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Technical Paper

Development and Analysis of a Spray-Guided DISI Combustion System Concept

2003-10-27
2003-01-3105
An innovative stratified-charge DISI combustion concept has been developed using a mixture formation method referred to as Vortex Induced Stratification Combustion (VISC). This paper describes the combustion system concept and an initial assessment of it, performed on a single-cylinder test engine and through CFD modeling. This VISC concept utilizes the vortex naturally formed on the outside of a wide spray cone that is enhanced by bulk gas flow control and piston crown design. This vortex transports fuel vapor from the spray cone to the spark gap. This system allows a late injection timing and produces a well-confined mixture, which together provide an improved compromise between combustion phasing and combustion efficiency over typical wall-guided systems. Testing results indicate an 18% fuel consumption reduction, compared with a baseline PFI engine, over a drive cycle (neglecting cold start and transient effects).
Technical Paper

Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions from Stratified Charge Direct Injection Engines

2003-10-27
2003-01-3099
The sources of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions in direct injection stratified charge engines are presented. Whereas crevices in the combustion chamber are the primary sources of UHC emissions in homogeneous charge engines, lean quenching and liquid film layers dominate UHC emissions in stratified charge operation. Emissions data from a single cylinder engine, operating in stratified charge mode at a low speed / light load condition is summarized. This operating point is interesting in that liquid film formation, as evidenced by smoke emissions, is minimal, thus highlighting the lean quenching process. The effects of operating parameters on UHC emissions are demonstrated via sweeps of spark advance, injection timing, manifold pressure, and swirl level. The effects of EGR dilution are also discussed. Spark advance is shown to be the most significant factor in UHC emissions. A semi-empirical model for UHC emissions is presented based on the analysis of existing engine data.
Technical Paper

CFD Modeling of a Vortex Induced Stratification Combustion (VISC) System

2004-03-08
2004-01-0550
This paper describes the CFD modeling work conducted for the development and research of a Vortex Induced Stratification Combustion (VISC) system that demonstrated superior fuel economy benefits. The Ford in-house CFD code and simulation methodology were employed. In the VISC concept a vortex forms on the outside of the wide cone angle spray and transports fuel vapor from the spray to the spark plug gap. A spray model for an outward-opening pintle injector used in the engine was developed, tested, and implemented in the code. Modeling proved to be effective for design optimization and analysis. The CFD simulations revealed important physical phenomena associated with the spray-guided combustion system mixing preparation.
Technical Paper

Combustion Improvement of a Light Stratified-Charge Direct Injection Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0546
In the effort to improve combustion of a Light-load Stratified-Charge Direct-Injection (LSCDI) combustion system, CFD modeling, together with optical engine diagnostics and single cylinder engine testing, was applied to resolve some key technical issues. The issues associated with stratified-charge (SC) operation are combustion stability, smoke emission, and NOx emission. The challenges at homogeneous-charge operation include fuel-air mixing homogeneity at partial load operation, smoke emission and mixing homogeneity at low speed WOT, and engine knock tendency reduction at medium speed WOT operations. In SC operation, the fuel consumption is constrained with the acceptable smoke emission level and stability limit. With the optimization of piston design and injector specification, the smoke emission can be reduced. Concurrently, the combustion stability window and fuel consumption can be also significantly improved.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Light Stratified-Charge DISI Combustion System for a Family of Engines With Upfront CFD Coupling With Thermal and Optical Engine Experiments

2004-03-08
2004-01-0545
A new Light Stratified-Charge Direct Injection (LSC DI) spark ignition combustion system concept was developed at Ford. One of the new features of the LSC DI concept is to use a ‘light’ stratified-charge operation window ranging from the idle operation to low speed and low load. A dual independent variable cam timing (DiVCT) mechanism is used to increase the internal dilution for emissions control and to improve engine thermal efficiency. The LSC DI concept allows a large relaxation in the requirement for the lean after-treatment system, but still enables significant fuel economy gains over the PFI base design, delivering high technology value to the customer. In addition, the reduced stratified-charge window permits a simple, shallow piston bowl design that not only benefits engine wide-open throttle performance, but also reduces design compromises due to compression ratio, DiVCT range and piston bowl shape constraints.
Technical Paper

Wall Film Dynamics Modeling for Impinging Sprays in Engines

2004-03-08
2004-01-0099
This paper proposes a film dynamics model for liquid film resulting from fuel spray impinging on a wall surface. It is based on a thin film assumption and uses numerical particles to represent the film to be compatible with the particle spray models developed previously. The Lagrangian method is adopted to govern the transport of the film particles. A new, statistical treatment was introduced of the momentum exchange between the impinging spray and the wall film to account for the directional distribution of the impinging momentum. This model together with the previously published models for outgoing droplets constitutes a complete description of the spray wall impingement dynamics. For model validation, films resulting from impinging sprays on a flat surface with different impingement angles were calculated and the results were compared with the corresponding experimental measurements.
Technical Paper

Fuel-Air Mixing Homogeneity and Performance Improvements of a Stratified-Charge DISI Combustion System

2002-10-21
2002-01-2656
A CFD based design optimization methodology was developed and adopted to the development of a stratified-charge direct-injection spark ignition (DISI) combustion system. Two key important issues for homogeneous charge operation, volumetric efficiency and mixing homogeneity, are addressed. The intake port is optimized for improved volumetric efficiency with a CFD based numerical optimization tool. It is found that insufficient fuel-air mixing is the root cause for the low rated power of most DISI engines. The fuel-air mixing in-homogeneity is due to the interaction between intake flow and injected fuel spray. An injector mask design was proposed to alleviate such interaction, then to improve air-fuel mixture homogeneity. It was then confirmed with dynamometer testing that the optimized design improved engine output and at the same time had lower soot and CO emissions.
Technical Paper

Stratified Mixture Formation and Piston Surface Wetting in a DISI Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2655
Development and research of a stratified-charge direct-injection SI combustion system was carried out at Ford. This paper presents the multidimensional engine CFD modeling analysis of mixture formation and piston surface wetting under the stratified-charge conditions. The effect of various design and operating parameters including piston shape, spray cone angle, swirl ratio, injection timing, engine speed and load on charge stratification and piston-wetting due to spray impingement were studied. The results led to design changes that warranted improvement of engine functions. Of particular interest, the model was shown to be capable to predict piston surface wetting and a qualitative correlation was found between the amount of the remaining liquid fuel on the piston surface and the engine-out smoke number.
Technical Paper

Understanding of Intake Cam Phasing Effects on the Induction and Fuel-Air Mixing in a DISI Engine

2004-06-08
2004-01-1947
Variable Cam Timing (VCT) has been proven to be a very effective method in PFI (Port Fuel Injection) engines for improved fuel economy and combustion stability, and reduced emissions. In DISI (Direct Injection Spark Ignition) engines, VCT is applied in both stratified-charge and homogeneous charge operating modes. In stratified-charge mode, VCT is used to reduce NOx emission and improve combustion stability. In homogeneous charge mode, the function of VCT is similar to that in PFI engines. In DISI engine, however, the VCT also affects the available fuel-air mixing time. This paper focuses on VCT effects on the induction process and the fuel-air mixing homogeneity in a DISI engine. The detailed induction process with large exhaust-intake valve overlap has been investigated with CFD modeling. Seven characteristic sub-processes during the induction have been identified. The associated mechanism for each sub-process is also investigated.
Technical Paper

Effect of Compression Ratio on Stratified-Charge Direct- Injection Gasoline Combustion

2005-04-11
2005-01-0100
Charge cooling due to fuel evaporation in a direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine typically allows for an increased compression ratio relative to port fuel injection (PFI) engines. It is clear that this results in a thermal efficiency improvement at part load for homogenous-charge DISI engines. However, very little is known regarding the effect of compression ratio on stratified charge operation. In this investigation, DISI combustion data have been collected on a single cylinder engine equipped with a variable compression ratio feature. The results of experiments performed in stratified-charge direct injection (SCDI) mode show that despite its over-advanced phasing, thermal conversion efficiency improves with higher compression ratios. This benefit is quantified and dissected through an efficiency analysis. Furthermore, since the engine was equipped with both wall-guided DI and PFI systems, direct comparisons are made at part load for fuel consumption and emissions.
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