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GreenZone Driving for Plug In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) have a large battery which can be used for electric only powertrain operation. The control system in a PHEV must decide how to spend the energy stored in the battery. In this paper, we will present a prototype implementation of a PHEV control system which saves energy for electric operation in pre-defined geographic areas, so called Green Zones. The approach determines where the driver will be going and then compares the route to a database of predefined Green Zones. The control system then reserves enough energy to be able to drive the Green Zone sections in electric only mode. Finally, the powertrain operation is modified once the vehicle enters the Green Zone to ensure engine operation is limited. Data will be presented from a prototype implementation in a Ford Escape PHEV Presenter Johannes Kristinsson
Technical Paper

Serpentine Accessory Belt Drive Tool: Virtual Prototyping for V-Ribbed Belt Drives

Serpentine accessory belts are commonly used in industries such as automotive and general machinery. The purpose of this analytical tool is to provide design engineers the capability to model belt drive systems using ADAMS (Automated Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems). The generated ADAMS models can be used to analyze several different characteristics concerning V-Ribbed belt drive systems. The general solution of the governing nonlinear equations provides the coupled longitudinal and transverse response of the translating belt drive system. Typical simulation outputs include pulley hubloads, belt impact dynamic forces, and belt slip rates at the pulleys.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management for the HEV Liquid-Cooled Electric Machine

The future of the Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is very promising for the automotive industry. In order to take a full advantage of this concept, a better thermal performance of the electric motor is required. In this study, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was first verified through several prototypes testing and then is going to be used to execute a series of design of experiment via simulation. Based on the thermal studies in this paper, the integrated coolant jacket design has a better performance than that of separated one. The thermal performance of the stator with the 3M coating is better than the one with paper liner. In addition, using 3M coating reduces the packaging size of the stator.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Natural Aging on Fleet and Durability Vehicle Engine Mounts from a Dynamic Characterization Perspective

Elastomers are traditionally designed for use in applications that require specific mechanical properties. Unfortunately, these properties change with respect to many different variables including heat, light, fatigue, oxygen, ozone, and the catalytic effects of trace elements. When elastomeric mounts are designed for NVH use in vehicles, they are designed to isolate specific unwanted frequencies. As the elastomers age however, the desired elastomeric properties may have changed with time. This study looks at the variability seen in new vehicle engine mounts and how the dynamic properties change with respect to miles accumulated on fleet and durability test vehicles.
Technical Paper

Forward Collision Warning: Preliminary Requirements for Crash Alert Timing

Forward collision warning (FCW) systems are intended to provide drivers with crash alerts to help them avoid or mitigate rear-end crashes. To facilitate successful deployment of FCW systems, the Ford-GM Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership (CAMP) developed preliminary minimum functional requirements for FCW systems implemented on light vehicles (passenger cars, light trucks, and vans). This paper summarizes one aspect of the CAMP results: minimum requirements and recommendations for when to present rear-end crash alerts to the driver. These requirements are valid over a set of kinematic conditions that are described, and assume successful tracking and identification of a legitimate crash threat. The results are based on extensive closed-course human factors testing that studied drivers' last-second braking preferences and capabilities. The paper reviews the human factors testing, modeling of results, and the computation of FCW crash alert timing requirements and recommendations.
Technical Paper

Control Strategies for a Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Living in the era of rising environmental sensibility and increasing gasoline prices, the development of a new environmentally friendly generation of vehicles becomes a necessity. Hybrid electric vehicles are one means of increasing propulsion system efficiency and decreasing pollutant emissions. In this paper, the series-parallel power-split configuration for Michigan Technological University's FutureTruck is analyzed. Mathematical equations that describe the hybrid power-split transmission are derived. The vehicle's differential equations of motion are developed and the system's need for a controller is shown. The engine's brake power and brake specific fuel consumption, as a function of its speed and throttle position, are experimentally determined. A control strategy is proposed to achieve fuel efficient engine operation. The developed control strategy has been implemented in a vehicle simulation and in the test vehicle.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Friction Component Engagement Controllability

Conventional automatic transmissions (AT) use wet friction components, such as plate clutches and band brakes to engage gears or change speed ratios during vehicle operation. The quality of engagements and ratio changes depends greatly on the frictional characteristics of the friction components, which are typically evaluated with industry standard SAE #2 test machines. These inertia absorption-type dynamometer test stands energize a friction component with prescribed level of apply force and load of inertia flywheels rotating at a specified speed until the friction elements are brought to a stop. During the slip, apply force, engagement torque, and rotating speed are digitally recorded for visual evaluation of dynamic engagement behavior. The shape of the dynamic torque curve during the engagement is known to affect AT shift quality. When many curves are generated, it becomes intractable to quantify torque curve shape differences.
Technical Paper

Motion Analysis Enhances Visualization of Underbody Flow

Velocity profiles for air flowing under a vehicle body are determined by analyzing videotapes of neutrally buoyant soap bubbles using motion analysis software and equipment. What had heretofore been primarily a qualitative flow visualization technique has been extended to provide quantitative data. The light sources, cameras, and bubble generator, mounted on the vehicle, are powered by the vehicle's electrical system, making it possible to compare underbody velocities measured in a wind tunnel with those over the road. Results are presented for a heavy-duty 4×4 pickup truck at speeds up to 25m/s (55 mph). The velocity profiles in the tunnel and on the road were quite similar.
Technical Paper

Effect of Test Section Configuration on Aerodynamic Drag Measurements

Aerodynamic measurements in automotive wind tunnels are degraded by test section interference effects, which increase with increasing vehicle blockage ratio. The current popularity of large vehicles (i.e. trucks and sport utility vehicles) makes this a significant issue. This paper describes the results of an experimental investigation carried out in support of the Ford/Sverdrup Driveability Test Facility (DTF), which includes an aero-acoustic wind tunnel (Wind Tunnel No. 8). The objective was to quantify the aerodynamic interference associated with two candidate test section configurations for Wind Tunnel No. 8-semi-open jet and slotted wall. The experiments were carried out at 1/11-scale in Sverdrup laboratories. Four automobile shapes (MIRA models) and six Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) shapes representing blockages from 7% to 25% were used to evaluate changes in measured aerodynamic coefficients for the two test section configurations.
Technical Paper

FordS Zero Emission P2000 Fuel Cell Vehicle

The P2000 Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle developed by Ford Motor Company is the first full-performance, full-size passenger fuel cell vehicle in the world. This development process has resulted in a vehicle with performance that matches some of today's vehicles powered by internal combustion engines. The powertrain in Ford's P2000 FCEV lightweight aluminum vehicle consists of an Ecostar electric motor/transaxle and a fuel cell system developed with XCELLSiS-The Fuel Cell Engine Company (formerly dbb Fuel Cell Engines, Inc.). Ballard's Mark 700 series fuel cell stack is a main component in the fuel cell system. To support this new FCEV, Ford has constructed the first North American hydrogen refueling station capable of dispensing gaseous and liquid hydrogen. On-going research and development is progressing to optimize fuel cell vehicle performance and refueling techniques.
Technical Paper

Wind Noise and Drag Optimization Test Method for Sail-Mounted Exterior Mirrors

An L18 Taguchi-style Design of Experiments (DOE) with eight factors was used to optimize exterior mirrors for wind noise and drag. Eighteen mirror properties were constructed and tested on a full size greenhouse buck at the Lockheed low-speed wind tunnel in Marietta, GA. Buck interior sound data and drag measurements were taken at 80 MPH wind speed (0° yaw angle). Key wind noise parameters were the fore/aft length of mirror housing and the plan view angle of the mirror housing's inboard surface. Key drag parameters were the fore/aft length of the mirror housing, the cross-section shape of the mirror pedestal, and the angle of the pedestal (relative to the wind).
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Different Methods for Battery and Supercapacitor Modeling

In future vehicles (e.g. fuel cell vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles), the electrical system will have an important impact on the mechanical systems in the car (e.g. powertrain, steering). Furthermore, this coupling will become increasingly important over time. In order to develop effective designs and appropriate control systems for these systems, it is important that the plant models capture the detailed physical behavior in the system. This paper will describe models of two electrical components, a battery and a supercapacitor, which have been modeled in two ways: (i) modeling the plant and controller using block diagrams in Simulink and (ii) modeling the plant and controller in Dymola followed by compiling this model to an S-function for simulation in Simulink. Both the battery and supercapacitor model are based on impedance spectroscopy measurements and can be used for highly dynamic simulations.
Technical Paper

Effective In-Vehicle Acquisition

This paper will describe the development of an in-vehicle data acquisition and analysis system. The problem facing the Vehicle Dynamics Test Section of Ford Motor Company was to replace an antiquated data recorder with a versatile in-vehicle data acquisition system capable of supporting vehicle dynamics testing and development. The following criteria for a system was developed: Quick and easy quick software and hardware setup Off-the-shelf hardware wherever possible User-friendly software Flexible Open-ended and modular design Rugged Cost effective Utilizing the above criteria a number of commercially available systems were evaluated and found to be lacking. Therefore it was decided that a system suitable for vehicle dynamics testing would have to be developed.
Technical Paper

The Advantages of Using Standard Vehicle Dynamics Procedures and Analysis Programs

Globalization in the automotive industry has resulted in a tremendous competitive advantage to those companies who can internally communicate ideas and information effectively and in a timely manner. This paper discusses one such effort related to objectively testing vehicles for steering and handling characteristics by implementing standard test procedures, data acquisition hardware and analysis methods. Ford Motor Company's Vehicle Dynamics Test Section has refined a number of test procedures to the point that, with proper training, all design and development engineers can quickly acquire, analyze and share test results. Four of these procedures and output are discussed in detail.
Technical Paper

Interaction Between ATFs and Friction Material for Modulated Torque Converter Clutches

Automatic transmissions equipped with Modulated Torque Converter Clutches (MTCC) require an effective combination of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) - friction material in order to maintain frictional integrity. However, in this study, thermal analysis has shown that ATFs can interact chemically with a friction material used in the MTCC under service conditions, potentially affecting the frictional characteristics. A technique was developed to evaluate friction material degradation. The results of this study showed that the friction material my be chemically altered by static aging in certain ATFs at elevated temperatures. The statically aged friction material samples exhibited thermal analysis signatures which were similar to identical material degraded during dynamometer and fleet vehicle tests. These vehicle tests resulted in deterioration in friction characteristics and experienced shudder.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Emphasis on Fuel Economy Estimation

This paper describes SHEV, a computer program created to simulate hybrid electric vehicles. SHEV employs the time-stepping technique in order to evaluate energy flow in series hybrids, and makes use of a unique method in order to speed up the fuel economy estimation. This estimation method is a refinement of the “state of charge matching” method and is explained in detail. The graphic user interfaces employed in SHEV make it easy to use and give it a look similar to regular Windows‚ applications. This paper also gives some examples of the screens created by the program, depicts its main flowchart, and describes a battery model optimized for this application.
Technical Paper

Design for People - Improving the Workplace

Successful simultaneous engineering requires a team with a high degree of engineering skill and experience, knowledge of the latest materials, processes, and methodologies; and it also requires finely honed people skills. Designing the workplace for people (DFP) can facilitate collaboration, increase quality and other significant metrics, and lead to an enhanced product greatly appreciated by the customer. Design for People applies the principles of performance technology to select and retain outstanding engineers, systematically train and educate for future competency needs, and reward and motivate through traditional and non-traditional approaches. Examples of best practice enable other organizations to apply the concepts of DFP.
Technical Paper

Transient CFD Simulations of a Bell Sprayer

A methodology is developed that incorporates high resolution CFD flowfield information and a particle trajectory simulation, aimed at addressing Paint Transfer Efficiency (PTE) for bell sprayers. Given a solid model for the bell sprayer, the CFD simulation, through automeshing, determines a high resolution Cartesian volume mesh (14-20 million cells). With specified values of the initial shaping air, transient and steady-state flow field information is obtained. A particle trajectory visualization tool called SpraySIM uses this complicated flowfield information to determine the particle trajectories of the paint particles under the influence of drag, gravity and electrostatic potential. The sensitivity of PTE on shaping air velocity, charge-to-mass ratio, potential, and particle diameter are examined.
Technical Paper

Sequence VIB Engine Test for Evaluation of Fuel Efficiency of Engine Oils - Part II. Stage Selection and Time Factor Determination

The newly developed Sequence VIB engine dynamometer test for measuring the ability of engine oils to improve engine fuel efficiency was designed as an improvement on its predecessor, the Sequence VIA test. The Sequence VIB test features an additional, extended oil aging to correspond to aging of engine oils in certification vehicles and in customer use, and a new set of boundary/mixed and hydrodynamic lubrication stages to better represent a wider range of engines. Five fuel economy measurement stages were chosen for the Sequence VIB test from a larger set of prototype stages, based on extensive friction modeling of engines, analysis of Sequence VIA data on reference oils, and operational considerations. Time factors for these stages were derived based on a mini-mapping of engines considering engine operating conditions in the Metro/Highway Federal fuel economy test procedure (FTP M/H) and the estimated market volume of each engine-vehicle.
Technical Paper

Cranktrain Design for Ford's HEV DI Diesel Engine

This paper focuses on the cranktrain design for Ford's HEV DI Diesel Engine called the DIATA. The design started with the piston pin. The minimum piston pin diameter for the lowest reciprocation weight was achieved by tapering the small end of the connecting rod. Geometry constraints sized the connecting rod's big end diameter, oil film analyses determined the width, and an FEA verified the design. Next, the crankshaft mains were sized to reach an acceptable factor of safety, bending and torsional stiffness, and oil films. Finally, the flywheel was sized to be the minimum weight to reduce transmission gear rattle to an acceptable level.