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Technical Paper

Octane Numbers of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends: Measurements and Novel Estimation Method from Molar Composition

2012-04-16
2012-01-1274
Ethanol has a high octane rating and can be added to gasoline to produce high octane fuel blends. Understanding the octane increase with ethanol blending is of great fundamental and practical importance. Potential issues with fuel flow rate and fuel vaporization have led to questions of the accuracy of octane measurements for ethanol-gasoline blends with moderate to high ethanol content (e.g., E20-E85) using the Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR™) engine. The nonlinearity of octane ratings with volumetric ethanol content makes it difficult to assess the accuracy of such measurements. In the present study, Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) were measured for a matrix of ethanol-gasoline blends spanning a wide range of ethanol content (E0, E10, E20, E30, E50, E75) in a set of gasoline blendstocks spanning a range of RON values (82, 88, 92, and 95). Octane ratings for neat ethanol, denatured ethanol, and hydrous ethanol were also measured.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Four Methods for Determining the Octane Index and K on a Modern Engine with Upstream, Port or Direct Injection

2017-03-28
2017-01-0666
Combustion in modern spark-ignition (SI) engines is increasingly knock-limited with the wide adoption of downsizing and turbocharging technologies. Fuel autoignition conditions are different in these engines compared to the standard Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Numbers (MON) tests. The Octane Index, OI = RON - K(RON-MON), has been proposed as a means to characterize the actual fuel anti-knock performance in modern engines. The K-factor, by definition equal to 0 and 1 for the RON and MON tests respectively, is intended to characterize the deviation of modern engine operation from these standard octane tests. Accurate knowledge of K is of central importance to the OI model; however, a single method for determining K has not been well accepted in the literature.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Dual Retard VCT to Continuously Variable Event Valvetrain

2004-03-08
2004-01-1268
Variable cam timing strategies which utilize retard of the intake and exhaust valve events at part load have been previously shown to provide improved fuel consumption and feedgas NOx. These benefits can be increased by enhancing the combustion system with variable charge motion. A variable event duration valvetrain was simulated on engine dynamometer by running a series of short duration/low lift intake valve events. The fuel consumption benefit for this simulated variable event valvetrain is compared to that of dual retard VCT with variable charge motion. An estimated upper limit for the fuel consumption improvement potential of variable valve timing is presented. This upper limit includes both pumping work reduction and indicated efficiency improvement with high levels of exhaust residual dilution. The measured benefits of dual retard VCT and of the variable event valvetrain are compared to the estimated upper limit.
Journal Article

Fuel Economy and CO2 Emissions of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends in a Turbocharged DI Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1321
Engine dynamometer testing was performed comparing E10, E20, and E30 splash-blended fuels in a Ford 3.5L EcoBoost direct injection (DI) turbocharged engine. The engine was tested with compression ratios (CRs) of 10.0:1 (current production) and 11.9:1. In this engine, E20 (96 RON) fuel at 11.9:1 CR gave very similar knock performance to E10 (91 RON) fuel at 10:1 CR. Similarly, E30 (101 RON) fuel at 11.9:1 CR resulted in knock-limited performance equivalent to E20 at 10:1 CR, indicating that E30 could have been run at even higher CR with acceptable knock behavior. The data was used in a vehicle simulation of a 3.5L EcoBoost pickup truck, which showed that the E20 (96 RON) fuel at 11.9:1 CR offers 5% improvement in U.S. EPA Metro-Highway (M/H) and US06 Highway cycle tank-to-wheels CO₂ emissions over the E10 fuel, with comparable volumetric fuel economy (miles per gallon) and range before refueling.
Journal Article

Fuel Economy Potential of Variable Compression Ratio for Light Duty Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-0639
Increasing compression ratio (CR) is one of the most fundamental ways to improve engine efficiency, but the CR of practical spark ignition engines is limited by knock and spark retard at high loads. A variable CR mechanism could improve efficiency by using higher CR at low loads, and lower CR (with less spark retard) at high loads. This paper quantifies the potential efficiency benefits of applying variable CR to a modern downsized, boosted gasoline engine. Load sweeps were conducted experimentally on a multi-cylinder gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) engine at several CRs. Experimental results were compared to efficiency versus CR correlations from the literature and were used to estimate the fuel economy benefits of 2-step and continuously variable CR concepts on several engine/vehicle combinations, for various drive cycles.
Journal Article

Gasoline Anti-Knock Index Effects on Vehicle Net Power at High Altitude

2017-03-28
2017-01-0801
Automakers are designing smaller displacement engines with higher power densities to improve vehicle fuel economy, while continuing to meet customer expectations for power and drivability. The specific power produced by the spark-ignited engine is constrained by knock and fuel octane. Whereas the lowest octane rating is 87 AKI (antiknock index) for regular gasoline at most service stations throughout the U.S., 85 AKI fuel is widely available at higher altitudes especially in the mountain west states. The objective of this study was to explore the effect of gasoline octane rating on the net power produced by modern light duty vehicles at high altitude (1660 m elevation). A chassis dynamometer test procedure was developed to measure absorbed wheel power at transient and stabilized full power operation. Five vehicles were tested using 85 and 87 AKI fuels.
Journal Article

Optimal Use of E85 in a Turbocharged Direct Injection Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1490
Ford Motor Company is introducing “EcoBoost” gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) engine technology in the 2010 Lincoln MKS. A logical enhancement of EcoBoost technology is the use of E85 for knock mitigation. The subject of this paper is the optimal use of E85 by using two fuel systems in the same EcoBoost engine: port fuel injection (PFI) of gasoline and direct injection (DI) of E85. Gasoline PFI is used for starting and light-medium load operation, while E85 DI is used only as required during high load operation to avoid knock. Direct injection of E85 (a commercially available blend of ∼85% ethanol and ∼15% gasoline) is extremely effective in suppressing knock, due to ethanol's high inherent octane and its high heat of vaporization, which results in substantial cooling of the charge. As a result, the compression ratio (CR) can be increased and higher boost levels can be used.
Journal Article

Effect of Heat of Vaporization, Chemical Octane, and Sensitivity on Knock Limit for Ethanol - Gasoline Blends

2012-04-16
2012-01-1277
Ethanol and other high heat of vaporization (HoV) fuels result in substantial cooling of the fresh charge, especially in direct injection (DI) engines. The effect of charge cooling combined with the inherent high chemical octane of ethanol make it a very knock resistant fuel. Currently, the knock resistance of a fuel is characterized by the Research Octane Number (RON) and the Motor Octane Number (MON). However, the RON and MON tests use carburetion for fuel metering and thus likely do not replicate the effect of charge cooling for DI engines. The operating conditions of the RON and MON tests also do not replicate the very retarded combustion phasing encountered with modern boosted DI engines operating at low-speed high-load. In this study, the knock resistance of a matrix of ethanol-gasoline blends was determined in a state-of-the-art single cylinder engine equipped with three separate fuel systems: upstream, pre-vaporized fuel injection (UFI); port fuel injection (PFI); and DI.
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