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Technical Paper

Design Targets of Seat Integrated Restraint System for Optimal Occupant Protection

2001-03-05
2001-01-0158
Unlike the conventional seat belt system wherein the shoulder belt upper anchor is mounted on the vehicle body, Seat Integrated Restraint (SIR) system has the shoulder belt upper anchor mounted on the top of seat back frame. During a vehicle frontal impact, the stiffness of seat and that of the floor underneath the seat play a significant role in the performance of the restraint system in providing protection to the occupants. In this study the effect of the stiffness of seat and floor on the restraint system is investigated with other restraint parameters such as retractor load limit, fire time lag of dual stage inflator and air bag vent size. The stiffness of seat and floor is varied to determine the range of best occupant protection. This study attempts to establish feasible design targets of seat and floor stiffness for optimal restraint performance.
Technical Paper

A Self-Adapting Passenger Airbag for the USNCAP

2017-03-28
2017-01-1446
A dual-chambered passenger airbag was developed for the 2011 USNCAP to minimize neck loading for the belted 5th female dummy while restraining the unbelted 50th dummy for FMVSS208. This unique, patented design adaptively controlled venting between chambers based on occupant stature. A patented pressure-responsive vent on the second chamber permitted aspiration into the second chamber before a delayed outflow to the environment. The delayed flow through the pressure-responsive vent from the second chamber acted like a pressure-limiting membrane vent to advantageously reduce the injury assessment values for the HIC and the Nij for the 5th female dummy.
Technical Paper

Folded Pelvis-Thorax Side Airbag Modeling with CFD Approach and Implementation in Full Vehicle Crash Analysis

2017-03-28
2017-01-1460
The Pelvis-Thorax Side Air Bag (PTSAB) is a typical restraint countermeasure offered for protection of occupants in the vehicle during side impact tests. Currently, the dynamic performance of PTSAB for occupant injury assessment in side impact is limited to full-vehicle evaluation and sled testing, with limited capability in computer aided engineering (CAE). The widely used CAE method for PTSAB is a flat bag with uniform pressure. The flat PTSAB model with uniform pressure has limitations because of its inability to capture airbag deployment during gap closure which results in reduced accuracy while predicting occupant responses. Hence there is a need to develop CAE capability to enhance the accuracy of prediction of occupant responses to meet performance targets in regulatory and public domain side impact tests. This paper describes a new CAE methodology for assessment of PTSAB in side impact.
Technical Paper

Real-time Crash Detection and Its Application in Incident Reporting and Accident Reconstruction

2017-03-28
2017-01-1419
Characterizing or reconstructing incidents ranging from light to heavy crashes is one of the enablers for mobility solutions for fleet management, car-sharing, ride-hailing, insurance etc. While crashes involving airbag deployment are noticeable, light crashes without airbag deployment can be hidden and most drivers do not report these incidents. In this paper, we are using vehicle responses together with a dynamics model to trace back if abnormal forces have been applied to a vehicle so as to detect light crashes. The crash location around the perimeter of the vehicle, the direction of the crash force, and the severity of the crashes are all determined in real-time based on on-board sensor measurements which has further application in accident reconstruction. All of this information will be integrated to a feature called “Incident Report”, which enable reporting of minor accidents to the relevant entities such as insurance agencies, fleet managements, etc.
Technical Paper

Residual Effects of Metal Forming on Seat Belt Pull Analysis Results

2017-03-28
2017-01-1307
Automotive industries are emphasizing more and more on occupant safety these days, due to an increase in awareness and demand to achieve high safety standards. They are dependent on simulation tools to predict the performance of subsystems more accurately. The challenges being encountered are designs which are getting more complex and limitations in incorporating all real-life scenarios, such as to include all manufacturing considerations like forming and welding effects. Latest versions of solvers are slowly introducing new options to include these actual scenarios. Ls-Dyna is one of the explicit solvers to introduce these possibilities. The process of including stamping details into crash simulation is already being performed in the automotive industry. However, for seatbelt pull analysis, this has not been explored much.
Technical Paper

Auto-Correlation of an Occupant Restraint System Model Using a Bayesian Validation Metric

2009-04-20
2009-01-1402
Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) has become a vital tool for product development in automotive industry. Various computer models for occupant restraint systems are developed. The models simulate the vehicle interior, restraint system, and occupants in different crash scenarios. In order to improve the efficiency during the product development process, the model quality and its predictive capabilities must be ensured. In this research, an objective model validation metric is developed to evaluate the model validity and its predictive capabilities when multiple occupant injury responses are simultaneously compared with test curves. This validation metric is based on the probabilistic principal component analysis method and Bayesian statistics approach for multivariate model assessment. It first quantifies the uncertainties in both test and simulation results, extracts key features, and then evaluates the model quality.
Technical Paper

Frontal Impact Rear Seatbelt Load Marks: An In-Depth Analysis

2009-04-20
2009-01-1249
Forensic evidence left behind in the form of markings on the seatbelt system can reveal details of how the belt system was being used and how it performed in a collision. Information about how belt systems are being used and how they perform in the field is useful to the design engineer, but interpreting this forensic evidence can be very difficult. Most studies to date have looked at the evidence left behind after a collision simply to determine if the seat belt was being used. This study undertakes the next step and addresses the question of how the belt system was being used. Test data is also presented to allow investigators to determine if the retractor locked and remained locked during the collision or if it spooled out during the collision. The results of 22 HYGE sled tests were analyzed to investigate the types and patterns of marks left behind.
Technical Paper

Use of Body Mount Stiffness and Damping In CAE Crash Modeling

2000-03-06
2000-01-0120
This paper reports a study of the dynamic characteristics of body mounts in body on frame vehicles and their effects on structural and occupant CAE results. The body mount stiffness and damping are computed from spring-damper models and component test results. The model parameters are converted to those used in the full vehicle structural model to simulate the vehicle crash performance. An effective body mount in a CAE crash model requires a set of coordinated damping and stiffness to transfer the frame pulse to the body. The ability of the pulse transfer, defined as transient transmissibility[1]1, is crucial in the early part of the crash pulse prediction using a structural model such as Radioss[2]. Traditionally, CAE users input into the model the force-deflection data of the body mount obtained from the component and/or full vehicle tests. In this practice, the body mount in the CAE model is essentially represented by a spring with the prescribed force-deflection data.
Technical Paper

Air Bag Parameter Study with Out-Of-Position Small Female Test Devices

2000-06-19
2000-01-2204
The development of the Advanced Restraint System has lead to an innovative way in which we evaluate the systems effect on the occupant. This paper presents some initial investigation into the driver airbag system that consists of an inflator, cushion fold, tear seam pattern, and offset of the airbag cover to steering wheel rim plane. An initial DOE is reviewed to establish significant parameters and to identify equations for further investigation.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Optimal Design and Robustness Assessment Framework for Vehicle Side Impact Restraint System Design

2011-04-12
2011-01-0107
With the increasing demands of developing vehicles for global markets, different regulations and public domain tests need to be considered simultaneously for side impact. Various side impact countermeasures, such as side airbags, door trim, energy absorbing foams etc., are employed to meet multiple side impact performance requirements. However, it is quite a challenging task to design a balanced side impact restraint system that can meet all side impact requirements for multiple crash modes. This paper presents an integrated multi-objective optimal design and robustness assessment framework for vehicle side impact restraint system design.
Technical Paper

Seatback Strength as a Predictor of Serious Injury Risk to Belted Drivers and Rear Seat Occupants in Rear-Impact Crashes

2016-04-05
2016-01-1512
This paper updates the findings of prior research addressing the relationship between seatback strength and likelihood of serious injury/fatality to belted drivers and rear seat occupants in rear-impact crashes. Statistical analyses were performed using 1995-2014 CY police-reported crash data from seventeen states. Seatback strength for over 100 vehicle model groupings (model years 1996-2013) was included in the analysis. Seatback strength is measured in terms of the maximum moment that results in 10 inches of seat displacement. These measurements range from 5,989 in-lbs to 39,918 in-lbs, resulting in a wide range of seatback strengths. Additional analysis was done to see whether Seat Integrated Restraint Systems (SIRS) perform better than conventional belts in reducing driver and rear seat occupant injury in rear impacts. Field data shows the severe injury rate for belted drivers in rear-impact crashes is less than 1%.
Technical Paper

Integration of Active and Passive Safety Technologies - A Method to Study and Estimate Field Capability

2015-11-09
2015-22-0010
The objective of this study is to develop a method that uses a combination of field data analysis, naturalistic driving data analysis, and computational simulations to explore the potential injury reduction capabilities of integrating passive and active safety systems in frontal impact conditions. For the purposes of this study, the active safety system is actually a driver assist (DA) feature that has the potential to reduce delta-V prior to a crash, in frontal or other crash scenarios. A field data analysis was first conducted to estimate the delta-V distribution change based on an assumption of 20% crash avoidance resulting from a pre-crash braking DA feature. Analysis of changes in driver head location during 470 hard braking events in a naturalistic driving study found that drivers’ head positions were mostly in the center position before the braking onset, while the percentage of time drivers leaning forward or backward increased significantly after the braking onset.
Technical Paper

Derivation of a Provisional, Age-dependent, AIS2+ Thoracic Risk Curve for the THOR50 Test Dummy via Integration of NASS Cases, PMHS Tests, and Simulation Data

2015-11-09
2015-22-0006
A provisional, age-dependent thoracic risk equation (or, “risk curve”) was derived to estimate moderate-to-fatal injury potential (AIS2+), pertaining to men with responses gaged by the advanced mid-sized male test dummy (THOR50). The derivation involved two distinct data sources: cases from real-world crashes (e.g., the National Automotive Sampling System, NASS) and cases involving post-mortem human subjects (PMHS). The derivation was therefore more comprehensive, as NASS datasets generally skew towards younger occupants, and PMHS datasets generally skew towards older occupants. However, known deficiencies had to be addressed (e.g., the NASS cases had unknown stimuli, and the PMHS tests required transformation of known stimuli into THOR50 stimuli).
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Considerations for Assessing Interactions of Children and Small Occupants with Inflatable Seat Belts

2013-11-11
2013-22-0004
NHTSA estimates that more than half of the lives saved (168,524) in car crashes between 1960 and 2002 were due to the use of seat belts. Nevertheless, while seat belts are vital to occupant crash protection, safety researchers continue efforts to further enhance the capability of seat belts in reducing injury and fatality risk in automotive crashes. Examples of seat belt design concepts that have been investigated by researchers include inflatable, 4-point, and reverse geometry seat belts. In 2011, Ford Motor Company introduced the first rear seat inflatable seat belts into production vehicles. A series of tests with child and small female-sized Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) and small, elderly female Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) was performed to evaluate interactions of prototype inflatable seat belts with the chest, upper torso, head and neck of children and small occupants, from infants to young adolescents.
Technical Paper

Utilization of CAE Tools to Assist Active Glove Box Design

2017-03-28
2017-01-0493
Traditionally, Knee Air Bag (KAB) is constructed of a woven nylon or polyester fabric. Recently, Ford developed an injection molded air bag system for the passenger side called Active Glove Box (AGB). This system integrates a plastic bladder welded between the glove box outer and inner doors. This new system is smaller and lighter, thus improving the roominess and other creature comforts inside the passenger cabin while providing equivalent restraint performance as traditional knee airbag system. This patented technology allows positioning of airbags in new locations within the vehicle, thus giving more freedom to designers. The first application of this technology was standard equipment on the 2015 Ford Mustang. Given that this technology is first in the industry, it was a challenge to design, test and evaluate the performance of the system as there is no benchmark to compare this technology. A CAE driven design methodology was chosen to overcome this challenge.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Body Mounted Shoulder Seat Belt Anchor (D-Ring) Displacement During Dynamic Vehicle-to-Ground Impacts

2015-04-14
2015-01-1756
For more than 30 years, field research and laboratory testing have consistently demonstrated that properly wearing a seat belt dramatically reduces the risk of occupant death or serious injury in motor vehicle crashes. In severe rollover crashes, deformation to vehicle body structures can relocate body-mounted seat belt anchors altering seat belt geometry. In particular, roof pillar mounted shoulder belt anchors (“D-rings”) are subject to vertical and lateral deformation in the vehicle coordinate system. The ROllover Component test System (ROCS) test device was utilized to evaluate seat belt system performance in simulated severe rollover roof-to-ground impacts. A mechanical actuator was designed to dynamically relocate the D-ring assembly during a roof-to-ground impact event in an otherwise rigid test vehicle fixture. Anthropomorphic test device (ATD) kinematics and kinetics and seat belt tensions were compared between tests with and without D-ring relocation.
Technical Paper

Biomechanics of 4-Point Seat Belt Systems in Farside Impacts

2006-11-06
2006-22-0012
The biomechanical behavior of a harness style 4-point seat belt system in farside impacts was investigated through dummy and post mortem human subject tests. Specifically, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the inboard shoulder belt portion of a 4-point seat belt on the risk of vertebral and soft-tissue neck injuries during simulated farside impacts. Two series of sled tests simulating farside impacts were completed with crash dummies of different sizes, masses and designs to determine the forces and moments on the neck associated with loading of the shoulder belt. The tests were also performed to help determine the appropriate dummy to use in further testing. The BioSID and SID-IIs reasonably simulated the expected kinematics response and appeared to be reasonable dummies to use for further testing. Analysis also showed that dummy injury measures were lower than injury assessment reference values used in development of side impact airbags.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Response of the Pediatric Abdomen, Part 1: Development of an Experimental Model and Quantification of Structural Response to Dynamic Belt Loading

2006-11-06
2006-22-0001
The abdomen is the second most commonly injured region in children using adult seat belts, but engineers are limited in their efforts to design systems that mitigate these injuries since no current pediatric dummy has the capability to quantify injury risk from loading to the abdomen. This paper develops a porcine (sus scrofa domestica) model of the 6-year-old human's abdomen, and then defines the biomechanical response of this abdominal model. First, a detailed abdominal necropsy study was undertaken, which involved collecting a series of anthropometric measurements and organ masses on 25 swine, ranging in age from 14 to 429 days (4-101 kg mass). These were then compared to the corresponding human quantities to identify the best porcine representation of a 6-year-old human's abdomen. This was determined to be a pig of age 77 days, and whole-body mass of 21.4 kg.
Technical Paper

Objective chime sound quality evaluation

2006-11-21
2006-01-2667
Customer perception of vehicle quality and safety is based on many factors. One important factor is the customers impression of the sounds produced by body and interior components such as doors, windows, seats, safety belts, windshield wipers, and other similar items like sounds generated automatically for safety and warning purposes. These sounds are typically harmonic or constant, and the relative level of perception, duration, multiplicity, and degree of concurrence of these sounds are elements that the customer will retain in an overall quality impression. Chime sounds are important to the customer in order to alert that something is not accomplished in a right way or for safe purposes. The chimes can be characterized by: sound level perception, frequency of the signal, shape of the signal, duration of the “beep” and the silence duration.
Technical Paper

A CAE Methodology to Simulate Testing a Rearward Facing Infant Seat during FMVSS 208 Low Risk Deployment

2007-04-16
2007-01-1770
The Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard or FMVSS 208 requires passenger cars, multi-purpose vehicles, trucks with less than unloaded vehicle weight of 2,495 kg either to have an automatic suppression feature or to pass the injury criteria specified under low risk deployment test requirement for a 1 year old dummy in rearward and forward facing restraints as well as a forward facing 3 and 6 year old dummy. A convertible child seat was installed in a sub-system test buck representing a passenger car environment with a one-year- old dummy in it at the passenger side seat and a passenger side airbag was deployed toward the convertible child seat. A MADYMO model was built to represent the test scenario and the model was correlated and validated to the results from the experiment.
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