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Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO2 oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
Technical Paper

Effect of Test Section Configuration on Aerodynamic Drag Measurements

Aerodynamic measurements in automotive wind tunnels are degraded by test section interference effects, which increase with increasing vehicle blockage ratio. The current popularity of large vehicles (i.e. trucks and sport utility vehicles) makes this a significant issue. This paper describes the results of an experimental investigation carried out in support of the Ford/Sverdrup Driveability Test Facility (DTF), which includes an aero-acoustic wind tunnel (Wind Tunnel No. 8). The objective was to quantify the aerodynamic interference associated with two candidate test section configurations for Wind Tunnel No. 8-semi-open jet and slotted wall. The experiments were carried out at 1/11-scale in Sverdrup laboratories. Four automobile shapes (MIRA models) and six Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) shapes representing blockages from 7% to 25% were used to evaluate changes in measured aerodynamic coefficients for the two test section configurations.
Technical Paper

The Ford Motor Company Spin-Torsional NVH Test Facility-2

The Ford Spin Torsional NVH TEST Facility developed and completed in 1999 as a state-of-the-art powertrain NVH development facility(1). Since then, various designed capabilities have been verified with test vehicles for multiple applications to facilitate powertrain NVH development. This paper describes fundamental capabilities of the test facility, including input module to simulate engine torque signatures of arbitrary engines (“virtual engine” capability) and absorbing dynamometer systems, functioning as a precision 4WD/AWD chassis dynamometer. The correlation between road test/chassis dynamometer test and Spin-Torsional test is then illustrated, verifying high correlation of vehicle/sub-system responses between conventional vehicle testing and Spin-Torsional test results.
Technical Paper

Convergence of Laboratory Simulation Test Systems

Laboratory Simulation Testing is widely accepted as an effective tool for validation of automotive designs. In a simulation test, response data are measured whilst a vehicle is in service or tested at a proving ground. These responses are reproduced in the laboratory by mounting the vehicle or a subassembly of the vehicle in a test rig and applying force and displacements by servo hydraulic actuators. The data required as an input to the servo hydraulics, the drive files, are determined by an iterative procedure which overcomes the non linearity in the test specimen and the test rig system. Under certain circumstances, the iteration does not converge, converges too slowly or converges and then diverges. This paper uses mathematical and computer models in a study of the reasons why systems fail to convergence and makes recommendations about the management of the simulation test.
Technical Paper

Surface and Engine Oil Effects on Journal Bearing Lubrication

Lubrication conditions in journal bearings lubricated with low friction engine oils have been investigated using two complementary experimental techniques. Load supporting capacity under conditions ranging from fully flooded to mixed lubrication was measured for several candidate oils using a bench test that simulates the dynamic motion of a journal bearing at fixed, measurable eccentricities. The performance of these oils was also assessed using a bearing test rig in which journal friction is measured under typical engine conditions of speed, load and temperature. Significant mixed lubrication conditions were shown to exist at low speeds in heavily loaded journal bearings. Under such conditions, oil with friction reducing additives exhibit higher load supporting capacity, distinct separation of moving parts, and reduced friction relative to oils without such additives.
Technical Paper

The Aluminum Beaker Oxidation Test for MERCON™ World-Wide Service ATF

The Aluminum Beaker Oxidation Test is one of the tests specified for MERCONtm service ATF. The test is now being run at independent laboratories. Passing this and other specified tests is part of the process required to obtain a licence to describe an ATF as MERCONtm. The performance of test facilities at independent laboratories has been monitored by evaluating test data obtained with reference ATFs provided by Ford. The data so obtained, together with data obtained at Ford and other laboratories, have been used to generate a statistically significant data base. This data base has been used to better define test repeatability and reproducibility and thus provide an improved basis for monitoring the performance of test facilities. This paper provides a summary of the test procedure, reviews the data supporting the validity of the test, and presents information on the repeatability and reproducibility of the test method.
Technical Paper

Correlating Laboratory Oil Aerosol Coking Rig Tests to Diesel Engine Tests to Understand the Mechanisms Responsible for Turbocharger Compressor Coking

Deposit formation within turbocharger compressor housings can lead to compressor efficiency degradation. This loss of turbo efficiency may degrade fuel economy and increase CO2 and NOx emissions. To understand the role that engine oil composition and formulation play in deposit formation, five different lubricants were run in a fired engine test while monitoring turbocharger compressor efficiency over time. Base stock group, additive package, and viscosity modifier treat rate were varied in the lubricants tested. After each test was completed the turbocharger compressor cover and back plate deposits were characterized. A laboratory oil mist coking rig has also been constructed, which generated deposits having the same characteristics as those from the engine tests. By analyzing results from both lab and engine tests, correlations between deposit characteristics and their effect on compressor efficiency were observed.
Technical Paper

The Relative Effect of Paint Film Thickness on Bimetallic and Crevice Corrosion

The proliferation of Unibody construction, for vehicle weight reduction, and the expanded use of precoated steel, for improvement in outer body rust-through protection, has significantly increased the number of bimetallic and crevice unions on U.S. manufactured vehicles. Cyclic corrosion and proving ground testing has shown that these unions are highly active electrochemically, resulting in extensive anodic corrosion and cathodic de-lamination of the paint film. This work examines the individual contribution of each layer of the applied protective coatings package, with respect to applied film thickness, to the reduction of permeation by water, oxygen, and NaCl and resultant corrosion.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Level EMC Testing Methodology and Correlation

This paper describes an indoor electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing facility designed for automotive testing over the 60 Hz to 18 GHz frequency range. The facility includes a large TEM cell, covering the 60 Hz to 20 MHz frequency range, and a state-of-the-art anechoic chamber, covering 20 MHz to 18 GHz. In addition to describing the test cells, this paper discusses testing methodology, automatic testing software and calibration. Data is presented depicting the electromagnetic field distribution in each test cell with and without the test vehicle in place. Data is also presented showing a typical field distribution near a high power shortwave transmitter site for correlation purposes.
Technical Paper

A Correlation Study between the Full Scale Wind Tunnels of Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors

A correlation of aerodynamic wind tunnels was initiated between Chrysler, Ford and General Motors under the umbrella of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR). The wind tunnels used in this correlation were the open jet tunnel at Chrysler's Aero Acoustic Wind Tunnel (AAWT), the open jet tunnel at the Jacobs Drivability Test Facility (DTF) that Ford uses, and the closed jet tunnel at General Motors Aerodynamics Laboratory (GMAL). Initially, existing non-competitive aerodynamic data was compared to determine the feasibility of facility correlation. Once feasibility was established, a series of standardized tests with six vehicles were conducted at the three wind tunnels. The size and body styles of the six vehicles were selected to cover the spectrum of production vehicles produced by the three companies. All vehicles were tested at EPA loading conditions. Despite the significant differences between the three facilities, the correlation results were very good.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Modeling Study of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) under Transient and CPF Active Regeneration Conditions

In this study, a DOC catalyst was experimentally studied in an engine test cell with a2010 Cummins 6.7L ISB diesel and a production aftertreatment system. The test matrix consisted of steady state, active regeneration with in-cylinder fuel dosing and transient conditions. Conversion efficiencies of total hydrocarbon (THC), CO, and NO were quantified under each condition. A previously developed high-fidelity DOC model capable of predicting both steady state and transient active regeneration gaseous emissions was calibrated to the experimental data. The model consists of a single 1D channel where mass and energy balance equations were solved for both surface and bulk gas regions. The steady-state data were used to identify the activation energies and pre-exponential factors for CO, NO and HC oxidation, while the steady-state active regeneration data were used to identify the inhibition factors. The transient data were used to simulate the thermal response of the DOC.
Technical Paper

Tire pressure impact on structural durability tests results

During the Product Development Process, the experimental engineers try to acquire the most reliable data from Proving Grounds early on the development process, aiming to support CAE model correlation and in this way ensuring that the vehicle is capable of withstanding customer loads. Those data, from Proving Grounds, are correlated to the most severe customer's usage and public road conditions. The proposal of this paper is to analyze how tire pressure affects structural durability, since safety, performance and fuel economy were already discussed on other opportunities. Tire pressure is important because it's one variable where the customer can monitor and act and because TPMS (Tire Pressure Measurement System) is not available on most vehicles sold in the Brazilian Market,
Technical Paper

Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO₂ oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
Technical Paper

Sound Power Measurement in a Semi-Reverberant, Volume Deficient Chamber

Sound power can be determined using a variety of methods, but precision methods require the volume of the noise source to be less than 1% of the chamber volume leading to relatively large test chambers. Automotive torque converter performance and noise testing is completed in an enclosed metallic test fixture which inhibits the use of precision methods due to volume and space limitations. This paper describes a new method developed to accurately determine sound power of an automotive torque converter in a relatively small enclosure through characterization of the test environment. The test environment was characterized using two reference noise sources designed to represent torque converter noise output and physical geometry. Sound pressure levels of the sources were measured at multiple microphone locations and at three source amplitude levels to characterize the environment.
Technical Paper

Robust Methodology for Fast Crank Angle Based Temperature Measurement

The paper presents a measurement methodology which combines a fine-wire thermocouple with input reconstruction in order to measure crank angle resolved temperature in an engine air-intake system. Thermocouples that are of practical use in engine experiments tend to have a large time constant which affects measurement accuracy during rapid temperature transients. Input reconstruction methods have previously been applied to thermocouples but have not been specifically used in combination with an ultra-thin uninsulated wire thermocouple to investigate cyclic intake temperature behavior. Accurate measurement results are of interest to improve the validity of many crank-angle resolved engine models. An unshielded thermocouple sensor has been developed which is rigid enough to withstand the aerodynamic forces of the intake air.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Automotive System Fatigue Models Processed in the Time and Frequency Domain

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that frequency domain methods for calculating structural response and fatigue damage can be more widely applicable than previously thought. This will be demonstrated by comparing results of time domain vs. frequency domain approaches for a series of fatigue/durability problems with increasing complexity. These problems involve both static and dynamic behavior. Also, both single input and multiple correlated inputs are considered. And most important of all, a variety of non-stationary loading types have been used. All of the example problems investigated are typically found in the automotive industry, with measured loads from the field or from the proving ground.
Technical Paper

A Research Study on a Curved Radiator Concept for Automotive Engine Cooling

The need to increase the fuel-efficiency of modern vehicles while lowering the emission footprint is a continuous driver in automotive design. This has given rise to the use of engines with smaller displacements and higher power outputs. Compared to past engine designs, this combination generates greater amounts of excess heat which must be removed to ensure the durability of the engine. This has resulted in an increase in the number and size of the heat exchangers required to adequately cool the engine. Further, the use of smaller, more aerodynamic front-end designs has reduced the area available in the engine compartment to mount the heat exchangers. This is an issue, since the reduced engine compartment space is increasingly incapable of supporting an enlarged rectangular radiator system. Thus, this situation demands an innovative solution to aid the design of radiator systems such that the weight is reduced while maintaining the engine within acceptable operating temperatures.
Technical Paper

Vibration Fatigue for Chassis-Mounted, Cantilevered Components

Vehicle chassis mounted cantilevered components should meet two critical design targets: 1) NVH criterion to avoid resonance with road noise and engine vibration and 2) satisfied durability performance to avoid any incident in structure failure and dysfunction. Generally, two types of testing are performed to validate chassis mounted cantilevered component in the design process: shaker table testing and vehicle proving ground testing. Shaker table testing is a powered vibration endurance test performed with load input summarized from real proving ground data and accurate enough to replicate the physical test. The proving ground test is typically performed at critical milestones with full vehicles. Most tests are simplified lab testing to save cost and effort. CAE procedures that virtually replicate these lab tests is even more helpful in the design verification stages.
Technical Paper

Criteria for Predicting Skid Line by Simulation

The risk of skid lines for Class A panels has to be assessed before releasing the die development for hard tooling. Criteria are needed to predict skid lines in the formability evaluation stage to avoid expensive changes to tooling and process for resolving skid line issue in production. In this study, criteria using three different measured parameters were developed and validated. A draw-stretch-draw (DSD) test procedure was developed to generate skid lines on lab samples for the physical evaluation. This was done using tooling with various die entry radii and different draw beads. The skid line severity of lab samples was rated by specialists in the inspection of automotive outer panel surface quality. The skid line rating was correlated with geometric measurements of the lab samples after the DSD test. The sensitivity of the appearance of skid lines to tooling and process parameter variations was identified.
Technical Paper

Development of a Commercial Truck Parabolic Leaf Spring Using CAE Simulation with Correlated Experimental Stress Analysis Results

The development costs that new design requires are subject to everyday discussions and saving opportunities are mandatory. Using CAE to predict design changes can avoid excessive costs with prototypes parts, considering the high reliability those current mathematical models can provide. This paper presents the methodology used during the development of a parabolic leaf spring for the rear suspension of a commercial truck, considering mainly the parabolic profiles and stress distribution on the leaves, calculated using CAE software (ANSYS) and experimental tests to measure the actual stress on each leaf, certifying the correlation between computational calculations and real stress on the parts during bench and vehicle evaluations.