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Technical Paper

Emissions Performance of Bi-fuel CNG and Bi-fuel LPG Passenger Cars Using Sequential Multi-point Injection Systems

2001-03-05
2001-01-1195
This paper describes a study into the emissions performance of a passenger car running on natural gas and liquified petroleum gas. The gasoline engine was modified to allow the introduction of the alternative fuels into the engine. The effect of fuel system hardware on emissions was investigated. Modifications were carried out to the gasoline EMS to allow control of the alternative fuel systems. A number of changes were made to the gasoline calibration to allow operation on the alternative fuels. Emissions tests were conducted on commercial grade natural gas and liquid petroleum gas. The results were compared with gasoline emission results of an equivalent vehicle.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection Pressure in an Optically-Accessed DISI Engine with Side-Mounted Fuel Injector

2001-05-07
2001-01-1975
This paper presents the results of an experimental study into the effects of fuel injection pressure on mixture formation within an optically accessed direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine. Comparison is made between the spray characteristics and in-cylinder fuel distributions due to supply rail pressures of 50 bar and 100 bar subject to part-warm, part-load homogeneous charge operating conditions. A constant fuel mass, corresponding to stoichiometric tune, was maintained for both supply pressures. The injected sprays and their subsequent liquid-phase fuel distributions were visualized using the 2-D laser Mie-scattering technique. The experimental injector (nominally a hollow-cone pressure-swirl design) was seen to produce a dense filled spray structure for both injection pressures under investigation. In both cases, the leading edge velocities of the main spray suggest the direct impingement of liquid fuel on the cylinder walls.
Technical Paper

Demisting of Vehicle Air Intake Using Plane Baffles

2003-03-03
2003-01-1077
The penetration of rainwater through the heating ventilation and air conditioning system, HVAC, of a vehicle directly affects the provision of thermal comfort within the vehicle passenger compartment. The first element of a typical HVAC system, namely the cowl box is considered. The purpose of the airway from the cowl grille openings to the air filter, immediately before the blower, is to ensure proper water separation from the incoming air stream before entry onto the air filter and onwards into the rest of the HVAC system. This is achieved by ensuring standing water within the cowl is quickly drained and that water rain droplets or water flows from the windshield and body are separated from the air stream, hence minimising the effect on the total system volumetric flow rate. An experimental study is conducted to examine the effect of plane baffles on the airflow filed within a rectangular duct. A set of plane baffle plates is placed within the cowl duct.
Technical Paper

A Fuel Vapor Model (FVSMOD) for Evaporative Emissions System Design and Analysis

1998-10-19
982644
A fuel vapor system model (FVSMOD) has been developed to simulate vehicle evaporative emission control system behavior. The fuel system components incorporated into the model include the fuel tank and pump, filler cap, liquid supply and return lines, fuel rail, vent valves, vent line, carbon canister and purge line. The system is modeled as a vented system of liquid fuel and vapor in equilibrium, subject to a thermal environment characterized by underhood and underbody temperatures and heat transfer parameters assumed known or determined by calibration with experimental liquid temperature data. The vapor/liquid equilibrium is calculated by simple empirical equations which take into account the weathering of the fuel, while the canister is modeled as a 1-dimensional unsteady absorptive and diffusive bed. Both fuel and canister submodels have been described in previous publications. This paper presents the system equations along with validation against experimental data.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Pneumatic Atomization on the Lean Limit and IMEP

1989-02-01
890431
Lean limit characteristics of a pneumatic port fuel injection system is compared to a conventional port fuel injection system. The lean limit was based on the measured peak pressure. Those cycles with peak pressures greater than 105 % of the peak pressure for a nonfiring cycle were counted. Experimental data suggests that there are differences in lean limit characteristics between the two systems studied, indicating that fuel preparation processes in these systems influence the lean limit behaviors. Lean limits are generally richer for pneumatic fuel injection than those for conventional fuel injection. At richer fuel-to-air ratios the pneumatic injector usually resulted in higher torques. A simple model to estimate the evaporation occurring in the inlet manifold provided an explanation for the observed data.
Technical Paper

50,000 Mile Vehicle Road Test of Three-Way and NOx Reduction Catalyst Systems

1978-02-01
780608
The performance of three way and NOx catalysts was evaluated on vehicles utilizing non-feedback fuel control and electronic feedback fuel control. The vehicles accumulated 80,450 km (50,000 miles) using fuels representing the extremes in hydrogen-carbon ratio available for commercial use. Feedback carburetion compared to non-feedback carburetion improved highway fuel economy by about 0.4 km/l (1 mpg) and reduced deterioration of NOx with mileage accumulation. NOx emissions were higher with the low H/C fuel in the three way catalyst system; feedback reduced the fuel effect on NOx in these cars by improving conversion efficiency with the low H/C fuel. Feedback had no measureable effect on HC and CO catalyst efficiency. Hydrocarbon emissions were lower with the low H/C fuel in all cars. Unleaded gasoline octane improver, MMT, at 0.015g Mn/l (0.06 g/gal) increased tailpipe hydrocarbon emissions by 0.05 g/km (0.08 g/mile).
Technical Paper

Direct Injection Design Principles for Noise Vibration Harshness

2017-03-28
2017-01-1052
1 Engine ticking noise is one of the key failure modes in today’s direct injection (DI) engines. High ticking noise results in high Things Gone Wrong (TGW) index, which negatively affects customer satisfaction. In this paper, the root cause of the ticking noise from DI injector in direct mounting will be presented. Design principle such as injector impact force to cylinder head and DI injector isolator design with 2 stage stiffness is proposed.
Technical Paper

Thermoplastic Enclosure for a High Voltage Battery System

2017-03-28
2017-01-1190
As electrified powertrains proliferate through original equipment manufacturer vehicle offerings, the focus on system cost and weight reduction intensifies. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a High Voltage (HV) battery system enclosure molded from High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) to deliver substantial cost and weight opportunities. While previous HV battery system enclosure alternatives to steel and aluminum focus on thermoset composites and glass filled polypropylene, this solution leverages select HDPE design techniques established for fuel tanks and applies them to an HV battery system. The result is a tough, energy absorbing structure, capable of hermetic sealing, which simplifies manufacturing by eliminating nearly all fasteners.
Technical Paper

High Frequency Sloshing - Energy Dissipation and Viscous Damping through CFD

2017-03-28
2017-01-1317
Liquid sloshing is an important issue in ground transportation, aerospace and automotive applications. Effects of sloshing in a moving liquid container can cause various issues related to vehicle stability, safety, component fatigue, audible noise and, liquid level measurement. The sloshing phenomenon is a highly nonlinear oscillatory movement of the free-surface of liquid inside a container under the effect of continuous or momentarily excitation forces. These excitation forces can result from sudden acceleration, braking, sharp turning or pitching motions. The sloshing waves generated by the excitation forces can impact on the tank surface and cause additional vibrations. For the loads with the frequencies between 2 to 200 Hz, the structural fatigue failure is a major concern for automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Optical Methodology for Characterization of a Gasoline Direct Injection Closing Event Droplet Distribution

2017-03-28
2017-01-0858
The characteristics of gasoline sprayed directly into combustion chambers are of critical importance to engine out emissions and combustion system development. The optimization of the spray characteristics to match the in-cylinder flow field, chamber geometry, and spark location are vital tasks during the development of an engine combustion strategy. Furthermore, the presence of liquid fuel during combustion in Spark-Ignition (SI) engines causes increased hydro-carbon (HC) emissions [1]. Euro 6, LEVIII, and US Tier 3 emissions regulations reduce the allowable particulate mass significantly from the previous standards. LEVIII standards reduce the acceptable particulate emission to 1 mg/mile [2]. A good DISI strategy vaporizes the correct amount of fuel just in time for optimal power output with minimal emissions. The opening and closing phases of DISI injectors is crucial to this task as the spray produces larger droplets during both theses phases.
Technical Paper

Determination of Heat Transfer Augmentation Due to Fuel Spray Impingement in a High-Speed Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0843
As the incentive to produce cleaner and more efficient engines increases, diesel engines will become a primary, worldwide solution. Producing diesel engines with higher efficiency and lower emissions requires a fundamental understanding of the interaction of the injected fuel with air as well as with the surfaces inside the combustion chamber. One aspect of this interaction is spray impingement on the piston surface. Impingement on the piston can lead to decreased combustion efficiency, higher emissions, and piston damage due to thermal loading. Modern high-speed diesel engines utilize high pressure common-rail direct-injection systems to primarily improve efficiency and reduce emissions. However, the high injection pressures of these systems increase the likelihood that the injected fuel will impinge on the surface of the piston.
Technical Paper

Transient Fuel X-Tau Parameter Estimation Using Short Time Fourier Transform

2008-04-14
2008-01-1305
This paper presents a Short Time Fourier Transform based algorithm to identify unknown parameters in fuel dynamics system during engine cold start and warm-up. A first order system is used to model the fuel dynamics in a port fuel injection engine. The feed forward transient fuel compensation controller is designed based on the identified model. Experiments are designed and implemented to verify the proposed algorithm. Different experiment settings are compared.
Technical Paper

Summary of Flow Metering Options for Injector Characterization

2009-04-20
2009-01-0664
A review was conducted of the various fuel injector flow rate measurement methods that are commercially available. The scope of the review was primarily focused on the gasoline applications of Port Fuel Injection (PFI) and Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI), but Diesel applications were reviewed as well. These flow meters were compared at the Powertrain & Fuel Subsystems Laboratory (PFSL) of Ford Motor Company. The purpose of this paper is to review the capabilities of each flow meter that is commercially available for use in injector characterization benches and engine test beds.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injector Flow Rate Analysis for the Duratec 35 EcoBoost Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1505
Flow rate characterization for the Duratec 35 EcoBoost engine was conducted at the Powertrain and Fuel Subsystems Laboratory of Ford Motor Company as a key element in the overall calibration for that program. For high-pressure gasoline fuel injection (used in the Direct Injection Spark Ignition [DISI] EcoBoost engine) in which fuel is directly injected in the cylinder, it is important to consider several variables that are not critical for low-pressure fuel injection. In this paper, the effects of fuel pressure, injector pulse width, battery voltage and injection frequency were assessed with respect to injector flow performance (dynamic flow, shot-to-shot variation in mass flow delivery, part-to-part variability in fuel flow, injector delay and split injection performance).
Technical Paper

DISI Spray Modeling Using Local Mesh Refinement

2008-04-14
2008-01-0967
The accurate prediction of fuel sprays is critical to engine combustion and emissions simulations. A fine computational mesh is often required to better resolve fuel spray dynamics and vaporization. However, computations with a fine mesh require extensive computer time. This study developed a methodology that uses a locally refined mesh in the spray region. Such adaptive mesh refinement will enable greater resolution of the liquid-gas interaction while incurring only a small increase in the total number of computational cells. The present study uses an h-refinement adaptive method. A face-based approach is used for the inter-level boundary conditions. The prolongation and restriction procedure preserves conservation of properties in performing grid refinement/coarsening. The refinement criterion is based on the mass of spray liquid and fuel vapor in each cell. The efficiency and accuracy of the present adaptive mesh refinement scheme is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Temperature Control for Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration

2013-04-08
2013-01-0517
The regeneration process of a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) consists of an increase in the engine exhaust gas temperature by using post injections and/or exhaust fuel injection during a period of time in order to burn previously trapped soot. The DPF regeneration is usually performed during a real drive cycle, with continuously changing driving conditions. The quantity of post injection/exhaust fuel to use for regeneration is calculated using a combination of an open loop term based on engine speed, load and exhaust gas flow and a closed loop term based on an exhaust gas temperature target and the feedback from a number of sensors. Due to the nature of the system and the slow response of the closed loop term for correcting large deviations, the authority of the fuel calculation is strongly biased to the open loop. However, the open loop fuel calculation might not be accurate enough to provide adequate temperature tracking due to several disturbances in the system.
Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation of the Effects of Swirl Ratio and Injection Pressure on Mixture Preparation and Wall Heat Transfer in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1105
In a recent study, quantitative measurements were presented of in-cylinder spatial distributions of mixture equivalence ratio in a single-cylinder light-duty optical diesel engine, operated with a non-reactive mixture at conditions similar to an early injection low-temperature combustion mode. In the experiments a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) methodology was used to obtain local mixture equivalence ratio values based on a diesel fuel surrogate (75% n-heptane, 25% iso-octane), with a small fraction of toluene as fluorescing tracer (0.5% by mass). Significant changes in the mixture's structure and composition at the walls were observed due to increased charge motion at high swirl and injection pressure levels. This suggested a non-negligible impact on wall heat transfer and, ultimately, on efficiency and engine-out emissions.
Technical Paper

Development of a 1-D CPF Model to Simulate Active Regeneration of a Diesel Particulate Filter

2009-04-20
2009-01-1283
A quasi-steady 1-dimensional computer model of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) capable of simulating active regeneration of the CPF via diesel fuel injection upstream of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) or other means to increase the exhaust gas temperature has been developed. This model is capable of predicting gaseous species concentrations (HC's, CO, NO and NO2) and exhaust gas temperatures within and after the CPF, for given input values of gaseous species and PM concentrations before the CPF and other inlet variables such as time-varying temperature of the exhaust gas at the inlet of the CPF and volumetric flow rate of exhaust gas.
Technical Paper

Optimization of an Asynchronous Fuel Injection System in Diesel Engines by Means of a Micro-Genetic Algorithm and an Adaptive Gradient Method

2008-04-14
2008-01-0925
Optimal fuel injection strategies are obtained with a micro-genetic algorithm and an adaptive gradient method for a nonroad, medium-speed DI diesel engine equipped with a multi-orifice, asynchronous fuel injection system. The gradient optimization utilizes a fast-converging backtracking algorithm and an adaptive cost function which is based on the penalty method, where the penalty coefficient is increased after every line search. The micro-genetic algorithm uses parameter combinations of the best two individuals in each generation until a local convergence is achieved, and then generates a random population to continue the global search. The optimizations have been performed for a two pulse fuel injection strategy where the optimization parameters are the injection timings and the nozzle orifice diameters.
Technical Paper

Development of a Micro-Engine Testing System

2012-10-23
2012-32-0105
A test stand was developed to evaluate an 11.5 cc, two-stroke, internal combustion engine in anticipation of future combustion system modifications. Detailed engine testing and analysis often requires complex, specialized, and expensive equipment, which can be problematic for research budgets. This problem is compounded by the fact that testing “micro” engines involves low flow rates, high rotational speeds, and compact dimensions which demand high-accuracy, high-speed, and compact measurement systems. On a limited budget, the task of developing a micro-engine testing system for advanced development appears quite challenging, but with careful component selection it can be accomplished. The anticipated engine investigation includes performance testing, fuel system calibration, and combustion analysis. To complete this testing, a custom test system was developed.
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