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Technical Paper

Methodology On The Testing Of The Automobile Mount Dynamic Response

2001-03-05
2001-01-0474
This paper reports the latest development of methodologies for testing and CAE modeling of the automobile mounts. The objective of this study is to provide dynamic mount properties for product evaluation and CAE modeling guideline for crashworthiness simulations. The methodology is divided into component, subsystem and full system levels. The study at the component level is to extract the dynamic parameters of mounts, such as stiffness and damping coefficient, based on the component tests. Furthermore, such parameters are employed to investigate the interaction between mount and connecting structures at the subsystem level. A robust connection mechanism from mount to surrounding structures is also developed during this process. Finally, the results from full vehicle system tests are compared with the CAE simulations to verify the methodology at the component and subsystem levels. A robust component test methodology is the first key element of this study.
Technical Paper

A Practical Approach to Consider Forming Effects for Full Vehicle Crash Application

2009-04-20
2009-01-0471
The forming effects along with strain rate, actual material properties and weld effects have been found to be very critical for accurate prediction of crash responses especially the prediction of local deformation. As a result, crash safety engineers started to consider these factors in crash models to improve the accuracy of CAE prediction and reduce prototype testing. The techniques needed to incorporate forming simulation results, including thickness change, residual stresses and strains, in crash models have been studied extensively and are well known in automotive CAE community. However, a challenge constantly faced by crash safety engineers is the availability of forming simulation results, which are usually supplied by groups conducting forming simulations. The forming simulation results can be obtained by either using incremental codes with actual stamping processes or one-step codes with final product information as a simplified approach.
Technical Paper

Modeling Energy Absorption and Deformation of Multicorner Columns in Lateral Bending

2006-04-03
2006-01-0123
The frame rail has an impact on the crash performance of body-on-frame (BOF) and uni-body vehicles. Recent developments in materials and forming technology have prompted research into improving the energy absorption and deformation mode of the frame rail design. It is worthwhile from a timing and cost standpoint to predict the behavior of the front rail in a crash situation through finite element techniques. This study focuses on improving the correlation of the frame component Finite Element model to physical test data through sensitivity analysis. The first part of the study concentrated on predicting and improving the performance of the front rail in a frontal crash [1]. However, frame rails in an offset crash or side crash undergo a large amount of bending. This paper discusses appropriate modeling and testing procedures for front rails in a bending situation.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Spot Weld under Impact Loading and Its Effect on Crash Simulation

2006-04-03
2006-01-0959
Spot weld is the primary joining method to assemble the automotive body structure. In any crash events some separation of spot-welds can be expected. However, if this happens in critical areas of the vehicle it can potentially affect the integrity of the structure. It will be beneficial to identify such issues through CAE simulation before prototypes are built and tested. This paper reports a spot weld modeling methodology to characterize spot weld separation and its application in full vehicle crash simulation. A generalized two-node spring element with 6 DOF at each node is used to model the spot weld. Separation of spot welds is modeled using three alternative rupture criteria defined in terms of peak force, displacement and energy. Component level crash tests are conducted using VIA sled at various impact speeds to determine mean crush load and identify possible separation of welds.
Technical Paper

Implicit and Explicit Finite Element Methods for Crash Safety Analysis

2007-04-16
2007-01-0982
Explicit method is commonly used in crashworthiness analysis due to its capability to solve highly non-linear problems without numerous iterations and convergence problems. However, the time step for explicit methods is limited by the time that the physical wave crosses the element. Therefore, to avoid large amount of CPU time, the explicit method is usually used for non-linear dynamic problems with a short period of simulation duration. For problems under quasi-static loading conditions at pre-crash and post-crash, implicit method could be more efficient than explicit methods because the required computation time is much shorter. Due to the recent advance of crash codes, which allows both implicit and explicit computations to be performed in the same code, crash engineers are able to use explicit computation for crash simulation as well as implicit computation for some of the pre-crash quasi-static loading or post-crash spring back simulations.
Technical Paper

Approaches to Modeling the Dynamic Interaction for an Automotive Seat and Occupant System

2007-04-16
2007-01-0988
There are a wide variety of approaches to model the automotive seat and occupant interaction. This paper traces the studies conducted for simulating the occupant to seat interaction in frontal and/or rear crash events. Starting with an initial MADYMO model, a MADYMO-LS/DYNA coupled model was developed. Subsequently, a full Finite Element Analysis model using LS/DYNA was studied. The main objective of the studies was to improve the accuracy and efficiency of CAE models for predicting the dummy kinematics and structural deformations at the restraint attachment locations in laboratory tests. The occupant and seat interaction was identified as one of the important factors that needed to be accurately simulated. Quasi-static and dynamic component tests were conducted to obtain the foam properties that were input into the model. Foam specimens and the test setup are discussed. Different material models in LS/DYNA were evaluated for simulating automotive seat foam.
Technical Paper

Macroscopic Constitutive Behaviors of Aluminum Honeycombs Under Dynamic Inclined Loads

2007-04-16
2007-01-0979
Macroscopic constitutive behaviors of aluminum 5052-H38 honeycombs under dynamic inclined loads with respect to the out-of-plane direction are investigated by experiments. The results of the dynamic crush tests indicate that as the impact velocity increases, the normal crush strength increases and the shear strength remains nearly the same for a fixed ratio of the normal to shear displacement rate. The experimental results suggest that the macroscopic yield surface of the honeycomb specimens as a function of the impact velocity under the given dynamic inclined loads is not governed by the isotropic hardening rule of the classical plasticity theory. As the impact velocity increases, the shape of the macroscopic yield surface changes, or more specifically, the curvature of the yield surface increases near the pure compression state.
Technical Paper

Mass Efficient Cross-Sections Using Dual Phase Steels For Axial and Bending Crushes

2007-04-16
2007-01-0978
Because of their excellent crash energy absorption capacity, dual phase (DP) steels are gradually replacing conventional High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) steels for critical crash components in order to meet the more stringent vehicle crash safety regulations. To achieve optimal axial and bending crush performance using DP steels for crash components designed for crash energy absorption and/or intrusion resistance applications, the cross sections need to be optimized. Correlated crush simulation models were employed for the cross-section study. The models were developed using non-linear finite element code LS-DYNA and correlated to dynamic and quasi-static axial and bending crush tests on hexagonal and octagonal cross-sections made of DP590 steel. Several design concepts were proposed, the axial and bending crush performance in DP780 and DP980 were compared, and the potential mass savings were discussed.
Technical Paper

Testing and Finite Element Modeling of Hydroform Frames in Crash Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-0981
Hydroformed components are replacing stamped parts in automotive frames and front end and roof structures to improve the crash performance of vehicles. Due to the increasing application of hydroformed components, a better understanding of the crash behavior of these parts is necessary to improve the correlation between full-vehicle crash tests and FEM analysis. Accurately predicting the performance of hydroformed components will reduce the amount of physical crash testing necessary to develop the new components and new vehicles as well as reduce cycle time. Virgin material properties are commonly used in FEM analysis of hydroformed components, which leads to erroneous prediction of the full-vehicle crash response. Changes in gauge and material properties during the hydroforming process are intuitive and can be reasonably predicted by using forming simulations. The effects of the forming process have been investigated in the FEA models that are created for crash analyses.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Sloshing and Ballooning in Fuel Tanks for High Speed Impacts

2006-04-03
2006-01-0314
A fuel tank is one of the most critical components in a vehicle crash because it may link to passenger safety. The effect of fuel pressure on the tank boundary in a dynamic impact condition is constantly being studied both numerically and experimentally. In hard braking conditions with a partially filled tank, the fuel slams on to the front wall of the tank. During high-speed impact on the other hand, there is significant bulging of the fuel tank if it is nearly full, while vortices and cavities may form with partial filling. In these cases, the internal fuel and vapor pressure distribution can change; thus, affecting the distribution of stress on the tank. The objective of this paper is to study these phenomena using the currently available ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian) methodology and thus improve fuel tank design by a direct application of CAE.
Technical Paper

Impact Simulation of Hydro-formed Front End Vehicle Structure

2006-04-03
2006-01-0312
The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of the hydro-forming process and the effect of strain rate on crash performance and develop a modeling approach to improve the accuracy of crash prediction. Work hardening, thinning and strain rate effects are investigated in both component and full vehicle analyses to understand their sensitivities. Gages measured and material properties tested from post-formed tubes are compared with hydro-forming simulation results to confirm accuracy of the modeling methodology proposed in the paper. Front crash simulation using strain rate and forming effects are correlated with the test data for both component and full vehicle analyses and conclusion has been drawn from this comparison.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Modeling of the Frame for Body on Frame Vehicles, Part 1 - Subsystem Investigation

2004-03-08
2004-01-0688
For a body-on-frame (BOF) vehicle, the frame is the major structural subsystem to absorb the impact energy in a frontal vehicle impact. It is also a major contributor to energy absorption in rear impact events as well. Thus, the accuracy of the finite element frame model has significant influence on the quality of the BOF vehicle impact predictability. This study presents the latest development of the frame modeling methodology on the simulation of BOF vehicle impact performance. The development is divided into subsystem (frame sled test) and full system (full vehicle test). This paper presents the first phase, subsystem testing and modeling, of the frame modeling development. Based on the major deformation modes in frontal impact, the frame is cut into several sections and put on the sled to conduct various tests. The success of the sled test highly depends on whether the sled results can replicate the deformation modes in the full vehicle.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Modeling of the Frame for Body-On-Frame Vehicles: Part II - Full Vehicle Crash

2004-03-08
2004-01-0689
This study focuses on the modeling of a frame in a body-on-frame (BOF) vehicle to improve the prediction of vehicle response in crashes. The study is divided into three phases - component (frame material modeling), subsystem (frame sled test) and full system (full vehicle test). In the component level, we investigate the available strain rate data, the performance of various material models in crash codes and the effect of the strain rate in crash simulation. In the subsystem phase, we incorporate the strain rate modeling and expand the scope to include both the forming and the welding effects in the subsystem CAE model to improve the correlation between CAE and test. Finally the improved frame modeling methodology with strain rate, forming and welding effects is adopted in full vehicle model. It is found that the proposed frame modeling methodology is crucial to improve the pulse prediction of a full vehicle in crashes.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Effects of Frame Trigger Hole Location on Crash Behavior

2005-04-11
2005-01-0702
The front rail plays a very important role in vehicle crash. Trigger holes are commonly used to control frame crush mode due to their simple manufacturing process and flexibility for late changes in the product development phase. Therefore, a study, including CAE and testing, was conducted on a production front rail to understand the effects of trigger hole shape, size and orientation. The trigger hole location in the front rail also affects crash performance. Therefore, the effect of trigger hole location on front rail crash behavior was studied, and understanding these effects is the main objective of this study. A tapered front rail produced from 1.7 mm thick DP600 steel was used for the trigger hole location investigation. Front rails with different trigger spacing and sizes were tested using VIA sled test facility and the crash progress was simulated using a commercial code RADIOSS. The strain rate, welding and forming effects were incorporated in the front rail modeling.
Technical Paper

Testing and Modeling of Mounts for Improved Safety Design and Crashworthiness Analysis

2005-04-11
2005-01-0749
This paper describes (1) the findings from the implementation of a component test methodology for body, engine and transmission mounts [1, 2 and 3], and (2) the associated CAE model development and mount design robustness enhancement. A series of component tests on light truck body, engine and transmission mounts have been conducted to not only obtain their characteristics as inputs for crashworthiness analysis, but also drive mount design direction for frontal impacts.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Studies of Crash Trigger Sensitivity in Frontal Impact

2005-04-11
2005-01-0355
Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) along with innovative design and manufacturing processes are effective ways to improve crash energy management. Crash trigger hole is another technology which can been used on front rails for controlling crash buckling mode, avoiding crash mode instability and minimizing variations in crash mode due to imperfections in materials, part geometry, manufacturing, and assembly processes etc. In this study, prototyped crash columns with different trigger hole shapes, sizes and locations were physically tested in frontal crash impact tests. A corresponding crash computer simulation model was then created to perform the correlation study. The testing data, such as crash force-displacement curves and dynamic crash modes, were used to verify the FEA crash model and to study the trigger sensitivity and effects on front rail crash performance.
Technical Paper

Testing and Modeling of Metallic Multicorner Columns In Axial Crush

2005-04-11
2005-01-0353
The front rail plays an important role in the performance of body-on-frame (BOF) vehicles in frontal crashes. New developments in materials and forming technology have led to the exploration of different configurations to improve crash performance. This paper presents the initial stages of an ongoing study to investigate the effects of the cross section of steel columns on crash performance in automotive applications. Because accurate prediction of the performance of these rails can help reduce the amount of physical crash testing necessary, the focus of this paper is on appropriate testing and modeling procedures for different rail configurations. In the first part of this paper, the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) methodology is presented with respect to correlation with real world tests. The effects of various parameters are described, along with the optimum configuration for model correlation.
Technical Paper

Data Processing For CAE Material Input With Strain Rate Effects

2005-04-11
2005-01-0359
Strain rate effects have been identified as one of the most critical factors for the modeling of vehicle components in many previous investigations. The strain rate data available to the authors have been processed to obtain the input decks of a required material law in prior investigations. With the application of strain rate modeling, the strain rate database needs to be expanded. In order to continuously improve the safety CAE quality and efficiency, especially the prediction of a vehicle's pulse in a crash event, the effort has been made to include more strain rate data and extend the material database for safety CAE applications. In this study, strain rate data provided by Ispat Inland Inc. for AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program are processed. The material processed in this study include HSS590-CR, 440W-GA, BH300-GI, HSLA350-GI, DP600-HR, TRIP590-EG, TRIP600-CR, TRIP780-CR.
Technical Paper

Effect of Trigger Variation on Frontal Rail Crash Performance

2005-04-11
2005-01-0358
The frontal rail is one of the most important components of a vehicle in determining crash performance, especially for a body on frame vehicle. Prior research [1] has shown that the frontal rail absorbs a significant amount of impact energy in a crash condition. In order to optimize crash performance, a component level sensitivity study was conducted to determine the effect different types of triggers would have on the performance of the frontal rail. The objective of this study is to determine the sensitivity of trigger size, trigger shape, and trigger orientation as well as to improve corresponding trigger modeling methodology by comparing crushed components to crushed CAE models. In this sensitivity study, the location of the triggers was held fixed, while the size, shape, and orientation were varied. The metric that will be used to compare the performance of these different trigger shapes is the overall stiffness of the frontal rail.
Technical Paper

Development of a Target Vehicle Model for Vehicle-to-Vehicle Simulations: Part I Rigid Barrier Impacts

2002-03-04
2002-01-0246
The objective of this study is to develop a target vehicle model for vehicle-to-vehicle impact applications. In order to provide reasonable predictions for crash pulses in vehicle-to-vehicle impacts, an accurate and robust target vehicle model was developed first. An ideal target vehicle model should be able to provide reasonable results when hit by different bullet vehicles at different impact speeds and under different impact conditions. This was achieved by calibrating the target vehicle model against different vehicle crash tests, which include full rigid barriers, angular rigid barriers, offset rigid barriers, and fixed rigid poles. Twelve rigid barrier tests were adopted in this study to calibrate the target vehicle model. During the calibration process, some of the vehicle structures were examined and remodeled carefully for their properties and mesh quality.
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