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Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

2012-06-18
A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO2 oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
Technical Paper

Emissions Performance of Bi-fuel CNG and Bi-fuel LPG Passenger Cars Using Sequential Multi-point Injection Systems

2001-03-05
2001-01-1195
This paper describes a study into the emissions performance of a passenger car running on natural gas and liquified petroleum gas. The gasoline engine was modified to allow the introduction of the alternative fuels into the engine. The effect of fuel system hardware on emissions was investigated. Modifications were carried out to the gasoline EMS to allow control of the alternative fuel systems. A number of changes were made to the gasoline calibration to allow operation on the alternative fuels. Emissions tests were conducted on commercial grade natural gas and liquid petroleum gas. The results were compared with gasoline emission results of an equivalent vehicle.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Dynamic Parameters of Automotive Exhaust Hangers

2001-04-30
2001-01-1446
Different methodologies to test and analyze the dynamic stiffness (K) and damping (C) properties of several silicone and EPDM rubber automotive exhaust hangers were investigated in this research. One test method utilized a standard MTS hydraulic test machine with a single sine excitation at discrete frequencies and amplitude levels, while a second method utilized an electrodynamic shaker with broadband excitation. Analysis techniques for extracting the equivalent stiffness and damping were developed in the shaker tests using data from time domain, frequency domain, as well as force transmissibility. A comparison of all of the shaker testing methods for repeatability and accuracy was done with the goal of determining the appropriate method that generates the most consistent results over the range of testing. The shaker testing in the frequency domain using a frequency response function model produced good results and the set-up is relatively inexpensive.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Different Input Excitation on the Dynamic Characterization of an Automotive Shock Absorber

2001-04-30
2001-01-1442
This paper deals with the dynamic characterization of an automotive shock absorber, a continuation of an earlier work [1]. The objective of this on-going research is to develop a testing and analysis methodology for obtaining dynamic properties of automotive shock absorbers for use in CAE-NVH low-to-mid frequency chassis models. First, the effects of temperature and nominal length on the stiffness and damping of the shock absorber are studied and their importance in the development of a standard test method discussed. The effects of different types of input excitation on the dynamic properties of the shock absorber are then examined. Stepped sine sweep excitation is currently used in industry to obtain shock absorber parameters along with their frequency and amplitude dependence. Sine-on-sine testing, which involves excitation using two different sine waves has been done in this study to understand the effects of the presence of multiple sine waves on the estimated dynamic properties.
Technical Paper

Computation of Wind Noise Radiated from a Flexible and Elastically Supported Panel

2001-04-30
2001-01-1495
A numerical methodology based on the finite element and boundary element methods is presented for computing the noise radiated from an elastically supported structure subject to turbulent boundary layer excitation. The new algorithm utilizes the fluctuating wall pressure in order to define the excitation on the structural-acoustic system. The developments target wind noise prediction for the sound radiated by the side glass window of an automobile. The glass-seal assembly is modeled as a flexible plate mounted on an elastic foundation with stiffness and damping characteristics. Numerical predictions are compared successfully to wind tunnel test data. Parametric analyses are performed in order to identify the characteristics of the seal that can lead to noise reduction.
Technical Paper

Material Damping Properties: A Comparison of Laboratory Test Methods and the Relationship to In-Vehicle Performance

2001-04-30
2001-01-1466
This paper presents the damping effectiveness of free-layer damping materials through standard Oberst bar testing, solid plate excitation (RTC3) testing, and prediction through numerical schemes. The main objective is to compare damping results from various industry test methods to performance in an automotive body structure. Existing literature on laboratory and vehicle testing of free-layer viscoelastic damping materials has received significant attention in recent history. This has created considerable confusion regarding the appropriateness of different test methods to measure material properties for damping materials/treatments used in vehicles. The ability to use the material properties calculated in these tests in vehicle CAE models has not been extensively examined. Existing literature regarding theory and testing for different industry standard damping measurement techniques is discussed.
Technical Paper

Standard Test Method for Cavitation and Erosion-Corrosion Characteristics of Aluminum Pumps with Engine Coolants

2001-03-05
2001-01-1181
The ASTM D 2809 test method, “Standard Test Method For Cavitation Corrosion and Erosion-Corrosion Characteristics of Aluminum Pumps With Engine Coolants” was first published in 19691. The method involves a copper-pipe circuit through which coolant solution, heated to 113°C, is pumped at 103 kPa for 100 hours. The method was modified to change the pump used in the test in 1989. It was updated in 1994 to accommodate a change in the cleaning procedure and was subsequently reapproved by the ASTM D-15 Committee on Engine Coolants in 1999.2 Tests recently conducted on several modern coolants have produced “failing” results, but the coolants are performing well in the field. Further, the repeatability and reproducibility of the method have been questioned. A round-robin series of tests sponsored by the Ford Motor Company revealed significant variations and cause for concern.
Technical Paper

Motion Analysis Enhances Visualization of Underbody Flow

2001-03-05
2001-01-0628
Velocity profiles for air flowing under a vehicle body are determined by analyzing videotapes of neutrally buoyant soap bubbles using motion analysis software and equipment. What had heretofore been primarily a qualitative flow visualization technique has been extended to provide quantitative data. The light sources, cameras, and bubble generator, mounted on the vehicle, are powered by the vehicle's electrical system, making it possible to compare underbody velocities measured in a wind tunnel with those over the road. Results are presented for a heavy-duty 4×4 pickup truck at speeds up to 25m/s (55 mph). The velocity profiles in the tunnel and on the road were quite similar.
Technical Paper

Effect of Test Section Configuration on Aerodynamic Drag Measurements

2001-03-05
2001-01-0631
Aerodynamic measurements in automotive wind tunnels are degraded by test section interference effects, which increase with increasing vehicle blockage ratio. The current popularity of large vehicles (i.e. trucks and sport utility vehicles) makes this a significant issue. This paper describes the results of an experimental investigation carried out in support of the Ford/Sverdrup Driveability Test Facility (DTF), which includes an aero-acoustic wind tunnel (Wind Tunnel No. 8). The objective was to quantify the aerodynamic interference associated with two candidate test section configurations for Wind Tunnel No. 8-semi-open jet and slotted wall. The experiments were carried out at 1/11-scale in Sverdrup laboratories. Four automobile shapes (MIRA models) and six Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) shapes representing blockages from 7% to 25% were used to evaluate changes in measured aerodynamic coefficients for the two test section configurations.
Technical Paper

Pressure-Sensitive Paint Technology Applied to Low-Speed Automotive Testing

2001-03-05
2001-01-0626
Pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) technology is a technique used to experimentally determine surface pressures on models during wind tunnel tests. The key to this technique is a specially formulated pressure-sensitive paint that responds to, and can be correlated with the local air pressure. Wind tunnel models coated with pressure-sensitive paint are able to yield quantitative pressure data on an entire model surface in the form of light intensity values in recorded images. Quantitative results in terms of pressure coefficients (Cp) are obtained by correlating PSP data with conventional pressure tap data. Only a small number of surface taps are needed to be able to obtain quantitative pressure data with the PSP method. This technique is gaining acceptance so that future automotive wind tunnel tests can be done at reduced cost by eliminating most of the expensive pressure taps from wind tunnel models.
Technical Paper

Oxidation Stability of Automatic Transmission Fluids -A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

2001-05-07
2001-01-1991
The International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF subcommittee members have compared the two oxidation bench test methods, Aluminum Beaker Oxidation Test (ABOT) and Indiana Stirring Oxidation Stability Test (ISOT), using a number of factory-fill and service-fill ATFs obtained in Japan and in the US. In many cases, the ATFs were more severely oxidized after the ABOT procedure than after the same duration of the ISOT procedure. The relative severity of these two tests was influenced by the composition of the ATFs. The bench test oxidation data were compared with the transmission and the vehicle oxidation test data.
Technical Paper

Influence of Mount Stiffness on Body/Subframe Acoustic Sensitivities

2003-05-05
2003-01-1714
A comparison of acoustic sensitivities of the 2000 Ford Taurus and 1999 Toyota Camry identifies an interesting paradox: the Taurus has a competitive advantage over the Camry when comparing body-only transfer functions, but a handicap to the Camry when the subframe is included in the measurements. Further, the Taurus subframe/mount subsystem actually behaves as an amplifier rather than an isolator over most of the powertrain excited frequency range. This report attempts to explain the cause of these behaviors through a hybrid CAE/test method and recommends a design strategy to lower the Subframe to Driver's Right Ear sensitivities of the Taurus.
Technical Paper

Development of Dual Mode Engine Crank Damper

2003-05-05
2003-01-1675
The paper presents development work of dual mode crank dampers implemented on 3.0L V6 engines. The history and the theoretic background of the crank dampers are reviewed. The development starts with measurement of crank bending by modal testing on static condition and by optical decode system on a running engine. Modal analysis theory is also described in the Appendix to explain how the test boundary conditions may greatly affect the measured damper frequencies and a recommended method is presented. The damper frequencies are defined by using transmissibility ratio to simplify the test process and eliminate effects of boundary conditions. To verify the effectiveness of the damper, engine dyno and vehicle road tests are conducted. The results show that the dual mode dampers cannot substantially reduce airborne noise, however they can make engine mount vibrations lower (about 30% in high RPM range) and therefore reduce the structure-borne noise.
Technical Paper

Suspension Bushing Effects on Steering Wheel Nibble

2003-05-05
2003-01-1712
This paper is going to describe testing that was performed in order to determine the sensitivity of the vehicle's steering wheel torsional vibrations to the front suspension lower control arm front bushing rubber characteristics. The methods used to induce the vehicle response are described. Subjective response and test data were acquired, and will be presented. Unexpected results were obtained regarding the test procedures and their effects on the test results.
Technical Paper

Wind Noise and Drag Optimization Test Method for Sail-Mounted Exterior Mirrors

2003-05-05
2003-01-1702
An L18 Taguchi-style Design of Experiments (DOE) with eight factors was used to optimize exterior mirrors for wind noise and drag. Eighteen mirror properties were constructed and tested on a full size greenhouse buck at the Lockheed low-speed wind tunnel in Marietta, GA. Buck interior sound data and drag measurements were taken at 80 MPH wind speed (0° yaw angle). Key wind noise parameters were the fore/aft length of mirror housing and the plan view angle of the mirror housing's inboard surface. Key drag parameters were the fore/aft length of the mirror housing, the cross-section shape of the mirror pedestal, and the angle of the pedestal (relative to the wind).
Technical Paper

The Ford Motor Company Spin-Torsional NVH Test Facility-2

2003-05-05
2003-01-1684
The Ford Spin Torsional NVH TEST Facility developed and completed in 1999 as a state-of-the-art powertrain NVH development facility(1). Since then, various designed capabilities have been verified with test vehicles for multiple applications to facilitate powertrain NVH development. This paper describes fundamental capabilities of the test facility, including input module to simulate engine torque signatures of arbitrary engines (“virtual engine” capability) and absorbing dynamometer systems, functioning as a precision 4WD/AWD chassis dynamometer. The correlation between road test/chassis dynamometer test and Spin-Torsional test is then illustrated, verifying high correlation of vehicle/sub-system responses between conventional vehicle testing and Spin-Torsional test results.
Technical Paper

The Advantages of Using Standard Vehicle Dynamics Procedures and Analysis Programs

1998-02-23
981077
Globalization in the automotive industry has resulted in a tremendous competitive advantage to those companies who can internally communicate ideas and information effectively and in a timely manner. This paper discusses one such effort related to objectively testing vehicles for steering and handling characteristics by implementing standard test procedures, data acquisition hardware and analysis methods. Ford Motor Company's Vehicle Dynamics Test Section has refined a number of test procedures to the point that, with proper training, all design and development engineers can quickly acquire, analyze and share test results. Four of these procedures and output are discussed in detail.
Technical Paper

Current and Past Technologies for Headliners Including Acoustics, Recycling and Safety

1998-02-23
980951
Headliner technology will be presented in this paper. Older established technologies such as cut & score, fiberglass, hardboard and resinated cotton are still used because of their proven reliability and low cost. But newer processes including polyester, natural fiber, Tramivex™ and urethane offer reliability, structure, acoustic performance and some recyclability. Fiberglass has always been a leader in acoustical performance but has breakage and handability issues in the assembly plants. This paper will be divided in four sections. The first section discusses manufacturing processes for headliners covering current and past. It also covers the materials used and types of facing. This section will state why headliner technology used in the USA is different than Europe or emerging markets. Second section describes acoustics. It will explain performance as related to material types. Porosity, cell type, fiber length and diameter is explained as it relates to the absorption of sound.
Technical Paper

Convergence of Laboratory Simulation Test Systems

1998-02-23
981018
Laboratory Simulation Testing is widely accepted as an effective tool for validation of automotive designs. In a simulation test, response data are measured whilst a vehicle is in service or tested at a proving ground. These responses are reproduced in the laboratory by mounting the vehicle or a subassembly of the vehicle in a test rig and applying force and displacements by servo hydraulic actuators. The data required as an input to the servo hydraulics, the drive files, are determined by an iterative procedure which overcomes the non linearity in the test specimen and the test rig system. Under certain circumstances, the iteration does not converge, converges too slowly or converges and then diverges. This paper uses mathematical and computer models in a study of the reasons why systems fail to convergence and makes recommendations about the management of the simulation test.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Methods for Evaluating Automatic Transmission Fluid Effects on Friction Torque Capacity - A Study by the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

1998-10-19
982672
As part of the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee's (ILSAC) goal of developing a global automatic transmission fluid (ATF) specification, members have been evaluating test methods that are currently used by various automotive manufacturers for qualifying ATF for use in their respective transmissions. This report deals with comparing test methods used for determining torque capacity in friction systems (shifting clutches). Three test methods were compared, the Plate Friction Test from the General Motors DEXRON®-III Specification, the Friction Durability Test from the Ford MERCON® Specification, and the Japanese Automotive Manufacturers Association Friction Test - JASO Method 348-95. Eight different fluids were evaluated. Friction parameters used in the comparison were breakaway friction, dynamic friction torque at midpoint and the end of engagement, and the ratio of end torque to midpoint torque.
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