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Technical Paper

Design and Development of 25% Post-Industrial Recycled SMC Hood Assembly for the 1998 Lincoln Continental Program

This paper describes the process of incorporation of 25% post-industrial recycled sheet molded composite (SMC) material in the 1998 Continental Hood inner. 1998 Continental Hood assembly consists of traditional SMC outer and this recycled hood inner along with three small steel reinforcements. BUDD Plastics collects SMC scraps from their manufacturing plants. The scrap is then processed and made into fillers for production of SMC. Strength of SMC comes from glass fibers and fillers are added to produce the final mix of raw materials. This recycled material is approximately 10% lighter and less stiff than the conventional virgin SMC. This presented unique challenges to the product development team to incorporate this material into a production vehicle in order to obtain the desired goal of reducing land fill and improving the environment.
Technical Paper

Body Structure Joint Optimization: A Cost Driven Approach

Cross-section properties and joint stiffness properties of the body structure define its characteristic behavior. During the transitional product development process, body structure joints are optimized on an individual basis to reduce cost and weight. The objective of this paper is to present a methodology to analyze the entire body structure design by optimizing each body joint for stiffness and cost. This methodology utilizes joint sensitivity data from FEA, section properties, and cost/weight data. When the joint stiffness status does not meet the target during the design process, the methodology is an effective tool in making decisions regarding the gage increase/decrease for each part constituting body structure joints. Additionally, the methodology has been applied to body structure joints and door upper frame separately.
Technical Paper

Front End Accessory Drive Program Management

Program Management organizes the different phases of new Front End Accessory Drive (FEAD) designs from inception providing lower cost, higher quality and shorter product development cycles. These outcomes are accomplished using a team concept to successfully incorporate simultaneous engineering, computer design/development methods, supplier input and other techniques.
Technical Paper

A Customer Driven Reliability and Quality Methodology for Existing Products

In order to maximize customer satisfaction in today's global market place, the quality of products and services need to be improved continually. Increased focus on quality, with the attendant proliferation of methods and tools, has created the need for a comprehensive framework to guide the selection of the tools. Individuals within an organization need to know what tools are appropriate in a given situation, and when, where and how the knowledge gained from an effort should be documented. In addition, a common nomenclature to convey quality related information to each other would avoid confusion and improve the communication process thus improving the effectiveness and productivity of the organization. This paper integrates tools that have evolved recently with the old tools that have been in use for a number of years.
Technical Paper

Estimation of the Effects of Auxiliary Electrical Loads on Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fuel Economy

In recent years the fuel efficiency of modern hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powertrains has progressed to a point where low voltage auxiliary electrical system loads have a pronounced impact on fuel economy (FE). While improving the energy consumption of an individual component may result in minor improvements, the collective optimization of such loads across a complete vehicle system can result in meaningful FE gains. Traditional methods using chassis dynamometer testing alone to quantify the impact of a specific auxiliary load can lead to issues where signal state changes are too small for accurate detection. This presents difficulties in accurately predicting the influence of such loads on FE of next-generation electrified vehicles under development. This paper describes a newly developed method where dynamometer test results are combined with computer simulation analyses to create a practical technique for assessing the impact of small changes in auxiliary load energy consumption.
Technical Paper

Integrated Systems Engineering Approach for Incremental 48Volt Hybrid Technology Introduction

Automotive product engineering is highly complex. Understanding the implications and opportunities of introducing new technology needs to be identified as early as possible in the vehicle design process. These earlier design considerations have the potential to deliver right-first-time designs and maximize integration opportunities, resulting in efficient, effective, competitive and holistic design solutions. Integrating new technology into existing vehicle architectures can preclude and restrain the opportunity for engineers to invent, discover and deliver new design solutions. To avoid this potential loss of opportunity, it is necessary to trace back to vehicle-level assumptions and attributes to confirm the technology delivers the desired output. The vehicle and system analysis enables engineers to consider all vehicle attributes and how their sub-system can enhance other vehicle systems.
Technical Paper

Sample Size in the Application of System Usability Scale to Automotive Interfaces

There is a strong business case for automotive interfaces to undergo usability testing throughout their product development lifecycle. System Usability Scale (SUS) is a simple and standard measure of usability. To meet the timing needs for product development, usability testing needs to be performed in a quick, cost effective manner. Hence the required sample size of participants for a usability study is one of the critical factors. To determine an acceptable sample size, a Monte Carlo simulation using SUS scores from eleven different in-vehicle automotive interface usability studies was used to create 500,000 subsamples of different sample sizes. The percentage of subsamples with mean scores within the confidence interval of the population mean was calculated. At a subsample size of thirty-five, 95% of the subsamples have a mean SUS score within the 95% confidence interval of the population mean.
Technical Paper

Towards a One Day Frame Model Build

Virtual Verification (VV) of engineering designs is a critical enabler in the Product Development (PD) process to reduce the time-to-market in a cost efficient manner. Reliance on cost effective VV methods have significantly increased with increased pressure to meet customer expectations for new products at reduced PD budgets. Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) is one such VV method that affords an engineer to make decisions about the ability of the designs to meet the design criteria even before a prototype is built. The first step of the CAE process is meshing which is a time consuming, manual and laborious process. Also mesh development time and accuracy significantly varies with the (1) component (trim body, engine, suspension, brakes, etc.), (2) features predominantly occurring in the component (welds, ribs, fillets, etc.), meshing guidelines based on which the model needs to be developed (durability, safety, NVH, etc.), and the expertise of the meshing engineer involved.
Technical Paper

Modular Design and Methods to Optimize Seat Complete Assemblies

Modularity in product architecture and its significance in product development have become an important product design topics in the last few decades. Several Product Modularity definitions and methodologies were developed by many researchers; however, most of the definitions and concepts have proliferated to the extent that it is difficult to apply one universal definition for modular product architecture and in product development. Automotive seat modular strategy and key factors for consideration towards modular seat design and assemblies are the main focus of this work. The primary objectives are focused on the most “natural segmentation” of the seat elements (i.e., cushions, backs, trims, plastics, head restraints, etc.) to enable the greatest ease of final assembly and greatest flexibility for scalable feature offerings around common assembly “hard-points.”
Technical Paper

Auto-Correlation of an Occupant Restraint System Model Using a Bayesian Validation Metric

Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) has become a vital tool for product development in automotive industry. Various computer models for occupant restraint systems are developed. The models simulate the vehicle interior, restraint system, and occupants in different crash scenarios. In order to improve the efficiency during the product development process, the model quality and its predictive capabilities must be ensured. In this research, an objective model validation metric is developed to evaluate the model validity and its predictive capabilities when multiple occupant injury responses are simultaneously compared with test curves. This validation metric is based on the probabilistic principal component analysis method and Bayesian statistics approach for multivariate model assessment. It first quantifies the uncertainties in both test and simulation results, extracts key features, and then evaluates the model quality.
Technical Paper

A Correlation Study between the Full Scale Wind Tunnels of Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors

A correlation of aerodynamic wind tunnels was initiated between Chrysler, Ford and General Motors under the umbrella of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR). The wind tunnels used in this correlation were the open jet tunnel at Chrysler's Aero Acoustic Wind Tunnel (AAWT), the open jet tunnel at the Jacobs Drivability Test Facility (DTF) that Ford uses, and the closed jet tunnel at General Motors Aerodynamics Laboratory (GMAL). Initially, existing non-competitive aerodynamic data was compared to determine the feasibility of facility correlation. Once feasibility was established, a series of standardized tests with six vehicles were conducted at the three wind tunnels. The size and body styles of the six vehicles were selected to cover the spectrum of production vehicles produced by the three companies. All vehicles were tested at EPA loading conditions. Despite the significant differences between the three facilities, the correlation results were very good.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Error Assessment of Response Time Histories (EEARTH) Metric and Calibration Process

Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) has become a vital tool for product development in automotive industry. Increasing computer models are developed to simulate vehicle crashworthiness, dynamic, and fuel efficiency. Before applying these models for product development, model validation needs to be conducted to assess the validity of the models. However, one of the key difficulties for model validation of dynamic systems is that most of the responses are functional responses, such as time history curves. This calls for the development of an objective metric which can evaluate the differences of both the time history and the key features, such as phase shift, magnitude, and slope between test and CAE curves. One of the promising metrics is Error Assessment of Response Time Histories (EARTH), which was recently developed. Three independent error measures that associated with physically meaningful characteristics (phase, magnitude, and slope) were proposed.
Technical Paper

Tire pressure impact on structural durability tests results

During the Product Development Process, the experimental engineers try to acquire the most reliable data from Proving Grounds early on the development process, aiming to support CAE model correlation and in this way ensuring that the vehicle is capable of withstanding customer loads. Those data, from Proving Grounds, are correlated to the most severe customer's usage and public road conditions. The proposal of this paper is to analyze how tire pressure affects structural durability, since safety, performance and fuel economy were already discussed on other opportunities. Tire pressure is important because it's one variable where the customer can monitor and act and because TPMS (Tire Pressure Measurement System) is not available on most vehicles sold in the Brazilian Market,
Technical Paper

Development of Fluid-Structure Interaction CAE Method to Assess Effect of Fuel Slosh on Fuel Level Sensor

Fuel level sensors are used to indicate the amount of fuel in the tank of an automobile. The most common type of fuel level sensor is the float-arm sensor in which a float is connected to a resistance band via an arm. The fuel volume inside the tank sets the height of the float which in turn is converted to a resistance value. This resistance value is converted into gauge reading that is displayed on the dashboard. Whereas this method is widely popular due to its low cost and durability, fuel slosh phenomenon imposes a major challenge. The fuel slosh waves under numerous driving maneuvers impose dynamic drag/lift forces on the float which result into fluctuations in its position (i.e. float height). Under severe acceleration or braking maneuvers, the float can actually submerge inside the liquid and fail to predict location of the free surface. These fluctuations can cause erroneous fuel indication.
Technical Paper

A Software Proposal based on Design Axiomatic Applied into Automobile Advanced Engineering

The largest automobile companies have several corporate, regulatory and customer requirements to integrate into engineering of development [1]. These information need to be split in technical team called disciplines as electrical, chassis, powertrain, etc. The advanced engineering team is responsible to conduct this process with general purpose of facilitating the managing and tracking of creation and execution of the total vehicle/system. However, the interrelation, complexity and lack of engineer's know-how of these systems have been creating innumerous issues into development, launch, manufactory and quality. Insufficient dedicated tools, requirement definitions and poor initial programs formulation are some reasons of these issues. It means that the ability applied in advanced engineering principles and analytical techniques in an automotive engineering context have to be improved.
Technical Paper

Approaches to Determining Beneficial Use of Simulink and UML in Automotive Embedded Software Systems

Simulink is a very successful and popular method for modelling and auto-coding embedded automotive features, functions and algorithms. Due to its history of success, university feeder programs, and large third party tool support, it has, in some cases, been applied to areas of the software system where other methods, principles and strategies may provide better options for the software and systems engineers and architects. This paper provides approaches to determine when best to apply UML and when best to apply Simulink to a typical automotive feature. Object oriented software design patterns as well as general guidelines are provided to help in this effort. This paper's intent is not to suggest a replacement for Simulink but to provide the software architects and designers additional options when decomposing high level requirements into reusable software components.
Technical Paper

A Model-Based Design Thinking Strategy for in-Vehicle Infotainment Features Development

The advancement in connectivity technology is driving a shift in business models in almost every field. Automakers need to adapt to a new business model in which the platform (automobile) and the mobility solutions (Devices and Services) are enabled by a strong dynamic connectivity. To succeed in this business model, it is imperative to deliver an unparalleled customer experience. Traditional customer experiences focused only in the platform (automobile) are no longer sufficient to address the mobility needs. The development of in-vehicle features should consider both the platform and the connectivity in a single development scope. This paradigm shift sets new challenges for the in-vehicle features designers. Designers have to speak not only the language of the experience but rather a language to address different levels of abstractions to ensure effective communication with all stakeholders and developers including those outside the organization.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation for Drivability Development

Powertrain drivability evaluation and calibration is an important part of vehicle development to enhance the customer experience. This step mainly takes place on vehicle testing very late in the product development cycle, and is associated with a considerable amount of prototype, test facility, human resource and time cost. Design change options at this stage are also very limited. To reduce the development cost, a model based computer aided engineering (CAE) method is introduced and combined with hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation technology. The HIL simulation method offers a possibility for drivability prediction and development in early phase of product cycle. This article describes the drivability HIL simulation process under development in Ford. The process consists of real time capable multi-domain CAE model integration, powertrain control module (PCM) and HIL simulator interface development and drivability HIL simulation.
Technical Paper

Process Mapping for Forward Models Quality

One of the biggest challenges for the Product Development Engineers is to have a clear understanding of the Quality Principles and Disciplines they should follow while they are engineering. In general, the current Product Development System guides of the Automakers companies are mostly focused on provide guidance for the Engineers on the following areas: Design Efficiency; Design Rules for Product Robustness; Design Validation; Product Reliability; Testing Procedures. The introduction of a new/advanced technology system alone does not mean low incidence of customer complaints. The only way to get that is plan/execute Consumer Driven Design with excellence. Global Vehicles are more sensitive to Quality since they must satisfy diverse cultural customers without compromise reliability. When a new vehicle is being developed to be sold in many markets around the world - Global Product - this problem is even bigger. Different markets mean different customer expectations.
Technical Paper

Deadlock Development on Mechanical Steering Column Lock (MSCL)

The security of a vehicle against is evaluated through of a classification denominated Thatcham, in order to obtain better insurances prices. The methods of theft have been improved over time, and therefore, the design of Mechanical Steering Column Lock (MSCL) also requires technological improvements. This work presents a design modification in the Mechanical Steering Column Lock (MSCL), with the objective to have a better security classification. This is a device that acts on the locking of the steering column, to protect against car thefts, called Deadlock. The timeline of the project and new design were discussed and defined between the Supplier and Product Development team, where was revised all the FMEA, Design Verification Plan (DVP) and Test Specification. Through this design, in addition to the decrease in the price of insurance, it was also possible to improve ergonomic comfort by ensuring a rotation in the position of the key mounted on the ignition cylinder.