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Technical Paper

Forward Collision Warning: Preliminary Requirements for Crash Alert Timing

2001-03-05
2001-01-0462
Forward collision warning (FCW) systems are intended to provide drivers with crash alerts to help them avoid or mitigate rear-end crashes. To facilitate successful deployment of FCW systems, the Ford-GM Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership (CAMP) developed preliminary minimum functional requirements for FCW systems implemented on light vehicles (passenger cars, light trucks, and vans). This paper summarizes one aspect of the CAMP results: minimum requirements and recommendations for when to present rear-end crash alerts to the driver. These requirements are valid over a set of kinematic conditions that are described, and assume successful tracking and identification of a legitimate crash threat. The results are based on extensive closed-course human factors testing that studied drivers' last-second braking preferences and capabilities. The paper reviews the human factors testing, modeling of results, and the computation of FCW crash alert timing requirements and recommendations.
Technical Paper

Child Injuries & Fatalities - Who is Behind the Wheel?

2001-03-05
2001-01-1305
Recent crash data was used to evaluate the safety performance of drivers who transport children. The age difference between drivers and children was found to be an important predictor of crash-related driving behavior and choices. Also, certain driver behaviors and choices when transporting children were identified as creating elevated risk. This study provides information that parents might use to reduce risk when their children are riding with other drivers. The results may also be of interest to professionals concerned with graduated licensing and the establishment and enforcement of laws relating to child endangerment such as drinking and driving with child passengers.
Technical Paper

Current and Past Technologies for Headliners Including Acoustics, Recycling and Safety

1998-02-23
980951
Headliner technology will be presented in this paper. Older established technologies such as cut & score, fiberglass, hardboard and resinated cotton are still used because of their proven reliability and low cost. But newer processes including polyester, natural fiber, Tramivex™ and urethane offer reliability, structure, acoustic performance and some recyclability. Fiberglass has always been a leader in acoustical performance but has breakage and handability issues in the assembly plants. This paper will be divided in four sections. The first section discusses manufacturing processes for headliners covering current and past. It also covers the materials used and types of facing. This section will state why headliner technology used in the USA is different than Europe or emerging markets. Second section describes acoustics. It will explain performance as related to material types. Porosity, cell type, fiber length and diameter is explained as it relates to the absorption of sound.
Technical Paper

A Constitutive Model for Polyurethane Foams with Strain-Rate and Temperature Effects

1998-02-23
980967
This paper describes the testing and constitutive model development of polyurethane foams for characterization of their material dynamic properties. These properties are needed not only for understanding their behavior, but also for supplying essential input data to foam models, which help provide design directions through simulations of foam selection for cushioning occupant head impacts against the vehicle door and upper interior. Polyurethane foams of varying densities were tested statically and dynamically under uniaxial compressive impact loading at constant velocities of various rates and different temperatures. The test results were utilized for developing a constitutive model of polyurethane foams by taking the density, strain rate and temperature effects into consideration. Uniaxial constitutive models are developed in two ways.
Technical Paper

Role of the Body Mount on the Passenger Compartment Response of a Frame/Body Structured Vehicle in Frontal Crash

1998-02-23
980861
A comprehensive strategy to investigate the role of the body mounts on the passenger compartment response in a frontal crash event is presented. The activities of the study include quasi-static vehicle crush testing, development of a component-level dynamic body mount test methodology, lumped-mass computer modeling, as well as technical analysis. In addition, a means of investigating the effects the body mounts have on the passenger compartment response during a frontal barrier impact is addressed.
Technical Paper

Comparison of BIOSID and EUROSID-1 Dummies in Full-Vehicle Crash Tests

1994-03-01
940563
As a continuation of the AAMA side impact test procedure evaluation, the Association conducted six full-vehicle crash tests according to the NHTSA FMVSS 214 test procedure, but using a EUROSID-1 dummy for the NHTSA SID. The purpose of these tests was to evaluate the EUROSID-1 dummy and compare its responses to the BIOSID dummies previously tested by AAMA under identical conditions. Repeat tests of mid-size Pontiac vehicles with padded and unpadded door interiors were run. The tests showed that the EUROSID-1 dummy chest deflection and Viscous Criterion responses are not repeatable, especially in the rear seat. In addition, it was found that the EUROSID-1 and BIOSID chest deflection responses were different and, sometimes, are directionally opposite.
Technical Paper

Side Impact Modeling using Quasi-Static Crush Data

1991-02-01
910601
This paper describes the development of a three-dimensional lumped-mass structure and dummy model to study barrier-to-car side impacts. The test procedures utilized to develop model input data are also described. The model results are compared to crash test results from a series of six barrier-to-car crash tests. Sensitivity analysis using the validated model show the necessity to account for dynamic structural rate effects when using quasi-statically measured vehicle crush data.
Technical Paper

Status and Update of MVMA Component Testing

1987-05-01
871116
At the Tenth ESV Conference, MVMA reported on the development of a component side impact test device developed for MVMA by MGA Research Corporation. Since that time, the test device has been modified by MGA to improve its biofidelity. Testing has shown that the modified device better meets the force-time corridors derived by MVMA from cadaver drop test data. The improved test device was used to test twelve 1985 Ford LTD doors at speeds of 25.7 and 37 km/h. The interior door surfaces were trimmed with either thin fiber board or foam padding identical to doors in vehicles tested by MVMA using NHTSA's full-vehicle test procedure. The tests showed that the MVMA device is simple to set up and run, is highly repeatable and easily discriminates between the unpadded and padded doors. A major issue for future research and development is how to select a priori a component test device impact speed which can account for differences in car size and side structure stiffness.
Technical Paper

Considerations for Head-Injury Categorization via NASS Analysis

2017-03-28
2017-01-1430
The present study had three objectives: (1) define a reasonable number of categories to bin head injuries, (2) develop an overarching risk function to estimate head-injury probability based on injury probabilities pertaining to those subordinate categories, and (3) assess the fidelity of both the overarching function and approximations to it. To achieve these objectives, we used real-world data from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS), pertaining to adult drivers in full-engagement frontal crashes. To provide practical value, we factored the proposed US New Car Assessment Program (US NCAP) and the corresponding Request for Comments from the government. Finally, the NASS data stratifications included three levels of injury (AIS1+, AIS2+, AIS3+), two levels of restraint (properly-belted, unbelted), and two eras based on driver-airbag fitment (Older Vehicles, Newer Vehicles).
Technical Paper

A Self-Adapting Passenger Airbag for the USNCAP

2017-03-28
2017-01-1446
A dual-chambered passenger airbag was developed for the 2011 USNCAP to minimize neck loading for the belted 5th female dummy while restraining the unbelted 50th dummy for FMVSS208. This unique, patented design adaptively controlled venting between chambers based on occupant stature. A patented pressure-responsive vent on the second chamber permitted aspiration into the second chamber before a delayed outflow to the environment. The delayed flow through the pressure-responsive vent from the second chamber acted like a pressure-limiting membrane vent to advantageously reduce the injury assessment values for the HIC and the Nij for the 5th female dummy.
Technical Paper

Pedestrian Head Impact Time Estimate based on Vehicle Geometric Parameters

2017-03-28
2017-01-1453
Pedestrian protection assessment methods require multiple head impact tests on a vehicle’s hood and other front end parts. Hood surfaces are often lifted up by using pyrotechnic devices to create more deformation space prior to pedestrian head impact. Assessment methods for vehicles equipped with pyrotechnic devices must also validate that the hood deployment occurs prior to head impact event. Estimation of pedestrian head impact time, thus, becomes a critical requirement for performance validation of deployable hood systems. In absence of standardized physical pedestrian models, Euro NCAP recommends a list of virtual pedestrian models that could be used by vehicle manufacturers, with vehicle FEA (Finite Element Analysis) models, to predict the potential head impact time along the vehicle front end profile. FEA simulated contact time is used as target for performance validation of sensor and pyrotechnic deployable systems.
Technical Paper

Folded Pelvis-Thorax Side Airbag Modeling with CFD Approach and Implementation in Full Vehicle Crash Analysis

2017-03-28
2017-01-1460
The Pelvis-Thorax Side Air Bag (PTSAB) is a typical restraint countermeasure offered for protection of occupants in the vehicle during side impact tests. Currently, the dynamic performance of PTSAB for occupant injury assessment in side impact is limited to full-vehicle evaluation and sled testing, with limited capability in computer aided engineering (CAE). The widely used CAE method for PTSAB is a flat bag with uniform pressure. The flat PTSAB model with uniform pressure has limitations because of its inability to capture airbag deployment during gap closure which results in reduced accuracy while predicting occupant responses. Hence there is a need to develop CAE capability to enhance the accuracy of prediction of occupant responses to meet performance targets in regulatory and public domain side impact tests. This paper describes a new CAE methodology for assessment of PTSAB in side impact.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Impact of Nozzle Endwall Clearance Distribution on Variable Nozzle Turbine Performance

2017-03-28
2017-01-1034
As the variable nozzle turbine(VNT) becomes an important element in engine fuel economy and engine performance, improvement of turbine efficiency over wide operation range is the main focus of research efforts for both academia and industry in the past decades. It is well known that in a VNT, the nozzle endwall clearance has a big impact on the turbine efficiency, especially at small nozzle open positions. However, the clearance at hub and shroud wall sides may contribute differently to the turbine efficiency penalty. When the total height of nozzle clearance is fixed, varying distribution of nozzle endwall clearance at the hub and shroud sides may possibly generate different patterns of clearance leakage flow at nozzle exit that has different interaction with and impact on the main flow when it enters the inducer.
Technical Paper

Real-time Crash Detection and Its Application in Incident Reporting and Accident Reconstruction

2017-03-28
2017-01-1419
Characterizing or reconstructing incidents ranging from light to heavy crashes is one of the enablers for mobility solutions for fleet management, car-sharing, ride-hailing, insurance etc. While crashes involving airbag deployment are noticeable, light crashes without airbag deployment can be hidden and most drivers do not report these incidents. In this paper, we are using vehicle responses together with a dynamics model to trace back if abnormal forces have been applied to a vehicle so as to detect light crashes. The crash location around the perimeter of the vehicle, the direction of the crash force, and the severity of the crashes are all determined in real-time based on on-board sensor measurements which has further application in accident reconstruction. All of this information will be integrated to a feature called “Incident Report”, which enable reporting of minor accidents to the relevant entities such as insurance agencies, fleet managements, etc.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Implementation and Validation for Automated Path Following Lateral Control Using Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) Simulation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1683
Software for autonomous vehicles is highly complex and requires vast amount of vehicle testing to achieve a certain level of confidence in safety, quality and reliability. According to the RAND Corporation, a 100 vehicle fleet running 24 hours a day 365 days a year at a speed of 40 km/hr, would require 17 billion driven kilometers of testing and take 518 years to fully validate the software with 95% confidence such that its failure rate would be 20% better than the current human driver fatality rate [1]. In order to reduce cost and time to accelerate autonomous software development, Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation is used to supplement vehicle testing. For autonomous vehicles, path following controls are an integral part for achieving lateral control. Combining the aforementioned concepts, this paper focuses on a real-time implementation of a path-following lateral controller, developed by Freund and Mayr [2].
Technical Paper

The Causal Relationship between Wheel Rim Gouging Forces on Roadway Surfaces and Rollover Crashes

2018-04-03
2018-01-0556
There has been a general consensus in the scientific literature that a rim gouging, not scraping, into a roadway surface generates very high forces which can cause a vehicle to overturn in some situations. However, a paper published in 2004 attempts to minimize the forces created during wheel rim gouging and the effect on vehicle rollover. This paper relied largely on heavily filtered lateral acceleration data and discounted additional test runs by the authors and NHTSA that did not support the supposed conclusions. This paper will discuss the effect of rim gouging using accepted scientific methods, including full vehicle testing where vehicle accelerations were measured during actual rim gouging events and static testing of side forces exerted by wheels mounted on a moving test fixture. The data analyzed in this paper clearly shows that forces created by rim gouges on pavement can be thousands of Newtons and can contribute to vehicle rollover.
Technical Paper

Computer Animation of the Crash Victim

1964-10-21
640842
A computer program was written to take the crash dynamics sequence obtained from a computer-simulation model, and “draw” the corresponding animated manikin on the computer cathode-ray tube. The series of momentary solutions is repeatedly photographed on 16 mm film and then projected at movie speed. The result is a “slow-motion” animation showing the motions of the simulated victim during the crash sequence.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Side Impact Using the CAL3D Occupant Simulation Model

1979-02-01
791007
By applying some advanced features of the CAL3D occupant simulation model, a single model incorporating the vehicle structure and a simplified occupant was developed for studying the sensitivity of occupant response to parameter changes in perpendicular, vehicle-to-vehicle side impacts, not involving vehicle rotation. The results of the model show qualitative agreement with published experimental results, which indicate that occupant responses are related to the initial clearance of the occupant from the door, the stiffnesses of the front end of the impacting vehicle, and the side structure of the impacted vehicle.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Approach to Analysis of Crash Sensor Performance

2009-04-20
2009-01-0372
Understanding the variation in the deployment times for crash sensor systems is important to ensure robust performance of a crash sensor system. Increases in both the numbers of crash modes and deployable devices have reduced the margins for the decisions about when to deploy any given device. Currently, the industry practice is to run a sweep over the potential sources of variation, recording the minimum and maximum deployment time. Questions such as: “How often do the extremes occur?” or “Are there multiple peaks in the deployment time?” can not be answered. This work uses numerical analysis methods to build on the current sweep methodology to obtain information on the distribution of the deployment times so that questions such as these can be answered when evaluating sensor calibrations. The end result is better informed engineering decisions during the calibration development.
Technical Paper

Initial Assessment of the Next-Generation USA Frontal NCAP: Fidelity of Various Risk Curves for Estimating Field Injury Rates of Belted Drivers

2009-04-20
2009-01-0386
Various frontal impact risk curves were assessed for the next-generation USA New Car Assessment Program (NCAP). Specifically, the “NCAP risk curves” — those chosen by the government for the 2011 model year NCAP — as well as other published risk curves were used to estimate theoretically the injury rates of belted drivers in real-world frontal crashes. Two perspectives were considered: (1) a “point” estimate of NCAP-type events from NCAP fleet tests, and (2) an “aggregate” estimate of 0 ≤ ΔV ≤ 56 km/h crashes from a modeled theoretical vehicle whose NCAP performance approximated the average of the studied fleet. Four body regions were considered: head, neck, chest, and knee-thigh-hip complex (KTH). The curve-based injury rates for each body region were compared with those of real-world frontal crashes involving properly-belted adult drivers in airbag-equipped light passenger vehicles. The assessment yielded mixed results.
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