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Technical Paper

Spot Weld Failure Loads under Combined Mode Loading Conditions

2001-03-05
2001-01-0428
Failure loads of spot welds are investigated under static and impact loading conditions. A test fixture was designed and used to obtain maximum loads of spot welds under a range of combined opening and shear loads with different loading rates. Optical micrographs of the cross sections of spot welds before and after failure were obtained to understand the failure processes under various loading rates and different combinations of loads. The experimental results indicate that under nearly pure opening loads, the failure occurs along the nugget circumferential boundary. Under combined opening and shear loading conditions, the failure starts from the tensile side of the base metal near the nugget in a necking/shear failure mode. The effects of sheet thickness and combined load on the load carrying behavior of spot welds are investigated under static and impact loading conditions based on the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Crush Behaviors of Aluminum Honeycombs of Different Cell Geometries Under Compression Dominant Combined Loads

2006-04-03
2006-01-0122
The influence of cell geometries on the quasi-static crush behaviors of aluminum honeycombs is explored by experiments. Aluminum 5052-H38 honeycomb specimens with different in-plane orientation angles, cell wall thicknesses and cell sizes were tested under compression dominant combined loads. The load histories of these specimens were obtained. A quadratic and a linear phenomenological yield criteria are used to fit the obtained experimental normal crush and shear strengths for three types of honeycomb specimens under compression dominant combined loads. The quadratic yield criterion is used to fit the experimental results for two types of honeycomb specimens with low relative densities. The linear yield criterion is used to fit the experimental results for one type of honeycomb specimens with a high relative density.
Technical Paper

Failure Loads of Spot Friction Welds in Aluminum 6111-T4 Sheets under Quasi-Static and Dynamic Loading Conditions

2007-04-16
2007-01-0983
In this investigation, spot friction welds in aluminum 6111-T4 lap-shear specimens were tested under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. Micrographs of the spot friction welds after testing were examined to understand the failure modes of spot friction welds in lap-shear specimens under different loading conditions. The micrographs indicate that the spot friction welds produced by this particular set of welding parameters failed in interfacial failure mode under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. The load and displacement histories for lap-shear specimens were obtained under quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions at three different impact velocities. The failure loads of spot friction welds in lap-shear specimens under dynamic loading conditions are about 7% larger than those under quasi-static loading conditions.
Technical Paper

Effects of Impact Velocity on Crush Behavior of Honeycomb Specimens

2004-03-08
2004-01-0245
Effects of impact velocity on the crush behavior of aluminum 5052-H38 honeycomb specimens are investigated by experiments. An impact test machine using pressurized nitrogen was designed to perform dynamic crush tests. A test fixture was designed such that inclined loads can be applied to honeycomb specimens in dynamic crush tests. The results of dynamic crush tests indicate that the effects of impact velocity on the normal and inclined crush strengths are significant. The trends of the inclined crush strengths for specimens with different in-plane orientation angles as functions of impact velocity are very similar to that of the normal crush strength. Experimental results show similar progressive folding mechanisms for honeycomb specimens under pure compressive and inclined loads. Under inclined loads, the inclined stacking patterns were observed. The inclined stacking patterns are due to the asymmetric locations of the horizontal plastic hinge lines.
Technical Paper

Failure Modeling of Spot Welds Under Complex Combined Loading Conditions for Crash Applications

2002-07-09
2002-01-2032
Experiments to obtain the failure loads of spot welds are first reviewed under combined opening and shear loading conditions. A failure criterion is then presented for spot welds under combined opening and shear loading conditions based on the results from the experiments and a lower bound limit load analysis. In order to account for spot welds under more complex loading conditions, another lower bound limit load solution is presented to characterize the failure loads of spot welds under combinations of three forces and three moments. Based on the limit load solution, an engineering failure criterion is proposed with correction factors determined by different spot weld tests. The engineering failure criterion can be used to characterize the failure loads of spot welds with consideration of the effects of sheet thickness, nugget radius and combinations of loads.
Technical Paper

Structural Optimization for Crash Pulse

2005-04-11
2005-01-0748
In vehicle safety engineering, it is important to determine the severity of occupant injury during a crash. Computer simulations are widely used to study how occupants move in a crash, what they collide during the crash and thus how they are injured. The vehicle motion is typically defined for the occupant simulation by specifying a crash pulse. Many computer models used to analyze occupant kinematics do not calculate both vehicle motion and occupant motion at the same time. This paper presents a framework of response surface methodology for the crash pulse prediction and vehicle structure design optimization. The process is composed of running simulation at DOE sampling data points, generating surrogate models (response surface models), performing sensitivity analysis and structure design optimization for time history data (e.g., crash pulse).
Technical Paper

Honeycomb Specimens Under Combined Compressive and Shear Displacement Conditions

2005-04-11
2005-01-0360
The quasi-static crush behavior of aluminum 5052-H38 honeycomb specimens under non-proportional compression dominant combined loads is investigated by experiments. Compression dominant combined loads and pure compressive loads were applied in different sequences to induce non-proportional combined loads. The experimental results show that the normal crush and shear strengths in combined loading regions and the normal crush strengths in pure compressive loading regions of the non-proportional combined loads are quite consistent with the existing phenomenological yield criterion based on the experimental normal crush and shear strengths under proportional combined loads. The experimental results indicate that the sequence of loading paths for the non-proportional combined loads does not affect the crush strengths of honeycomb specimens.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Testing of Spot Welds under Dynamic Impact Loading Conditions

2002-03-04
2002-01-0149
Failure behavior of spot welds is investigated under impact loading conditions. Three different impact speeds were selected to test both HSLA steel and mild steel specimens under combined opening and shear loading conditions. A test fixture was designed and used to obtain the failure loads of spot weld specimens of different thicknesses under a range of combined opening and shear loads with different impact speeds. Accelerometers were installed on the fixtures and the specimens for investigation of the inertia effects. Optical micrographs of the cross sections of failed spot welds were obtained to understand the failure processes in both HSLA steel and mild steel specimens under different combined impact loads. The experimental results indicate that the failure mechanisms of spot welds are very similar for both HSLA steel and mild steel specimens with the same sheet thickness. These micrographs show that the sheet thickness can affect the failure mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Crush Strength of Aluminum 5052-H38 Honeycomb Materials under Combined Compressive and Shear Loads

2003-03-03
2003-01-0331
The crush strength of aluminum 5052-H38 honeycomb materials under combined compressive and shear loads are investigated here. The experimental results indicate that both the peak and crush strengths under combined compressive and shear loads are lower than those under pure compressive loads. A yield function is suggested for honeycomb materials under the combined loads based on a phenomenological plasticity theory. The microscopic crush mechanism under the combined loads is also investigated. A microscopic crush model based on the experimental observations is developed. The crush model includes the assumptions of the asymmetric location of horizontal plastic hinge line and the ruptures of aluminum cell walls so that the kinematic requirement can be satisfied. In the calculation of the crush strength, two correction factors due to non-associated plastic flow and different rupture modes are considered.
Technical Paper

A General Failure Criterion for Spot Welds with Consideration of Plastic Anisotropy and Separation Speed

2003-03-03
2003-01-0611
A general failure criterion for spot welds is proposed with consideration of the plastic anisotropy and the separation speed for crash applications. A lower bound limit load analysis is conducted to account for the failure loads of spot welds under combinations of three forces and three moments. Based on the limit load solution and the experimental results, an engineering failure criterion is proposed with correction factors determined by different spot weld tests. The engineering failure criterion can be used to characterize the failure loads of spot welds with consideration of the effects of the plastic anisotropy, separation speed, sheet thickness, nugget radius and combinations of loads. Spot weld failure loads under uniaxial and biaxial opening loads and those under combined shear and twisting loads from experiments are shown to be characterized well by the engineering failure criterion.
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