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Technical Paper

Quantification of Friction Component Engagement Controllability

Conventional automatic transmissions (AT) use wet friction components, such as plate clutches and band brakes to engage gears or change speed ratios during vehicle operation. The quality of engagements and ratio changes depends greatly on the frictional characteristics of the friction components, which are typically evaluated with industry standard SAE #2 test machines. These inertia absorption-type dynamometer test stands energize a friction component with prescribed level of apply force and load of inertia flywheels rotating at a specified speed until the friction elements are brought to a stop. During the slip, apply force, engagement torque, and rotating speed are digitally recorded for visual evaluation of dynamic engagement behavior. The shape of the dynamic torque curve during the engagement is known to affect AT shift quality. When many curves are generated, it becomes intractable to quantify torque curve shape differences.
Technical Paper

Oxidation Stability of Automatic Transmission Fluids -A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

The International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF subcommittee members have compared the two oxidation bench test methods, Aluminum Beaker Oxidation Test (ABOT) and Indiana Stirring Oxidation Stability Test (ISOT), using a number of factory-fill and service-fill ATFs obtained in Japan and in the US. In many cases, the ATFs were more severely oxidized after the ABOT procedure than after the same duration of the ISOT procedure. The relative severity of these two tests was influenced by the composition of the ATFs. The bench test oxidation data were compared with the transmission and the vehicle oxidation test data.
Technical Paper

Powerplant Block-Crank Dynamic Interaction and Radiated Noise Prediction

This paper discusses flexible, multi-body, coupled dynamic simulation of a crankshaft system acting upon a power plant structure that includes an engine block, cylinder heads, oil pan, crank train (i.e., crankshaft, connecting rods, bearings etc.) and transmission. The simulation is conducted using AVL/EXCITE [1]. Engine loads are first predicted, and then used to compute radiated noise from the engine assembly. Radiated noise level is computed by sweeping the excitation frequency through a range associated with the normal operating RPM of the engine. The results of the radiated noise computation are plotted on a “3D” Campbell plot diagram. The effects of different crankshaft materials is evaluated by imposing steel and cast iron material properties on the analysis model. A design of experiment (DOE) study is also performed to investigate the effects of main and rod bearing clearance, damper, and flexplate design on overall engine radiated sound power.
Technical Paper

The Ford Motor Company Spin-Torsional NVH Test Facility-2

The Ford Spin Torsional NVH TEST Facility developed and completed in 1999 as a state-of-the-art powertrain NVH development facility(1). Since then, various designed capabilities have been verified with test vehicles for multiple applications to facilitate powertrain NVH development. This paper describes fundamental capabilities of the test facility, including input module to simulate engine torque signatures of arbitrary engines (“virtual engine” capability) and absorbing dynamometer systems, functioning as a precision 4WD/AWD chassis dynamometer. The correlation between road test/chassis dynamometer test and Spin-Torsional test is then illustrated, verifying high correlation of vehicle/sub-system responses between conventional vehicle testing and Spin-Torsional test results.
Technical Paper

The Ford Motor Company Transmission NVH Test Cell

Effectively managing transmission noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) has become increasingly important for maximizing customer satisfaction and fostering the perception of quality in contemporary cars and trucks. As overall vehicle and engine masking levels have dramatically decreased in recent times, low level tonal noises generated by transmission internals have gained significance and therefore have a greater effect on the NVH performance of vehicles. Recognizing the importance of this trend, Ford Motor Company recently designed and built a state-of-the-art research and development facility to be used for reducing noise and vibration generated by automatic and manual vehicle transmissions. The significant design features and validation results of this facility are described in this paper.
Technical Paper

Interaction Between ATFs and Friction Material for Modulated Torque Converter Clutches

Automatic transmissions equipped with Modulated Torque Converter Clutches (MTCC) require an effective combination of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) - friction material in order to maintain frictional integrity. However, in this study, thermal analysis has shown that ATFs can interact chemically with a friction material used in the MTCC under service conditions, potentially affecting the frictional characteristics. A technique was developed to evaluate friction material degradation. The results of this study showed that the friction material my be chemically altered by static aging in certain ATFs at elevated temperatures. The statically aged friction material samples exhibited thermal analysis signatures which were similar to identical material degraded during dynamometer and fleet vehicle tests. These vehicle tests resulted in deterioration in friction characteristics and experienced shudder.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Friction Modifiers on the Low-Speed Friction Characteristics of Automatic Transmission Fluids Observed with Scanning Force Microscopy

The effect of friction modifiers on the low-speed frictional properties of automatic transmission fluids (ATFs) was investigated by scanning force microscopy (SFM). A clutch lining material was covered by a droplet of test ATF, and a steel tip was scanned over the sample. The scanning speeds were varied from 0.13 to 8.56 mm /sec, and the frictional force was deduced from the torsion of the SFM cantilever. A reduction in dynamic friction due to the addition of the friction modifier was clearly observed over the entire speed range. This indicates that the boundary lubrication mechanism is dominant under this condition, and therefore surface-active friction modifiers can effectively improve the frictional characteristics. The friction reduction was more pronounced at lower sliding speeds. Thus addition of friction modifiers produced a more positive slope in the μ-ν (friction vs. sliding speed) plots, and would contribute to make wet clutch systems less susceptible to shudder vibrations.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Methods for Evaluating Automatic Transmission Fluid Effects on Friction Torque Capacity - A Study by the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

As part of the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee's (ILSAC) goal of developing a global automatic transmission fluid (ATF) specification, members have been evaluating test methods that are currently used by various automotive manufacturers for qualifying ATF for use in their respective transmissions. This report deals with comparing test methods used for determining torque capacity in friction systems (shifting clutches). Three test methods were compared, the Plate Friction Test from the General Motors DEXRON®-III Specification, the Friction Durability Test from the Ford MERCON® Specification, and the Japanese Automotive Manufacturers Association Friction Test - JASO Method 348-95. Eight different fluids were evaluated. Friction parameters used in the comparison were breakaway friction, dynamic friction torque at midpoint and the end of engagement, and the ratio of end torque to midpoint torque.
Technical Paper

Cranktrain Design for Ford's HEV DI Diesel Engine

This paper focuses on the cranktrain design for Ford's HEV DI Diesel Engine called the DIATA. The design started with the piston pin. The minimum piston pin diameter for the lowest reciprocation weight was achieved by tapering the small end of the connecting rod. Geometry constraints sized the connecting rod's big end diameter, oil film analyses determined the width, and an FEA verified the design. Next, the crankshaft mains were sized to reach an acceptable factor of safety, bending and torsional stiffness, and oil films. Finally, the flywheel was sized to be the minimum weight to reduce transmission gear rattle to an acceptable level.
Technical Paper

Pump/Motor Displacement Control Using High-Speed On/Off Valves

A four valve controller and electronic control circuits were developed to control the displacement of hydrostatic pump/motors (P/M's) utilized in an automobile with a hydrostatic transmission and hydropneumatic accumulator energy storage. Performance of the control system was evaluated. The controller uses four high-speed, two-way, single-stage poppet valves, functioning in the same manner as a 4-way, 3-position spool valve. Two such systems were used to control the displacement of two P/Ms, each system driving a front wheel of the vehicle. The valves were controlled electronically by a distributed-control dead-band circuit and valve driver boards. Testing showed that the control system's time response satisified driving demand needs, but that the control system's error was slightly larger than desired. This may lead to complications in some of the vehicle's operating modes.
Technical Paper

Reverse Engineering of Geometrically Complex Automotive Structures Using X-Ray Computed Tomography and Digital Image Based Finite Element Methods

Stress analyses of complex automotive components can be nearly impossible to achieve due to extreme difficulties in generating a realistic finite element model. A digital image based finite element approach was used to generate a 3-D finite element model from computed tomography (CT) scans of two automotive transmission cases. For the first case, original CT slices of 1024x1024x208 provided by ARACOR Inc. (Sunnyvale, CA) were used to generate a 3-D finite element model containing nearly 400,000 8-node brick elements. For the second case, 770x870x759 CT slices were used to generate a 3-D finite element model containing approximately 650,000 3-D elements. The mesh data generation from CT data for both cases took 6 minutes each on an engineering workstation. The resulting finite element meshes were analyzed using a specially designed finite element equation solver.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Analysis of Powertrain Torsional Response

An analytical model is developed to describe the torsional responses of the powertrain system. The model is used to analyze system equilibrium, free vibration, forced and self-excited vibrations. The equations of motion are linearized about the equilibrium to determine natural frequencies and mode shapes of the torsional modes. The forced responses of the system are investigated by including the excitations of gas combustion forces and inertia torques induced by the reciprocating motions of the piston and connecting rod. The self-excited vibration induced by negative damping behavior of clutch torque capacity is studied. For an example rear-wheel drive powertrain considered, the free vibration analyses show the natural frequencies and the associated mode shapes. The forced and the self-excited vibrations for the transmission gearset and the driveline components are examined. Experimental measurements from a test powertrain are used to confirm the theoretical predictions.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Assessment of a Transmission Case: Magnesium vs. Aluminum

This paper describes a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) done to evaluate the relative environmental performance of magnesium (Mg) and aluminum (Al) automatic transmission cases. Magnesium is considered a lighter weight substitute for aluminum in this application. Light weighting of vehicles increases fuel economy and is an important vehicle design metric. The objective of this LCA is to quantify energy and other environmental trade-offs associated with each alternative for material production, manufacturing, use, and end-of-life management stages. Key features of the inventory modeling and the data collection and analysis methods are included in this paper along with life cycle inventory profiles of aluminum and magnesium alternatives. The life cycle inventory (LCI) was interpreted using a set of environmental metrics and areas needing further research were identified. A qualitative cost assessment was done in conjunction with this LCA to highlight potential cost drivers.
Technical Paper

Application of Fuzzy Classification Methods for Diagnosis of Reject Root Causes in Manufacturing Environment

This paper presents an approach of using neural network and fuzzy logic methods for the diagnosis of fault root causes in a manufacturing environment. As the first step in this approach, data from all the valid test points were collected and studied based on their statistical characteristics. An information-gain-based procedure was then followed to quantitatively evaluate the relevance of each test point to the diagnosis process. Accordingly, an objective rank of all relevant test points was generated for a particular reject. The root cause of rejects was then identified by a procedure based on an information-gain-weighted radial basis function neural network and a fuzzy multiple voting classification algorithm. This method has been tested with the top five rejects of the transmission main control component at Ford and promising results have been obtained.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging Ford's 2.3 Liter Spark Ignition Engine

Ford's new 2.3 Litre I-4 Turbocharged Engine and Powertrain was specifically developed to match the new 1979 Mustang/ Capri. This engine/vehicle combination was developed to provide the customer excellent vehicle performance, good fuel economy and driveability. Extensive vehicle and dynamometer work was done to match the turbocharger to the engine and optimize in-vehicle mid-range to high end performance. The relatively high compression ratio (9.0:1) was retained from the naturally aspirated engine to preserve low end manual transmission vehicle performance before turbocharger boost. Revisions to basic engine components and structures to insure durability will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Electronic Transfer Case for 1990 Aerostar Electronic Four Wheel Drive

A transfer case was designed to utilize electronic control. It has a planetary interaxle differential for proportional torque split. An electromagnetic clutch is applied across the differential to enhance mobility when road coefficients allow single wheel or single axle traction loss. The need for clutch actuation is monitored by an electronic module and sensor system, that detects abnormal amounts of differentiation in the interaxle unit. Clutch actuation is signaled and controlled by the module, which is also electrically connected to the rear axle ABS brake system to eliminate any possible simultaneous function compatibility issues. System emphasis is on foul weather mobility when negotiating highway and secondary roads. The family vehicle market was targeted and performance parameters were adjusted toward mobility and driver confidence to complete a given trip.
Technical Paper

Analytical Study on Electric Motor Whine Radiated from Hybrid Vehicle Transmission

The automotive industry is experiencing a profound change due to increasing pressure from environmental and energy concerns. This leads many automakers to accelerate hybrid and electric vehicle development. Generally hybrid and electric vehicles create less noise due to their compact engines (or no engine). However, customer satisfaction could be negatively impacted by the peak whine emitted by electric motor. Unlike conventional gas vehicles, the strategy for reducing motor whine is still largely unexplored. This paper presents an analytical study on electric motor whine radiated from the transmission in a hybrid vehicle. The analysis includes two stages. Firstly, a detailed finite element (FE) model of the transmission is constructed, and case surface velocities are calculated utilizing motor electromagnetic force. Then a boundary element model is built for evaluating noise radiated from the transmission surface using acoustic transfer vector (ATV) method.
Technical Paper

Control of Gear Ratio and Slip in Continuously Variable Transmissions: A Model Predictive Control Approach

The efficiency of power transmission through a Van Doorne type Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) can be improved by allowing a small amount of relative slip between the engine and driveline side pulleys. However, excessive slip must be avoided to prevent transmission wear and damage. To enable fuel economy improvements without compromising drivability, a CVT control system must ensure accurate tracking of the gear ratio set-point while satisfying pointwise-in-time constraints on the slip, enforcing limits on the pulley forces, and counteracting driveline side and engine side disturbances. In this paper, the CVT control problem is approached from the perspective of Model Predictive Control (MPC). To develop an MPC controller, a low order nonlinear model of the CVT is established. This model is linearized at a selected operating point, and the resulting linear model is extended with extra states to ensure zero steady-state error when tracking constant set-points.
Technical Paper

Geometrical Optimization of an Automotive Halfshaft

Halfshafts are very important components from vehicle powertrain. They are the element responsible to transmit torque and rotation from transmission to wheels. Its most basic design consists of a solid bar with joints at each extreme. Depending of bar length, the natural frequency of first bending mode might have a modal alignment with engine second order, resulting in undesired noise on vehicle interior. Many design alternatives are available to overpass this particular situation, like adding dampers, use tube shafts or use link-shafts, however, all of them are cost affected. This study proposes an investigation to obtain an optimal profile for a solid shaft, pursuing the lowest possible frequency for the first bending mode by changing its diameter at specific regions. The study is divided in four main stages: initially, a modal analysis of a halfshaft is done at vehicle to determinate its natural frequency when assembled on vehicle.
Technical Paper

Ratcheting One-Way Clutches in Torque Converters

This paper discusses a new development in one way clutches (OWC), ratcheting OWC in torque converters (TC). While this has been tried before, and been successful in niche applications, it has not been introduced into mass production. Ford Motor Company has worked to develop a ratcheting OWC for use in TC. The efficiency of ratcheting OWC is better than friction type OWC. Ford Motor Company is working to implement ratcheting OWC into their torque converters, replacing friction type OWC.