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Technical Paper

Comparison of BIOSID and EUROSID-1 Dummies in Full-Vehicle Crash Tests

As a continuation of the AAMA side impact test procedure evaluation, the Association conducted six full-vehicle crash tests according to the NHTSA FMVSS 214 test procedure, but using a EUROSID-1 dummy for the NHTSA SID. The purpose of these tests was to evaluate the EUROSID-1 dummy and compare its responses to the BIOSID dummies previously tested by AAMA under identical conditions. Repeat tests of mid-size Pontiac vehicles with padded and unpadded door interiors were run. The tests showed that the EUROSID-1 dummy chest deflection and Viscous Criterion responses are not repeatable, especially in the rear seat. In addition, it was found that the EUROSID-1 and BIOSID chest deflection responses were different and, sometimes, are directionally opposite.
Technical Paper

Biofidelity of Anthropomorphic Test Devices for Rear Impact

This study examines the biofidelity, repeatability, and reproducibility of various anthropomorphic devices in rear impacts. The Hybrid III, the Hybrid III with the RID neck, and the TAD-50 were tested in a rigid bench condition in rear impacts with ΔVs of 16 and 24 kph. The results of the tests were then compared to the data of Mertz and Patrick[1]. At a AV of 16 kph, all three anthropomorphic devices showed general agreement with Mertz and Patrick's data [1]. At a AV of 24 kph, the RID neck tended to exhibit larger discrepancies than the other two anthropomorphic devices. Also, two different RID necks produced significantly different moments at the occipital condyles under similar test conditions. The Hybrid III and the Hybrid III with the RID neck were also tested on standard production seats in rear impacts for a AV of 8 kph. Both the kinematics and the occupant responses of the Hybrid III and the Hybrid III with the RID neck differed from each other.
Technical Paper

Side Impact Modeling using Quasi-Static Crush Data

This paper describes the development of a three-dimensional lumped-mass structure and dummy model to study barrier-to-car side impacts. The test procedures utilized to develop model input data are also described. The model results are compared to crash test results from a series of six barrier-to-car crash tests. Sensitivity analysis using the validated model show the necessity to account for dynamic structural rate effects when using quasi-statically measured vehicle crush data.
Technical Paper

Status and Update of MVMA Component Testing

At the Tenth ESV Conference, MVMA reported on the development of a component side impact test device developed for MVMA by MGA Research Corporation. Since that time, the test device has been modified by MGA to improve its biofidelity. Testing has shown that the modified device better meets the force-time corridors derived by MVMA from cadaver drop test data. The improved test device was used to test twelve 1985 Ford LTD doors at speeds of 25.7 and 37 km/h. The interior door surfaces were trimmed with either thin fiber board or foam padding identical to doors in vehicles tested by MVMA using NHTSA's full-vehicle test procedure. The tests showed that the MVMA device is simple to set up and run, is highly repeatable and easily discriminates between the unpadded and padded doors. A major issue for future research and development is how to select a priori a component test device impact speed which can account for differences in car size and side structure stiffness.
Technical Paper

CAE Predictions for Cardan Joint Induced Driveline NVH

Automotive vehicles equipped with Cardan joints may experience low frequency vehicle launch shudder vibration (5-30Hz) and high frequency driveline moan vibration (80-200Hz) under working angles and speeds. The Cardan joint introduces a 2nd order driveshaft speed variation and a 4th order joint articulation torque (JAT) causing the vehicle shudder and moan NVH issues. Research on the Cardan joint induced low frequency vehicle shudder using a Multi-Body System (MBS) method has been attempted. A comprehensive MBS method to predict Cardan joint induced high frequency driveline moan vibration is yet to be developed. This paper presents a hybrid MBS and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) approach to predict Cardan joint induced high frequency driveshaft moan vibration. The CAE method considers the elastically coupled driveshaft bending and engine block vibration due to Cardan joint excitation.
Technical Paper

Pedestrian Head Impact Time Estimate based on Vehicle Geometric Parameters

Pedestrian protection assessment methods require multiple head impact tests on a vehicle’s hood and other front end parts. Hood surfaces are often lifted up by using pyrotechnic devices to create more deformation space prior to pedestrian head impact. Assessment methods for vehicles equipped with pyrotechnic devices must also validate that the hood deployment occurs prior to head impact event. Estimation of pedestrian head impact time, thus, becomes a critical requirement for performance validation of deployable hood systems. In absence of standardized physical pedestrian models, Euro NCAP recommends a list of virtual pedestrian models that could be used by vehicle manufacturers, with vehicle FEA (Finite Element Analysis) models, to predict the potential head impact time along the vehicle front end profile. FEA simulated contact time is used as target for performance validation of sensor and pyrotechnic deployable systems.
Technical Paper

Folded Pelvis-Thorax Side Airbag Modeling with CFD Approach and Implementation in Full Vehicle Crash Analysis

The Pelvis-Thorax Side Air Bag (PTSAB) is a typical restraint countermeasure offered for protection of occupants in the vehicle during side impact tests. Currently, the dynamic performance of PTSAB for occupant injury assessment in side impact is limited to full-vehicle evaluation and sled testing, with limited capability in computer aided engineering (CAE). The widely used CAE method for PTSAB is a flat bag with uniform pressure. The flat PTSAB model with uniform pressure has limitations because of its inability to capture airbag deployment during gap closure which results in reduced accuracy while predicting occupant responses. Hence there is a need to develop CAE capability to enhance the accuracy of prediction of occupant responses to meet performance targets in regulatory and public domain side impact tests. This paper describes a new CAE methodology for assessment of PTSAB in side impact.
Technical Paper

Acetabulum Injury Investigation of Proposed US-NCAP in OI Mode

In December 2015, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published a Request for Comments on proposed changes to the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP). One potential change is the addition of a frontal oblique impact (OI) crash test using the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR). The resultant acetabulum force, which is a unique and specifically defined in the THOR dummy, will be considered as a new injury metric. In this study, the results of ten OI tests conducted by NHTSA on current production mid-sized vehicles were investigated. Specifically, the test data was used to study the lower extremity kinematics for the driver and front passenger THOR dummies. It was found that the acetabulum force patterns varied between the driver and passenger and between the left leg and the right leg of the occupants. The maximum acetabulum force can occur either on the left side or right side of a driver or a front passenger in an OI event.
Technical Paper

The Impact Behavior of the Hybrid II Dummy

The head, chest and femurs of three Hybrid II dummies were impacted with a ballistic pendulum at various angles to determine what differences in accelerometer and femur load cell output would result for a constant energy input. Also evaluated were suspicious tension loads in the femur load cell output when the legs were subjected to obvious off-center impacts during crash tests. It was found that the dummy legs can be subjected to very high torsion and bending loads which can have a significant effect on the femur load cell axial load outputs.
Technical Paper

Frontal Impact Rear Seatbelt Load Marks: An In-Depth Analysis

Forensic evidence left behind in the form of markings on the seatbelt system can reveal details of how the belt system was being used and how it performed in a collision. Information about how belt systems are being used and how they perform in the field is useful to the design engineer, but interpreting this forensic evidence can be very difficult. Most studies to date have looked at the evidence left behind after a collision simply to determine if the seat belt was being used. This study undertakes the next step and addresses the question of how the belt system was being used. Test data is also presented to allow investigators to determine if the retractor locked and remained locked during the collision or if it spooled out during the collision. The results of 22 HYGE sled tests were analyzed to investigate the types and patterns of marks left behind.
Technical Paper

Use of Body Mount Stiffness and Damping In CAE Crash Modeling

This paper reports a study of the dynamic characteristics of body mounts in body on frame vehicles and their effects on structural and occupant CAE results. The body mount stiffness and damping are computed from spring-damper models and component test results. The model parameters are converted to those used in the full vehicle structural model to simulate the vehicle crash performance. An effective body mount in a CAE crash model requires a set of coordinated damping and stiffness to transfer the frame pulse to the body. The ability of the pulse transfer, defined as transient transmissibility[1]1, is crucial in the early part of the crash pulse prediction using a structural model such as Radioss[2]. Traditionally, CAE users input into the model the force-deflection data of the body mount obtained from the component and/or full vehicle tests. In this practice, the body mount in the CAE model is essentially represented by a spring with the prescribed force-deflection data.
Technical Paper

A Study of Crash Energy and Severity in Frontal Vehicle-To-Vehicle Crash Tests

This work presents a study of crash energy and severity in frontal offset Vehicle-To-Vehicle (VTV) crash tests. The crash energy is analyzed based on analytical formulations and empirical data. Also, the crash severity of different VTV tests is analyzed and compared with the corresponding full frontal rigid barrier test data. In this investigation, the Barrier Equivalent Velocity (BEV) concept is used to calculate the initial impact velocity of frontal offset VTV test modes such that the offset VTV tests are equivalent to full frontal impact tests in terms of crash severity. Linear spring-mass model and collinear impact assumptions are used to develop the mathematical formulation. A scale factor is introduced to account for these assumptions and the calculated initial velocity is adjusted by this scale factor. It is demonstrated that the energies due to lateral and rotational velocity components are very small in the analyzed frontal VTV tests.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Analysis of Knee Impact in Frontal Collisions through Finite Element Simulations with a Full Human Body Model

This study applies a detailed finite element model of the human body to simulate occupant knee impacts experienced in vehicular frontal crashes. The human body model includes detailed anatomical features of the head, neck, chest, thoracic and lumbar spine, abdomen, and lower and upper extremities. The material properties used in the model for each anatomic part of the human body were obtained from test data reported in the literature. The total human body model used in the current study has been previously validated in frontal and side impacts. Several cadaver knee impact tests representing occupants in a frontal impact condition were simulated using the previously validated human body model. Model impact responses in terms of force-time and acceleration-time histories were compared with test results. In addition, stress distributions of the patella, femur, and pelvis were reported for the simulated test conditions.
Technical Paper

Biomechanics of 4-Point Seat Belt Systems in Farside Impacts

The biomechanical behavior of a harness style 4-point seat belt system in farside impacts was investigated through dummy and post mortem human subject tests. Specifically, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the inboard shoulder belt portion of a 4-point seat belt on the risk of vertebral and soft-tissue neck injuries during simulated farside impacts. Two series of sled tests simulating farside impacts were completed with crash dummies of different sizes, masses and designs to determine the forces and moments on the neck associated with loading of the shoulder belt. The tests were also performed to help determine the appropriate dummy to use in further testing. The BioSID and SID-IIs reasonably simulated the expected kinematics response and appeared to be reasonable dummies to use for further testing. Analysis also showed that dummy injury measures were lower than injury assessment reference values used in development of side impact airbags.
Technical Paper

Using Engine as Torsional Shaker for Vehicle Sensitivity Refinement at Idle Conditions

Vehicle idle quality has become an increasing quality concern for automobile manufacturers because of its impact on customer satisfaction. There are two factors that critical to vehicle idle quality, the engine excitation force and vehicle sensitivity (transfer function). To better understand the contribution to the idle quality from these two factors and carry out well-planned improvement measures, a quick and easy way to measure vehicle sensitivity at idle conditions is desired. There are several different ways to get vehicle sensitivity at idle conditions. A typical way is to use CAE. One of the biggest advantages using CAE is that it can separate vehicle sensitivities to different forcing inputs. As always, the CAE results need to be validated before being fully utilized. Another way to get vehicle sensitivity is through impact test using impact hammer or shaker. However this method doesn't include the mount preload due to engine firing torque [3, 4, & 5].
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Component Rollover Crash Test System

Full vehicle dynamic crash tests are commonly used in the development of rollover detection sensors, algorithms and occupant protection systems. However, many published studies have utilized component level rollover test fixtures for rollover related occupant kinematics studies and restraint system evaluation and development. A majority of these fixtures attempted to replicate only the rotational motion that occurs during the free flight phase of a typical full vehicle rollover crash test. In this paper, a description of the methods used to design a new dynamic component rollover test device is presented. A brief summary of several existing rollover component test methods is included. The new system described in this paper is capable of replicating the transfer of lateral energy into rotational vehicle motion that is present in many tripped laboratory based rollover crash tests.
Technical Paper

Image Analysis of Rollover Crash Tests Using Photogrammetry

This paper presents an image analysis of a laboratory-based rollover crash test using camera-matching photogrammetry. The procedures pertaining to setup, analysis and data process used in this method are outlined. Vehicle roll angle and rate calculated using the method are presented and compared to the measured values obtained using a vehicle mounted angular rate sensor. Areas for improvement, accuracy determination, and vehicle kinematics analysis are discussed. This paper concludes that the photogrammetric method presented is a useful tool to extract vehicle roll angle data from test video. However, development of a robust post-processing tool for general application to crash safety analysis requires further exploration.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Spot Weld under Impact Loading and Its Effect on Crash Simulation

Spot weld is the primary joining method to assemble the automotive body structure. In any crash events some separation of spot-welds can be expected. However, if this happens in critical areas of the vehicle it can potentially affect the integrity of the structure. It will be beneficial to identify such issues through CAE simulation before prototypes are built and tested. This paper reports a spot weld modeling methodology to characterize spot weld separation and its application in full vehicle crash simulation. A generalized two-node spring element with 6 DOF at each node is used to model the spot weld. Separation of spot welds is modeled using three alternative rupture criteria defined in terms of peak force, displacement and energy. Component level crash tests are conducted using VIA sled at various impact speeds to determine mean crush load and identify possible separation of welds.
Technical Paper

Modal and Impact Simulations of a Tire in Time Domain

Tires are a key factor determining vehicle NVH performance. Tire models are usually reduced to linear modal models in the frequency domain even though the tire behaves nonlinearly in vibration and impact performance. Improving the CAE capability of vehicle NVH prediction requires an appropriately representative tire model and finite element analysis program capable of non-linear transient analysis. In this paper a detailed tire model of solid elements has been developed. Using an explicit integration finite element program, the nonlinear effects in tire modal extractions were studied. The finite element model tire was inflated and preloaded against a flat platform with applied impulse loads to simulate the laboratory tire hammer impact tests. The tire modes in each direction were then extracted with fast Fourier transformation to compare with traditional finite element method generated modes and vehicle NVH test data.