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Technical Paper

The Effect of Dimethoxy Methane Additive on Diesel Vehicle Particulate Emissions

FTP emissions tests on a passenger vehicle equipped with a 1.8 L IDI turbo-charged diesel engine show that the mass emissions of particles decrease by (36±8)% when 16.6% dimethoxymethane (DMM) by volume is added to a diesel fuel. Particle size measurements reveal log-normal accumulation mode distributions with number weighted geometric mean diameters in the 80 - 100 nm range. The number density is comparable for both base fuel and the DMM/diesel blend; however, the distributions shift to smaller particle diameter for the blend. This shift to smaller size is consistent with the observed reduction in particulate mass. No change is observed in NOx emissions. Formaldehyde emissions increase by (50±25)%, while emissions of other hydrocarbons are unchanged to within the estimated experimental error.
Technical Paper

Proportional Ambient Sampling: A CVS Improvement for ULEV and Lean Engine Operation

As motor vehicle emissions have been reduced to meet requirements of the clean air acts, they have become low enough to be difficult to measure accurately. This is especially the case for hydrocarbons, because after warm-up, there are fewer hydrocarbons emitted from a modern vehicle's tailpipe than in the surrounding air. It is therefore important to correctly compensate for the ambient hydrocarbon levels of the air used to dilute the collected exhaust. In estimating the accuracy of the federally required testing procedures, previously published error analyses have examined the effects of random errors. This study examines the systematic errors inherent in the CVS (Constant Volume Sampling) technique specified in federal regulations, estimates their sizes, and proposes a method using proportional ambient sampling whereby they can be avoided.
Technical Paper

Measuring the Electrostatic Charge on a Filter

Particulate matter (PM) emissions from vehicles are measured by passing diluted exhaust through an efficient sampling filter and determining the filter's weight gain. For vehicles meeting the currently regulated levels, the PM mass change may be as little as a few tens of micrograms, and the weighing requirements to accurately detect the change are severe. The difficulty is compounded by the insulating nature of the sampling filters used. Proper neutralizing of electrostatic charge on filters before weighing is critical to achieving accurate, repeatable results. Surface potential is sometimes used to verify that filters have been sufficiently neutralized. Unfortunately, while the surface potential of a conductor is well defined, that of an insulator is not and cannot be measured uniquely. This paper provides background electrostatic calculations needed to interpret the measurements.
Technical Paper

Comparison of an Alternative Particulate Mass Measurement with Advanced Microbalance Analysis

The regulated level of particulate mass for 2007 heavy duty diesel on-road engines is 0.01 g/bkhp-hr. Measurement of this low level of particulate by weighing is costly and time consuming. The weighing method must measure 100 μg or less of particulate on a filter that weighs about 100 mg with a resolution of ± 2.5 μg or better. This means that the microbalance and sampling handling procedure must be accurate within ±25 ppm by mass or ±1/40,000. It requires a microbalance with 0.1 μg precision housed in a special environment. Moreover, the weighing method involves a lengthy process. The filter must be equilibrated, and then pre- and post-weighed, usually with repeat measurements. An alternative to gravimetric analysis is a thermal mass analyzer that measures the semi-volatile organic fraction (SOF), as well as soot and sulfate fractions of the particulate matter (PM) collected on a cleaned quartz filter. The calibration of the thermal mass measurement is discussed in detail.
Technical Paper

PM Measurement Artifact: Organic Vapor Deposition on Different Filter Media

PM (Particulate Matter) emitted by vehicles and engines is most often measured quantitatively by collecting diluted exhaust samples on filters that are weighed pre-and post-test. The filter media used have high efficiency for small particles found in vehicle exhaust, but they also collect organic matter from the vapor phase with a lower, but nonzero, efficiency. In the past, organic vapor adsorption was usually negligible compared with PM levels from untreated diesel engine exhaust. For vehicles employing a DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) and emitting very low PM, that is no longer the case. This paper reports measurements of the organic vapor deposition artifact for different filter media, including the two types (TX40 and Teflo) called for by the 2007 regulations for heavy duty diesel engines. The vapor artifact represents a substantial fraction of the 2007 regulatory standard of 10 mg/mi for light duty vehicles.
Technical Paper

Reducing PM Measurement Variability by Controlling Static Charge

PM (Particulate Matter) emitted by vehicles and engines is most often measured quantitatively by collecting diluted exhaust samples on filters that are weighed pre-and post-test. Static charge that builds on filters from handling can dramatically influence the measurement results, especially at low PM levels such as those produced when testing typical gasoline-powered vehicles or diesel-powered vehicles employing DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) technology. It was found that proper grounding of equipment, furniture, and floor was insufficient to mitigate the effects of static electricity when using the traditional method of weighing from a glass Petri dish in the presence of an ionizing bar. A stainless steel EDP (Electrostatic Discharge Platform), using commercially available ionizing bars, was developed and proven to successfully reduce filter measurement variability when weighing PTFE membrane filters on a 0.1 microgram balance.
Technical Paper

Phase-based TEOM Measurements Compared with Traditional Filters for Diesel PM

Collection of diesel exhaust using the Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) instrument was investigated as an alternative to the traditional method of filter weighing for particulate matter mass determination. Such an approach, if successful, would eliminate considerable manual labor involved in weighing, as well as the delay of hours or days before final results were known. To avoid known artifacts in the second-by-second mode of operation, the TEOM was used in a phase-by-phase mode and was equilibrated with air of constant temperature and humidity before each measurement. Electrically operated valves were used to automate the equilibration and measurement process. The study also included a comparison between two types of TEOM filter - an older type and a new one designed by the TEOM manufacturer for more uniform flow and less flexing. Best results were obtained with the TEOM using the new filter under no-flow conditions.