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Technical Paper

Wavelet-Based Visualization of Impulsive and Transient Sounds in Stationary Background Noise

2001-04-30
2001-01-1475
Scalograms based on shift-invariant orthonormal wavelet transforms can be used to analyze impulsive and transient sounds in the presence of more stationary sound backgrounds, such as wind noise or drivetrain noise. The visual threshold of detection for impulsive features on the scalogram (signal energy content vs. time and frequency,) is shown to be similar to the audible threshold of detection of the human auditory system for the corresponding impulsive sounds. Two examples of impulsive sounds in a realistic automotive sound background are presented: automotive interior rattle in a vehicle passenger compartment, and spark knock recorded in an engine compartment.
Technical Paper

Motion Analysis Enhances Visualization of Underbody Flow

2001-03-05
2001-01-0628
Velocity profiles for air flowing under a vehicle body are determined by analyzing videotapes of neutrally buoyant soap bubbles using motion analysis software and equipment. What had heretofore been primarily a qualitative flow visualization technique has been extended to provide quantitative data. The light sources, cameras, and bubble generator, mounted on the vehicle, are powered by the vehicle's electrical system, making it possible to compare underbody velocities measured in a wind tunnel with those over the road. Results are presented for a heavy-duty 4×4 pickup truck at speeds up to 25m/s (55 mph). The velocity profiles in the tunnel and on the road were quite similar.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Volatility, Load, and Speed on HC Emissions Due to Piston Wetting

2001-05-07
2001-01-2024
Piston wetting can be isolated from the other sources of HC emissions from DISI engines by operating the engine predominantly on a gaseous fuel and using an injector probe to impact a small amount of liquid fuel on the piston top. This results in a marked increase in HC emissions. In a previous study, we used a variety of pure liquid hydrocarbon fuels to examine the influence of fuel volatility and structure on the HC emissions due to piston wetting. It was shown that the HC emissions correspond to the Leidenfrost effect: fuels with very low boiling points yield high HCs and those with a boiling point near or above the piston temperature produce much lower HCs. All of these prior tests of fuel effects were performed at a single operating condition: the Ford World Wide Mapping Point (WWMP). In the present study, the effects of load and engine speed are examined.
Technical Paper

PIV Characterization of a 4-valve Engine with a Camshaft Profile Switching (CPS) system

2003-05-19
2003-01-1803
Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements were performed on a single cylinder optically accesible version of a 3.0L 4-valve engine using a Camshaft Profile Switching (CPS) system. The flow field was investigated at two engine speeds (750 and 1500 rpm), two manifold pressures (75 and 90 kPa) and two intake cam centerlines (maximum lift at 95° and 115° aTDCi respectively). Images were taken in the swirl plane at 10 mm and 40 mm below the deck with the piston at 300° aTDC of intake (60° bTDC compression) and BDC respectively. In the tumble plane, images were taken in a plane bisecting the intake valves with the piston at BDC and 300° aTDC. The results showed that the swirl ratio was slightly lower for this system compared with a SCV system (swirl control valve in the intake port) under the same operating conditions. The swirl and tumble ratios generated were not constant over the range of engine speeds and manifold pressures (MAP) but instead increased with engine speed and MAP.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Friction Modifiers on the Low-Speed Friction Characteristics of Automatic Transmission Fluids Observed with Scanning Force Microscopy

1998-02-23
981099
The effect of friction modifiers on the low-speed frictional properties of automatic transmission fluids (ATFs) was investigated by scanning force microscopy (SFM). A clutch lining material was covered by a droplet of test ATF, and a steel tip was scanned over the sample. The scanning speeds were varied from 0.13 to 8.56 mm /sec, and the frictional force was deduced from the torsion of the SFM cantilever. A reduction in dynamic friction due to the addition of the friction modifier was clearly observed over the entire speed range. This indicates that the boundary lubrication mechanism is dominant under this condition, and therefore surface-active friction modifiers can effectively improve the frictional characteristics. The friction reduction was more pronounced at lower sliding speeds. Thus addition of friction modifiers produced a more positive slope in the μ-ν (friction vs. sliding speed) plots, and would contribute to make wet clutch systems less susceptible to shudder vibrations.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Spray Transfer Processes in an Electrostatic Rotating Bell Applicator

1998-09-29
982290
A better understanding is needed of the electrostatic rotating bell (ESRB) application of metallic basecoat paint to automobile exteriors in order to exploit their high transfer efficiency without compromising the coating quality. This paper presents the initial results from experimental investigation of sprays from an ESRB which is designed to apply water-borne paint. Water was used as paint surrogate for simplicity. The atomization and transport regions of the spray were investigated using laser light sheet visualizations and phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). The experiments were conducted at varying levels of the three important operating parameters: liquid flow rate, shaping-air flow rate, and bellcup rotational speed. The results show that bellcup speed dominates atomization, but liquid and shaping-air flow rate settings significantly influence the spray structure. The visualization images showed that the atomization occurs in ligament breakup regime.
Technical Paper

Transient CFD Simulations of a Bell Sprayer

1998-09-29
982291
A methodology is developed that incorporates high resolution CFD flowfield information and a particle trajectory simulation, aimed at addressing Paint Transfer Efficiency (PTE) for bell sprayers. Given a solid model for the bell sprayer, the CFD simulation, through automeshing, determines a high resolution Cartesian volume mesh (14-20 million cells). With specified values of the initial shaping air, transient and steady-state flow field information is obtained. A particle trajectory visualization tool called SpraySIM uses this complicated flowfield information to determine the particle trajectories of the paint particles under the influence of drag, gravity and electrostatic potential. The sensitivity of PTE on shaping air velocity, charge-to-mass ratio, potential, and particle diameter are examined.
Technical Paper

Reverse Engineering of Geometrically Complex Automotive Structures Using X-Ray Computed Tomography and Digital Image Based Finite Element Methods

1998-02-01
981193
Stress analyses of complex automotive components can be nearly impossible to achieve due to extreme difficulties in generating a realistic finite element model. A digital image based finite element approach was used to generate a 3-D finite element model from computed tomography (CT) scans of two automotive transmission cases. For the first case, original CT slices of 1024x1024x208 provided by ARACOR Inc. (Sunnyvale, CA) were used to generate a 3-D finite element model containing nearly 400,000 8-node brick elements. For the second case, 770x870x759 CT slices were used to generate a 3-D finite element model containing approximately 650,000 3-D elements. The mesh data generation from CT data for both cases took 6 minutes each on an engineering workstation. The resulting finite element meshes were analyzed using a specially designed finite element equation solver.
Technical Paper

Laser & Fine Plasma Trimming of Sheet Metal Parts for Low Volume Production

1998-09-29
982333
This study compared laser and fine plasma technology for cutting typical electro-galvanized steel and aluminum automotive stampings. Comparisons were made of various aspects of cut quality, accuracy, disturbance of parent material, cycle time, and capital and operating costs. A sensitivity analysis was included to determine how different scenarios would impact the operating costs. It was found that both processes were capable of high quality cuts at 3800mm/min. Capital savings were achievable through the fine plasma system, but careful consideration of the specific application was essential. This work will allow for an advised comparison of options for sheet metal flexible cutting.
Technical Paper

A Methodology of Real-World Fuel Consumption Estimation: Part 1. Drive Cycles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0644
To assess the fuel consumption of vehicles, three sets of input data are required; drive cycles, vehicle parameters, and environmental conditions. As the first part of a series of studies on real-world fuel consumption, this study focuses on the drive cycles. In principle, drive cycles should represent real-world usage. Some of them aim at a specific usage such as a city driving condition or an aggressive driving style. However, the definition of city or aggressive driving is very subjective and difficult to quantitatively correlate with the real-world usage. This study proposes a methodology to quantify the speed and dynamics of drive cycles, or vehicle speed traces in general, against the real-world usage. After reviewing parameter sets found in other studies, relative cubic speed (RCS) and positive kinetic energy (PKE) are selected to represent the speed and dynamics through energy flow balance at the wheels.
Technical Paper

Aerostar Powertrain and Chassis Isolation Technology

1984-11-01
841695
The unitized construction Aerostar compact van and wagon models have been engineered to meet a variety of consumer transportation needs. The broad range of functional and image objectives have been attained by traditional design and development programs augmented by new developmental methods and isolation components. State-of-the-art development methodologies applied early in the Aerostar program enabled prediction of the effects of design revisions intended to improve subsystem response characteristics and isolation. Developmental methods used included finite element analysis, modal analysis and synthesis, transmissibility measurements, torsional powertrain measurements, continuous wave laser holography, acoustical mode determination, acoustical intensity mapping and sensitivity studies used to project production ranges of quality.
Technical Paper

Static and Fatigue Performance of Fusion Welded Uncoated DP780 Coach Joints

2008-04-14
2008-01-0695
Typical automotive joints are lap, coach, butt and miter joints. In tubular joining applications, a coach joint is common when one tube is joined to another tube without the use of brackets. Various fusion joining processes are popular in joining coach joints. Common fusion joining processes are Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), Laser and Laser Hybrid, and Gas Tungsten arc welding (GTAW). In this study, fusion welded 2.0 mm uncoated DP780 steel coach joints were investigated. Laser, Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), and laser hybrid (Laser + GMAW) welding processes were selected. Metallurgical properties of the DP780 fusion welds were evaluated using optical microscopy. Static and fatigue tests were conducted on these joints for all three joining processes. It was found that joint fit-up, type of welding process, and process parameters, especially travel speed, have significant impact on static and fatigue performance of the coach joints in this study.
Technical Paper

Determination of Vehicle Frontal Area Using Image Processing

2013-04-08
2013-01-0203
The projected frontal area of a vehicle has a significant impact on aerodynamic drag, and thus is an important parameter, for vehicle development, benchmarking, and modeling. However, determining vehicle frontal area can be tedious, time consuming, expensive, or inaccurate. Existing methods include analysis of engineering drawings, vehicle projections, 3D scanners, planimeter measurements from photographs, and estimations using vehicle dimensions. Currently accepted approximation methods can be somewhat unreliable. This study focuses on introducing a method to find vehicle frontal area using digital images and subtraction functions via MATLABs' Image Processing Toolbox. In addition to an overview of the method, this paper describes several variables that were examined to optimize and improve the process such as camera position, surface glare, and vehicle shadow effects.
Technical Paper

Noise Source Identification Using Phase Analysis

2010-10-17
2010-36-0543
Noise source identification has been a subject well studied in the past few years. Automobile manufactures along with specialized supplies have been developed some methods in this matter. The importance of such subject is quite obvious, especially in the auto industry: identify potential problems and point out solutions for NVH. There are several methods of noise source identification widely used. Among them, one can mention "Hotspot Search," which consists of noise intensity measurement, mapping and ranking the relative contribution of each substructure of one body. Another method used, one can point out is the STSF (Spatial Transformation of Sound Fields). It consists of a measurement over a scan plane using a set of microphone array. In this way, a 2D sound field can be transformed in a 3D description and source direction can be identified.
Technical Paper

Laser Hybrid Welding of Aluminized Coated Boron Steel for Automotive Body Construction

2008-04-14
2008-01-1112
The automotive industry is in constant pursuit of alternative materials and processes to address the ever changing needs of their customer and the environment. This paper presents findings from a study using a laser hybrid process (laser with MIG) to join aluminum-silicon coated boron steel (USIBOR). In this report the influence of heat from the laser hybrid welding process and its effect on the coated boron steel is discussed. In order to understand the affect from laser hybrid joining process, bead on plate experiments were conducted using 1.0 mm, 1.6 mm and 2.0 mm thick coupons. Further, two lap joint configurations were also investigated using the 1.6 mm and 2.0 mm thick coupons. Based on the test results, a significant reduction in tensile strength was observed at the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ).
Technical Paper

The Use of Discrete Wavelet Transform in Road Loads Signals Compression

2009-10-06
2009-36-0238
Wavelets are a powerful mathematical tool used to multi-resolution time-frequency decomposition of signals, in order to analyze them in different scales and obtain different aspects of the information. Despite being a relatively new tool, wavelets have being applied in several areas of human knowledge, especially in signal processing, with emphasis in encoding and compression of image, video and audio. Based on a previous successful applications (FRAZIER, 1999) together a commitment to quality results, this paper evaluates the use of the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) as an compression algorithm to reduce the amount of data collected in road load signals (load history) which are used by the durability engineering teams in the automotive industry.
Technical Paper

Schlieren and Mie Scattering Visualization for Single-Hole Diesel Injector under Vaporizing Conditions with Numerical Validation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1406
This paper reports an experimental and numerical investigation on the spatial and temporal liquid- and vapor-phase distributions of diesel fuel spray under engine-like conditions. The high pressure diesel spray was investigated in an optically-accessible constant volume combustion vessel for studying the influence of the k-factor (0 and 1.5) of a single-hole axial-disposed injector (0.100 mm diameter and 10 L/d ratio). Measurements were carried out by a high-speed imaging system capable of acquiring Mie-scattering and schlieren in a nearly simultaneous fashion mode using a high-speed camera and a pulsed-wave LED system. The time resolved pair of schlieren and Mie-scattering images identifies the instantaneous position of both the vapor and liquid phases of the fuel spray, respectively. The studies were performed at three injection pressures (70, 120, and 180 MPa), 23.9 kg/m3 ambient gas density, and 900 K gas temperature in the vessel.
Technical Paper

Evaluating the Benefits of On-Board Measurement of Ambient Humidity Part-1: Effect on Spark Timing and Combustion Efficiency

2016-04-05
2016-01-1067
Engine Mapping is usually performed under nominal conditions which include a humidity level of 8 g/Kg. Customers driving at different conditions (which may range from 1 g/Kg in colder and dry climates and up to 35 g/Kg as in tropical climates) may experience less-than-optimal engine combustion which results in reduced onroad fuel economy. Humidity has an EGR-equivalent effect, and measuring it will correct the spark timing, mainly at Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) and borderline conditions, and claim back some of those losses. This paper aims at quantifying the small fuel economy benefits associated with on-board humidity measurement for certain customer use cases at high humidity conditions. Dyno data was collected for a Ford 2.3L GTDI engine at three speed load points, and intake air humidity was varied between 20% and 80% relative humidity. The effect of humidity compensation on spark timing, combustion phasing, knock, and consequently on overall engine efficiency was analyzed.
Technical Paper

Evaluating the Benefits of On-Board Measurement of Ambient Humidity Part-2: Effect on Torque Estimation Accuracy and Drivability

2016-04-05
2016-01-1068
Engine Mapping is usually performed under nominal conditions which include a humidity level of 8 g/Kg. Customers driving at different humidity conditions (which may range from 1 g/Kg in dry and colder climates and up to 35 g/Kg as in tropical climates) may experience a degraded performance due to the errors in engine torque estimation provided by the ECU. The torque estimation error interacts with many other features that affect drivability, such as the peak performance of the engine, transmission shift quality, etc. This paper extends the investigation in Part-1 by analyzing and quantifying the torque estimation error that may result in certain customer use cases at high humidity conditions, due to the mismatch between calibrated and actual conditions. The analysis is mainly performed for Speed-Density systems (MAP sensor based) but the effect of mass air flow sensor (MAF sensor) based systems is also briefly considered.
Technical Paper

Statistical Models of RADAR and LIDAR Returns from Deer for Active Safety Systems

2016-04-05
2016-01-0113
Based on RADAR and LiDAR measurements of deer with RADAR and LiDAR in the Spring and Fall of 2014 [1], we report the best fit statistical models. The statistical models are each based on time-constrained measurement windows, termed test-points. Details of the collection method were presented at the SAE World Congress in 2015. Evaluation of the fitness of various statistical models to the measured data show that the LiDAR intensity of reflections from deer are best estimated by the extreme value distribution, while the RCS is best estimated by the log-normal distribution. The value of the normalized intensity of the LiDAR ranges from 0.3 to 1.0, with an expected value near 0.7. The radar cross-section (RCS) varies from -40 to +10 dBsm, with an expected value near -14 dBsm.
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