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Technical Paper

Forward Collision Warning: Preliminary Requirements for Crash Alert Timing

Forward collision warning (FCW) systems are intended to provide drivers with crash alerts to help them avoid or mitigate rear-end crashes. To facilitate successful deployment of FCW systems, the Ford-GM Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership (CAMP) developed preliminary minimum functional requirements for FCW systems implemented on light vehicles (passenger cars, light trucks, and vans). This paper summarizes one aspect of the CAMP results: minimum requirements and recommendations for when to present rear-end crash alerts to the driver. These requirements are valid over a set of kinematic conditions that are described, and assume successful tracking and identification of a legitimate crash threat. The results are based on extensive closed-course human factors testing that studied drivers' last-second braking preferences and capabilities. The paper reviews the human factors testing, modeling of results, and the computation of FCW crash alert timing requirements and recommendations.
Technical Paper

Motion Analysis Enhances Visualization of Underbody Flow

Velocity profiles for air flowing under a vehicle body are determined by analyzing videotapes of neutrally buoyant soap bubbles using motion analysis software and equipment. What had heretofore been primarily a qualitative flow visualization technique has been extended to provide quantitative data. The light sources, cameras, and bubble generator, mounted on the vehicle, are powered by the vehicle's electrical system, making it possible to compare underbody velocities measured in a wind tunnel with those over the road. Results are presented for a heavy-duty 4×4 pickup truck at speeds up to 25m/s (55 mph). The velocity profiles in the tunnel and on the road were quite similar.
Technical Paper

Effect of Test Section Configuration on Aerodynamic Drag Measurements

Aerodynamic measurements in automotive wind tunnels are degraded by test section interference effects, which increase with increasing vehicle blockage ratio. The current popularity of large vehicles (i.e. trucks and sport utility vehicles) makes this a significant issue. This paper describes the results of an experimental investigation carried out in support of the Ford/Sverdrup Driveability Test Facility (DTF), which includes an aero-acoustic wind tunnel (Wind Tunnel No. 8). The objective was to quantify the aerodynamic interference associated with two candidate test section configurations for Wind Tunnel No. 8-semi-open jet and slotted wall. The experiments were carried out at 1/11-scale in Sverdrup laboratories. Four automobile shapes (MIRA models) and six Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) shapes representing blockages from 7% to 25% were used to evaluate changes in measured aerodynamic coefficients for the two test section configurations.
Technical Paper

Steering Column/Instrument Panel NVH Analysis in Full Size Pickup Trucks Using MSC/NASTRAN - Part 1

Recent surveys of customer satisfaction with full size pickup trucks have raised the standards for passenger comfort and refinement of such vehicles. Customers for this type of vehicle demand performance levels for attributes such as NVH, ride, and handling that previously belonged to luxury passenger cars. Along with the increased passenger comfort, full size pickup trucks must retain a tough image and be as durable as the previous generation trucks. The challenge is to design for NVH performance that can match and surpass many well behaved and “good” NVH passenger cars without any compromise in durability performance. One aspect of “good” NVH is a steering wheel which is free from vibration. As part of the development of a new design for a full sized pick up truck, an NVH subjective rating of 8-9 (10 is maximum) was targeted for the design of steering column/ instrument panel assembly.
Technical Paper

Light Truck Stabilizer Bar Attachment Non-linear Fatigue Analysis

The stabilizer bar attachments problem can not be simply analyzed by using linear FEA methodology. The large deformation in the bushing, the elastic-plastic material property in the bushing retainer bracket, and the contact between different parts all add complexity to the problem and result in the need for an analysis method using a non-linear code, such as ABAQUS. The material properties of the bushing were experimentally determined and applied to the CAE model. It was found that using strains to estimate the fatigue life was more accurate and reliable than using stress. Many modeling techniques used in this analysis were able to improve analysis efficiency.
Technical Paper

1983 Ranger Pickup

The Ford Ranger will be a domestically built, small pickup truck engineered to many design objectives typical of a fullsize pickup, yet with four cylinder engine fuel efficiency. Ranger is a full-function on-and-off road pickup truck with a uniquely smooth ride and a capacity to carry up to a 725.7 kg. (1600 lb.) payload. The truck features a three passenger body-on-frame cab and a double wall pickup box with provision for 1.2m × 2.4m (4 ft. × 8 ft.) sheets of construction material. Featured in this comprehensive paper are the engineering highlights and innovations contributing to the accomplishment of these Small Truck objectives.
Technical Paper

Pedestrian Head Impact Time Estimate based on Vehicle Geometric Parameters

Pedestrian protection assessment methods require multiple head impact tests on a vehicle’s hood and other front end parts. Hood surfaces are often lifted up by using pyrotechnic devices to create more deformation space prior to pedestrian head impact. Assessment methods for vehicles equipped with pyrotechnic devices must also validate that the hood deployment occurs prior to head impact event. Estimation of pedestrian head impact time, thus, becomes a critical requirement for performance validation of deployable hood systems. In absence of standardized physical pedestrian models, Euro NCAP recommends a list of virtual pedestrian models that could be used by vehicle manufacturers, with vehicle FEA (Finite Element Analysis) models, to predict the potential head impact time along the vehicle front end profile. FEA simulated contact time is used as target for performance validation of sensor and pyrotechnic deployable systems.
Technical Paper

An Extensive Validation of an Open Source Based Solution for Automobile External Aerodynamics

The number of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations performed during the vehicle aerodynamic development process continues to expand at a rapid rate. One key contributor to this trend is the number of analytically based designed experiments performed to support vehicle aerodynamic shape development. A second contributor is the number of aerodynamic optimization studies performed for vehicle exterior components such as mirrors, underbody shields, spoilers, etc. A third contributor is the increasing number of “what if” exploratory studies performed early in the design process when the design is relatively fluid. Licensing costs for commercial CFD solutions can become a significant constraint as the number of simulations expands.
Technical Paper

Driveable Automotive Electrical & Electronics Test-Board

This paper describes a test system for improving the completeness and representativeness of automotive electrical/electronic (E/E) test benches. This is with the aim to enable more testing and hence increase the usage and effectiveness of these facilities. A proportion of testing for automotive electrical and electronics systems and components is conducted using E/E testing boards (“test-boards”). These are table-like rigs consisting of most or all electrical and electronic parts connected together as per a car/truck/van. A major problem is that the testing is conducted on the equivalent of a static vehicle: test-boards lack basic dynamic elements such as a running engine, vehicle motion, environmental, component and fluid temperatures, etc. This limits the testing that can be carried out on such a test-board.
Technical Paper


This paper describes the design and build of an experimental super transport truck for high-speed, long distance freight hauling on the interstate highway system of the 1970's. The tractor, powered by a 600-hp gas turbine engine, pulls two 40-foot tandem axle trailers at a G.C.W. of 170,000 lbs. Details of the turbine engine development are covered in SAE paper, No. 991B. One of the features of the super transport truck is the cab, which is designed for long-distance, non-stop, two-man operation. It is provided with sleeping accommodations, washroom conveniences, food facilities, and a complete heating and air-conditioning system. The 13-foot high cab roof is flush with the top of the trailers, providing a substantial aerodynamic advantage. Other features and components of the truck are described, and observations made during the 5500-mile national tour are discussed.
Technical Paper

Magnetic Tape and Servo-Hydraulics Applied to Truck Frame Testing

This paper discusses the possible impact of the FM tape recorder and servo-hydraulic actuators on the testing of automotive structures. The use of tape recorders and automatic data reduction systems will permit more accurate definition of service conditions and properly “set-the-stage” for laboratory testing. Servo-hydraulic strokers should encourage better laboratory simulation because of their great flexibility. Test set-up time is reduced, fixtures can be simplified and load control is more precise. Simultaneous multiple inputs can be controlled as to amplitude and phase relationships.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamic Handling Computer Simulation - Model Development, Correlation, and Application Using ADAMS

A new capability to simulate transient, non-linear handling maneuvers analytically, and dynamically display the vehicle's response with 3-dimensional animated graphics has been developed and is being utilized by Ford Motor Company. The implementation of this capability, which includes complete affects of steering and suspension kinematics, individual bushing compliances, non-linear shock absorber and jounce bumper characteristics, and transient tire force and moment data, represents a new frontier in the development of light truck and passenger car vehicles. Development of this model lends itself to analytical evaluations of numerous types of handling related maneuvers such as classical or linear behavior, transient and limit stability analysis, and special situations such as cross wind stability, torque steer, and vehicle drift characteristics.
Technical Paper

One Piece Stamped I-Beam Axle

Recent accomplishments, made possible by advances in manufacturing and material technology, have led to the development of a one-piece stamped I-Beam axle with ball joints as a replacemet to the forged axle with king pin design. The new stamped I-Beam axle brings with it a number of improvements to Ford's Twin I-Beam suspension system. This paper describes the objectives, improvements, evolution of the design, testing, and the manufacturing process for this latest suspension system improvement on Ford light trucks.
Technical Paper

Electronic Truck Instrument Panel Displays

Integrating microcomputer-based components and high technology displays to the heavy-duty truck instrument panel is an evolutionary step in panel development. The application and technology, based on automotive experience, is proven and the initially higher cost of more sophisticated instrumentation will be offset by capabilities offering a return on investment not possible even with the most modern electromechanical instrumentation.
Technical Paper

A Finite Element and Experimental Analysis of a Light Truck Leaf Spring System Subjected to Pre-Tension and Twist Loads

In this study the finite element method is used to simulate a light truck multi-leaf spring system and its interaction with a driven axle, u-bolts, and interface brackets. In the first part of the study, a detailed 3-D FE model is statically loaded by fastener pre-tension to determine stress, strain, and contact pressure. The FE results are then compared and correlated to both strain gage and interface pressure measurements from vehicle hardware test. Irregular contact conditions between the axle seat and leaf spring are investigated using a design of experiments (DOE) approach for both convex and discrete step geometries. In the second part of the study, the system FE model is loaded by both fastener pre-tension and external wheel end loads in order to obtain the twist motion response. Torsional deflection, slip onset, and subsequent slip motion at the critical contact plane are calculated as a function of external load over a range of Coulomb friction coefficients.
Technical Paper

Modeling Interior Noise in Off-Highway Trucks using Statistical Energy Analysis

The objective of this project was to model and study the interior noise in an Off-Highway Truck cab using Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA). The analysis was performed using two different modeling techniques. In the first method, the structural members of the cab were modeled along with the panels and the interior cavity. In the second method, the structural members were not modeled and only the acoustic cavity and panels were modeled. Comparison was done between the model with structural members and without structural members to evaluate the necessity of modeling the structure. Correlation between model prediction of interior sound pressure and test data was performed for eight different load conditions. Power contribution analysis was performed to find dominant paths and 1/3rd octave band frequencies.
Technical Paper

Vibration Mode Study of Steering Columns for Commercial Vehicles

On the development process of truck vehicles, the dynamic behavior must be considered together with the costs involved in this development. Objective measurements, subjective evaluations and CAE simulations are used in order to support this development process. Ride comfort, acceleration and braking performance, handling and NVH are examples of attributes considered in the dynamic behavior evaluation of a tuck. Some characteristics of steering column vibration, noise and harshness are relevant to guarantee driver comfort level and vehicle safety. In this work, CAE models validated by experimental measurements were used to identify cab and vehicle modes of vibration which have significant influence on steering column response. Using this procedure, an alternative was proposed in order to decrease the amplitudes of cab and steering column vibration.
Technical Paper

Low-Speed Longitudinal Distance Control with Applications to Parking

We introduce a controller designed to stop a vehicle smoothly and accurately at a specified distance target, while being robust to unmeasured disturbances. This controller has a wide range of applications in instances where low speed longitudinal control of a vehicle is desired. Controller design was validated in a simulation using an ideal vehicle model based on first principles. Real world testing and tuning was performed on a full-size pickup truck to demonstrate controller performance.
Technical Paper

Control for Automated Trailer Backup

We propose a steering controller for automated trailer backup, which can be used on tractor-trailer configurations including fifth wheel campers and gooseneck style trailers. The controller steers the trailer based on real-time driver issued trailer curvature commands. We give a stability proof for the hierarchical control system, and demonstrate robustness under a specific set of modeling errors. Simulation results are provided along with experimental data from a full-size pickup truck and 5th wheel trailer.
Technical Paper

Frequency FE-Based Weld Fatigue Life Prediction of Dynamic Systems

In most aspects of mechanical design related to a motor vehicle there are two ways to treat dynamic fatigue problems. These are the time domain and the frequency domain approaches. Time domain approaches are the most common and most widely used especially in the automotive industries and accordingly it is the method of choice for the fatigue calculation of welded structures. In previous papers the frequency approach has been successful applied showing a good correlation with the life and damage estimated using a time based approach; in this paper the same comparative process has been applied but now extended specifically to welded structures. Both the frequency domain approach and time domain approach are used for numerically predicting the fatigue life of the seam welds of a thin sheet powertrain installation bracketry of a commercial truck submitted to variable amplitude loading. Predicted results are then compared with bench tests results, and their accuracy are rated.