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Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

2012-06-18
A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO2 oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
Technical Paper

Emissions Performance of Bi-fuel CNG and Bi-fuel LPG Passenger Cars Using Sequential Multi-point Injection Systems

2001-03-05
2001-01-1195
This paper describes a study into the emissions performance of a passenger car running on natural gas and liquified petroleum gas. The gasoline engine was modified to allow the introduction of the alternative fuels into the engine. The effect of fuel system hardware on emissions was investigated. Modifications were carried out to the gasoline EMS to allow control of the alternative fuel systems. A number of changes were made to the gasoline calibration to allow operation on the alternative fuels. Emissions tests were conducted on commercial grade natural gas and liquid petroleum gas. The results were compared with gasoline emission results of an equivalent vehicle.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Manifold Radiated Noise Prediction Methodology

2001-04-30
2001-01-1433
The spark ignition engine is a prime source of vibration energy. NVH disturbances generated by the engine ultimately reach the customer in the form of objectionable noise or NVH. Exhaust Manifolds are one of the many sources of noise contributors among the engine components. Often, the exhaust manifold is identified as a source of objectionable NVH late in the design and development process. Due to the lack of an upfront NVH analysis tool, a new CAE NVH methodology for evaluating new exhaust manifold designs has been investigated and developed by the Ford Motor Company's V-Engine CAE and Exhaust Manifold Design Sections. This new CAE methodology has been developed to compare the NVH performance of current production exhaust manifolds to new design levels. Mechanical induced radiated shell noise is the predominate cause of objectionable NVH in exhaust manifolds.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management for the HEV Liquid-Cooled Electric Machine

2001-05-14
2001-01-1713
The future of the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is very promising for the automotive industry. In order to take a full advantage of this concept, a better thermal performance of the electric motor is required. In this study, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was first verified through several prototypes testing and then is going to be used to execute a series of design of experiment via simulation. Based on the thermal studies in this paper, the integrated coolant jacket design has a better performance than that of separated one. The thermal performance of the stator with the 3M coating is better than the one with paper liner. In addition, using 3M coating reduces the packaging size of the stator.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Natural Aging on Fleet and Durability Vehicle Engine Mounts from a Dynamic Characterization Perspective

2001-04-30
2001-01-1449
Elastomers are traditionally designed for use in applications that require specific mechanical properties. Unfortunately, these properties change with respect to many different variables including heat, light, fatigue, oxygen, ozone, and the catalytic effects of trace elements. When elastomeric mounts are designed for NVH use in vehicles, they are designed to isolate specific unwanted frequencies. As the elastomers age however, the desired elastomeric properties may have changed with time. This study looks at the variability seen in new vehicle engine mounts and how the dynamic properties change with respect to miles accumulated on fleet and durability test vehicles.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Automotive Heat Shield Geometry with Natural Convection and Radiation Boundary Conditions

2001-05-14
2001-01-1746
Shielding a vehicle underbody is becoming a daunting task with increased exhaust temperatures due to emissions regulations and ever-increasing packaging constraints, which place components ever closer to exhaust systems. This experimental study was initiated to evaluate the two dimensional thermal effects of heat shield flange height and shield width in vehicle underbody idle conditions. The ultimate goal of this study is to develop a function to optimize the shape of heat shielding to achieve a specified floorpan temperature during vehicle idle conditions.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection Pressure in an Optically-Accessed DISI Engine with Side-Mounted Fuel Injector

2001-05-07
2001-01-1975
This paper presents the results of an experimental study into the effects of fuel injection pressure on mixture formation within an optically accessed direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine. Comparison is made between the spray characteristics and in-cylinder fuel distributions due to supply rail pressures of 50 bar and 100 bar subject to part-warm, part-load homogeneous charge operating conditions. A constant fuel mass, corresponding to stoichiometric tune, was maintained for both supply pressures. The injected sprays and their subsequent liquid-phase fuel distributions were visualized using the 2-D laser Mie-scattering technique. The experimental injector (nominally a hollow-cone pressure-swirl design) was seen to produce a dense filled spray structure for both injection pressures under investigation. In both cases, the leading edge velocities of the main spray suggest the direct impingement of liquid fuel on the cylinder walls.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of the Spray Characteristics of Pressure-Swirl Atomizers for DISI Combustion Systems

2001-05-07
2001-01-1974
This paper presents results from a comprehensive experimental study of high-pressure pressure-swirl gasoline injectors tested under a range of simulated operating conditions. This study encompassed photographic analysis of single spray sequences and simultaneous measurement of axial velocity, radial velocity and diameter at point locations using the phase-doppler technique. The combination of these measurement techniques permitted an insight into the fluid dynamics of the injected spray and its development with time. Five primary stages in the spray-history were identified and numerated with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Fiber Optic Sensor for Crank Angle Resolved Measurements of Burned Gas Residual Fraction in the Cylinder of an SI Engine

2001-05-07
2001-01-1921
A fiber optic infrared spectroscopic sensor was developed to measure the crank angle resolved residual fraction of burned gas retained in the cylinder of a four-stroke SI engine. The sensor detected the attenuation of infrared radiation in the 4.3 μm infrared vibrational-rotational absorption band of CO2. The residual fraction remaining in the cylinder is proportional to the CO2 concentration. The sensor was tested in a single-cylinder CFR spark ignition engine fired on propane at a speed of 700 rpm. The sensor was located in one of two spark plug holes of the CFR engine. A pressure-transducer-type spark plug was used to record the cylinder pressure and initiate the spark. The temporal resolution of the measurements was 540 μs (equivalent to 2.3 crank angle degrees) and the spatial resolution was 6 mm. Measurements were made during the intake and compression stroke for several intake manifold pressures. The compression ratio of the engine was varied from 6.3 to 9.5.
Technical Paper

Air Charge Estimation in Camless Engines

2001-03-05
2001-01-0581
An electromechanically driven valve train offers unprecedented flexibility to optimize engine operation for each speed load point individually. One of the main benefits is the increased fuel economy resulting from unthrottled operation. The absence of a restriction at the entrance of the intake manifold leads to wave propagation in the intake system and makes a direct measurement of air flow with a hot wire air meter unreliable. To deliver the right amount of fuel for a desired air-fuel ratio, we therefore need an open loop estimate of the air flow based on measureable or commanded signals or quantities. This paper investigates various expressions for air charge in camless engines based on quasi-static assumptions for heat transfer and pressure.
Technical Paper

Fuel Evaporation Parameter Identification during SI Cold Start

2001-03-05
2001-01-0552
The stochastic properties of continuous time model parameters obtained through discrete least squares estimation are examined. Particular attention is given to the application of estimating the fuel evaporation dynamics of a V-8 SI engine. The continuous time parameter distributions in this case are biased. The bias is shown to be a function of both measurement noise and sampling rate selection. Analysis and experimental results suggest that for each particular model, there is a corresponding optimum sampling rate. A bias compensation formula is proposed that improves the accuracy of least squares estimation without iterative techniques.
Technical Paper

Event-Based Mean-Value Modeling of DI Diesel Engines for Controller Design

2001-03-05
2001-01-1242
Models often use time rather than strokes (crank-angle) as the independent variable to describe engine dynamics despite the fact that the dynamics of an internal combustion engine are intrinsically linked to the combustion events. In this paper, two models are developed in parallel in which not only the independent variable is changed but the notion of mass flows as well: flows are in [g/s] for the time-based model and in [g/st] for the event-based model. Both models are of the same computational complexity and show the same accuracy in validation. The investigation of the model properties shows that variations in the flow-related parameters are reduced by a factor of two to five for the event-based model. However, those of the crankshaft dynamics are increased. It is concluded that the model should be chosen in context of the control system to be designed.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Friction Component Engagement Controllability

2001-03-05
2001-01-1156
Conventional automatic transmissions (AT) use wet friction components, such as plate clutches and band brakes to engage gears or change speed ratios during vehicle operation. The quality of engagements and ratio changes depends greatly on the frictional characteristics of the friction components, which are typically evaluated with industry standard SAE #2 test machines. These inertia absorption-type dynamometer test stands energize a friction component with prescribed level of apply force and load of inertia flywheels rotating at a specified speed until the friction elements are brought to a stop. During the slip, apply force, engagement torque, and rotating speed are digitally recorded for visual evaluation of dynamic engagement behavior. The shape of the dynamic torque curve during the engagement is known to affect AT shift quality. When many curves are generated, it becomes intractable to quantify torque curve shape differences.
Technical Paper

Standard Test Method for Cavitation and Erosion-Corrosion Characteristics of Aluminum Pumps with Engine Coolants

2001-03-05
2001-01-1181
The ASTM D 2809 test method, “Standard Test Method For Cavitation Corrosion and Erosion-Corrosion Characteristics of Aluminum Pumps With Engine Coolants” was first published in 19691. The method involves a copper-pipe circuit through which coolant solution, heated to 113°C, is pumped at 103 kPa for 100 hours. The method was modified to change the pump used in the test in 1989. It was updated in 1994 to accommodate a change in the cleaning procedure and was subsequently reapproved by the ASTM D-15 Committee on Engine Coolants in 1999.2 Tests recently conducted on several modern coolants have produced “failing” results, but the coolants are performing well in the field. Further, the repeatability and reproducibility of the method have been questioned. A round-robin series of tests sponsored by the Ford Motor Company revealed significant variations and cause for concern.
Technical Paper

Overall Results: Phase I Ad Hoc Diesel Fuel Test Program

2001-03-05
2001-01-0151
The future of diesel-engine-powered passenger cars and light-duty vehicles in the United States depends on their ability to meet Federal Tier 2 and California LEV2 tailpipe emission standards. The experimental purpose of this work was to examine the potential role of fuels; specifically, to determine the sensitivity of engine-out NOx and particulate matter (PM) to gross changes in fuel formulation. The fuels studied were a market-average California baseline fuel and three advanced low sulfur fuels (<2 ppm). The advanced fuels were a low-sulfur-highly-hydrocracked diesel (LSHC), a neat (100%) Fischer-Tropsch (FT100) and 15% DMM (dimethoxy methane) blended into LSHC (DMM15). The fuels were tested on modern, turbocharged, common-rail, direct-injection diesel engines at DaimlerChrysler, Ford and General Motors. The engines were tested at five speed/load conditions with injection timing set to minimize fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Some Alternative Diesel Fuels for Low Emissions and Improved Fuel Economy

2001-03-05
2001-01-0149
This paper reports on Ford's participation in the PNGV ‘Ad Hoc’ Diesel Fuel Test program - Phase I. The purpose of this program was to assess the potential benefits of various fuel properties aimed at reducing engine-out emissions of NOx and particulates to meet LEV2 and Tier 2 emission standards. Four alternative fuels were evaluated using a Ford 1.2L DIATA diesel engine: 1) California Certification fuel (CARB), 2) low sulfur hydro-cracked fuel (LSHC), 3) LSHC fuel with a 15% Dimethoxy Methane blend (DMM), and 4) neat Fischer-Tropsch (FT100) fuel. Design of Experiments (DOE) and conventional techniques were used to evaluate the fuels at five speed and load conditions. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), injection rail pressure, and beginning of injection (BOI) timing were controlled during the tests. Steady-state engine performance, emissions, and cylinder pressure (combustion) data were recorded for each fuel.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Volatility, Load, and Speed on HC Emissions Due to Piston Wetting

2001-05-07
2001-01-2024
Piston wetting can be isolated from the other sources of HC emissions from DISI engines by operating the engine predominantly on a gaseous fuel and using an injector probe to impact a small amount of liquid fuel on the piston top. This results in a marked increase in HC emissions. In a previous study, we used a variety of pure liquid hydrocarbon fuels to examine the influence of fuel volatility and structure on the HC emissions due to piston wetting. It was shown that the HC emissions correspond to the Leidenfrost effect: fuels with very low boiling points yield high HCs and those with a boiling point near or above the piston temperature produce much lower HCs. All of these prior tests of fuel effects were performed at a single operating condition: the Ford World Wide Mapping Point (WWMP). In the present study, the effects of load and engine speed are examined.
Technical Paper

Flame Temperature Correlation of Emissions from Diesels Operated on Alternative Fuels

2001-05-07
2001-01-2014
Work by Plee, Ahmad, and coworkers in the 1980s [1, 2, 3, 4 and 5] showed that for changes in intake air state, Diesel NOx, soot, soluble organic fraction, and HC emissions could be correlated using the stoichiometric flame temperature calculated at SOC or peak pressure conditions. In the present work, similar flame temperature correlations are obtained for emissions from three test engines; a 1.2L high speed direct injection (HSDI) Diesel, a 2.4L HSDI Diesel, and a 2.34 L single cylinder direct injection (DI) Diesel engine, the first of which was tested using four alternative fuels. Use of the flame temperature correlations presented may reduce the number of engine tests required to evaluate the effects of EGR on emissions of NOx, particulate, and HC, even when alternative fuels are used.
Technical Paper

Oxidation Stability of Automatic Transmission Fluids -A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

2001-05-07
2001-01-1991
The International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF subcommittee members have compared the two oxidation bench test methods, Aluminum Beaker Oxidation Test (ABOT) and Indiana Stirring Oxidation Stability Test (ISOT), using a number of factory-fill and service-fill ATFs obtained in Japan and in the US. In many cases, the ATFs were more severely oxidized after the ABOT procedure than after the same duration of the ISOT procedure. The relative severity of these two tests was influenced by the composition of the ATFs. The bench test oxidation data were compared with the transmission and the vehicle oxidation test data.
Technical Paper

FordS Zero Emission P2000 Fuel Cell Vehicle

2000-11-01
2000-01-C046
The P2000 Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle developed by Ford Motor Company is the first full-performance, full-size passenger fuel cell vehicle in the world. This development process has resulted in a vehicle with performance that matches some of today's vehicles powered by internal combustion engines. The powertrain in Ford's P2000 FCEV lightweight aluminum vehicle consists of an Ecostar electric motor/transaxle and a fuel cell system developed with XCELLSiS-The Fuel Cell Engine Company (formerly dbb Fuel Cell Engines, Inc.). Ballard's Mark 700 series fuel cell stack is a main component in the fuel cell system. To support this new FCEV, Ford has constructed the first North American hydrogen refueling station capable of dispensing gaseous and liquid hydrogen. On-going research and development is progressing to optimize fuel cell vehicle performance and refueling techniques.
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