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Technical Paper

The Effects of Natural Aging on Fleet and Durability Vehicle Engine Mounts from a Dynamic Characterization Perspective

Elastomers are traditionally designed for use in applications that require specific mechanical properties. Unfortunately, these properties change with respect to many different variables including heat, light, fatigue, oxygen, ozone, and the catalytic effects of trace elements. When elastomeric mounts are designed for NVH use in vehicles, they are designed to isolate specific unwanted frequencies. As the elastomers age however, the desired elastomeric properties may have changed with time. This study looks at the variability seen in new vehicle engine mounts and how the dynamic properties change with respect to miles accumulated on fleet and durability test vehicles.
Technical Paper

Moving Toward Worldwide Standardization of Environmental and Reliability Testing Practices for Automotive Electrical and Electronic Equipment SAE Reliability Standards Committee Objective No. 3 Environmental Factors Subcommittee

Globalization of the automotive industry is having significant impact on testing of electrical and electronic equipment. Organizations that previously operated in single-customer, local and national environments are now involved in joint ventures, worldwide engineering programs and/or multiple-customer contracts. Reconciliation of differences in test requirements between all concerned parties is a tedious task which unfortunately can end in the specification of redundant, insufficient and/or inappropriate testing. To address this issue the SAE Reliability Standards Committee has established Objective No. 3. This objective includes the development of three SAE Recommended Practices designed to facilitate harmonization of environmental and reliability testing practices worldwide.
Technical Paper

A Framework for Reliable and Durable Product Design

In this paper, a simplified and systematic approach to integrate reliability and durability aspects in design process is presented. A six step process is explained with the help of examples. Two alternatives for gathering means and standard deviations for key parameters are discussed. First a DOE approach based on orthogonal arrays is presented. Second approach is based on Taylor Series expansion. An example of beam design is solved with both of these approaches. The Second example also considers the degradation with time in service.
Technical Paper

The Application of Experimental Design Method to Brake Induced Vehicle Vibrations

Vehicle sensitivity to brake induced vehicle vibration has been one of the key factors impacting overall vehicle quality. This directly affects long term customer satisfaction. The objective of this investigation is to understand the sensitivities of a given suspension, and steering system with respect to brake induced vehicle vibration, and develop possible solutions to this problem. Design of experiment methods have been used for this chassis system sensitivity study. The advantage of applying the design of experiment methodology is that it facilitates an understanding of the interactions between the hardware components and the sensitivity of the system due to the component change. The results of this investigation have indicated that the friction of suspension joints may affect vehicle system response significantly.
Technical Paper

Light Truck Stabilizer Bar Attachment Non-linear Fatigue Analysis

The stabilizer bar attachments problem can not be simply analyzed by using linear FEA methodology. The large deformation in the bushing, the elastic-plastic material property in the bushing retainer bracket, and the contact between different parts all add complexity to the problem and result in the need for an analysis method using a non-linear code, such as ABAQUS. The material properties of the bushing were experimentally determined and applied to the CAE model. It was found that using strains to estimate the fatigue life was more accurate and reliable than using stress. Many modeling techniques used in this analysis were able to improve analysis efficiency.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Deep Data: A Case Study in Robust Scalable Data Collection

Onboard, embedded cellular modems are enabling a range of new connectivity features in vehicles and rich, real-time data set transmissions from a vehicle’s internal network up to a cloud database are of particular interest. However, there is far too much information in a vehicle’s electrical state for every vehicle to upload all of its data in real-time. We are thus concerned with which data is uploaded and how that data is processed, structured, stored, and reported. Existing onboard data processing algorithms (e.g. for DTC detection) are hardcoded into critical vehicle firmware, limited in scope and cannot be reconfigured on the fly. Since many use cases for vehicle data analytics are still unknown, we require a system which is capable of efficiently processing and reporting vehicle deep data in real-time, such that data reporting can be switched on/off during normal vehicle operation, and that processing/reporting can be reconfigured remotely.
Technical Paper

Human-Centered Measurement Scales in Automotive Product Development

There is a strong business case for automotive companies to improve by understanding what consumers want, like and dislike. Various aspects of ergonomics such as reach, visibility, usability, feel are dependent on measuring consumer’s ability, opinions and satisfaction. Rating scales (such as adjective, continuous, logarithmic, etc.) are used to measure these complex attitudes. It is essential the correct rating scale and appropriate analysis methods are used to capture these attitudes. Previous psychology research has been conducted on the performance of different rating scales. This ratings scale research focused on scales and their reliability and validity for various applications. This paper will summarize past research, discuss the use of rating scales specific to vehicle ergonomics, and analyze the results of an automotive interface study that correlates the seven-point adjective rating scale to the system usability score (SUS).
Technical Paper

Impact of Pre-Study Exploration on System Usability Scale and Task Success Rates for Automotive Interfaces

Measurement of usability with the System Usability Scale (SUS) is successfully applied to products in many industries. The benefit of any measurement scale, however, is limited by the repeatability of the associated testing process. For SUS, these factors can include sample size, study protocol, previous experience, and pre study exposure to the system being tested. Differences in user exposure can influence the usability assessment of interfaces which could affect the validity of SUS scores.
Technical Paper

The 1970 Ford Dual Circuit Air Brake System

The braking system presented in this article represents a new and forward thinking philosophy regarding commercial vehicle air brake systems. A concept that provides responsive service and emergency brake applications with optimum vehicle control, by the same driver action on the brake pedal. The uniqueness of the total system, and each circuit's function thereof, is explained in basic detail. In addition, the engineering, quality control, and assembly techniques to manufacture the vehicle with assurance that design intent is achieved, are discussed.
Technical Paper

Proposed Reliability Prediction Method for Electronic Modules in Automotive Applications

This paper discusses two models for predicting reliability for electronic modules in automotive applications. Both of these models were developed on data submitted by members of the Electronics Reliability Subcommittee of the SAE. The data base includes no military data (automotive data only) and in that sense the two models are new in the industry. The authors also present guidelines for use of both of the models as well as comments on results achieved by several subcommittee members when comparing the effectiveness of the models to available life data for several example modules. The format of the two models is similar to those used in MIL-HDBK-217, although these models lack in detail due to data base limitations.
Technical Paper

Computational Requirements for Powertrain Analytical Simulations

Finite element simulations of powertrain assemblies and components such as an engine block, transmission case, and structural oil pan, are regularly carried out at Ford Motor Company to provide directions for design improvements relevant to durability, minimum weight, noise and vibration characteristics. This paper presents hands-on experience with analyses of two powertrains in terms of computational strategies and resource requirements. The course of future analysis work in the light of current developments in computer technology, is also presented.
Technical Paper

Regression Model application in Six Sigma Projects

Six Sigma represents a mindset change – part of this mindset, is to focus our decision based on data, looking for the root causes of our issues instead of acting on the effects of the causes. Aligned to this statement, the purpose of this paper is to present through a case study, how the concepts of Six Sigma – a data driven mindset, can be used to improve a process, reducing waste and keeping the same standards of quality. The focus is to show how a transfer function, generated through a multiple regression can optimize a production process, reducing waste and improving quality.
Technical Paper

The Handling of Non-Uniform Parts and Peak Hand Forces

Due to the challenges in quantifying hand loads in manufacturing environments it is often assumed that the load is evenly distributed between the hands, even when handling parts with non-uniform mass distribution. This study estimated hand loads for six female subjects, when handling a custom part in 8 different configurations (2 weights, 4 CofM locations). The calculated hand loads varied from 20 to 50% of the weight being handled. The magnitude of asymmetrical hand loading depended on both the part orientation and the location of the CoM. Based on this study the knowledge of part weight, CofM location and hand positioning will allow the users of digital human models to perform more realistic and reliable task analysis assessments as the force distributions will be more representative of the actual loading rather than simply assuming the load is evenly distributed between the hands.
Technical Paper

Shudder Durability of a Wet Launch Clutch Part I – Thermal Study and Development of Durability Test Profile

Under the initiative of the United States Council for Automotive Research LLC (USCAR§) Transmission Working Group, a collaborative effort was made with LuK USA LLC to study the influence of the friction interface parameters on the shudder durability of a wet launch clutch. A test bench was designed. Clutch configurations with different combinations of four friction materials (A, B, C and D), three groove patterns (waffle, radial and waffle–parallel) and two separator plate conditions (nitrided and non–nitrided) were considered. Considerable improvement in performance was seen by changing from CVT fluid* to DCT fluid*. A thermal analysis based on thermal model predictions and measurement correlations was conducted. Comparisons of clutch configurations with four and five friction plates were done. The waffle and radial groove pattern showed better heat transfer than the waffle–parallel groove pattern.
Technical Paper

The Use of Discrete Wavelet Transform in Road Loads Signals Compression

Wavelets are a powerful mathematical tool used to multi-resolution time-frequency decomposition of signals, in order to analyze them in different scales and obtain different aspects of the information. Despite being a relatively new tool, wavelets have being applied in several areas of human knowledge, especially in signal processing, with emphasis in encoding and compression of image, video and audio. Based on a previous successful applications (FRAZIER, 1999) together a commitment to quality results, this paper evaluates the use of the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) as an compression algorithm to reduce the amount of data collected in road load signals (load history) which are used by the durability engineering teams in the automotive industry.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Occupant Thermal Comfort for Automotive Seating Systems

Many studies have been conducted and supporting literature has been published to better understand thermal comfort for the automotive environment, particularly, for the HVAC system within the cabin. However, reliable assessment of occupant thermal comfort for seating systems has lacked in development and understanding. Evaluation of seat system performance in terms of comfort has been difficult to quantify and thus most tests have been established such that the hardware components are tested to determine if the thermal feature does no harm to the customer. This paper evaluates the optimal seat surface temperature range to optimize human thermal comfort for an automotive seating system application for heated and ventilated seats.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Automotive System Fatigue Models Processed in the Time and Frequency Domain

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that frequency domain methods for calculating structural response and fatigue damage can be more widely applicable than previously thought. This will be demonstrated by comparing results of time domain vs. frequency domain approaches for a series of fatigue/durability problems with increasing complexity. These problems involve both static and dynamic behavior. Also, both single input and multiple correlated inputs are considered. And most important of all, a variety of non-stationary loading types have been used. All of the example problems investigated are typically found in the automotive industry, with measured loads from the field or from the proving ground.
Technical Paper

Robust Prediction of Lane Departure Based on Driver Physiological Signals

Lane change events can be a source of traffic accidents; drivers can make improper lane changes for many reasons. In this paper we present a comprehensive study of a passive method of predicting lane changes based on three physiological signals: electrocardiogram (ECG), respiration signals, and galvanic skin response (GSR). Specifically, we discuss methods for feature selection, feature reduction, classification, and post processing techniques for reliable lane change prediction. Data were recorded for on-road driving for several drivers. Results show that the average accuracy of a single driver test was approx. 70%. It was greater than the accuracy for each cross-driver test. Also, prediction for younger drivers was better.
Technical Paper

A Method for Rapid Durability Test Development

Designing a durability test for an automatic transmission that appropriately reflects customer usage during the lifetime of the vehicle is a formidable task; while the transmission and its components must survive severe usage, overdesigning components leads to unnecessary weight, increased fuel consumption and increased emissions. Damage to transmission components is a function of many parameters including customer driving habits and vehicle and transmission characteristics such as weight, powertrain calibration, and gear ratios. Additionally, in some cases durability tests are required to verify only a subset of the total parameter space, for example, verifying only component modifications. Lastly, the ideal durability test is designed to impose the worst case loading conditions for the maximum number of internal components, be as short as practicable to reduce testing time, with minimal variability between tests in order to optimize test equipment and personnel resources.
Technical Paper

Frequency FE-Based Weld Fatigue Life Prediction of Dynamic Systems

In most aspects of mechanical design related to a motor vehicle there are two ways to treat dynamic fatigue problems. These are the time domain and the frequency domain approaches. Time domain approaches are the most common and most widely used especially in the automotive industries and accordingly it is the method of choice for the fatigue calculation of welded structures. In previous papers the frequency approach has been successful applied showing a good correlation with the life and damage estimated using a time based approach; in this paper the same comparative process has been applied but now extended specifically to welded structures. Both the frequency domain approach and time domain approach are used for numerically predicting the fatigue life of the seam welds of a thin sheet powertrain installation bracketry of a commercial truck submitted to variable amplitude loading. Predicted results are then compared with bench tests results, and their accuracy are rated.