data indicate that the three point restraint system provides protection and restraint for front seat occupants in rear impact.
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