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Technical Paper

Serpentine Accessory Belt Drive Tool: Virtual Prototyping for V-Ribbed Belt Drives

2001-04-30
2001-01-1424
Serpentine accessory belts are commonly used in industries such as automotive and general machinery. The purpose of this analytical tool is to provide design engineers the capability to model belt drive systems using ADAMS (Automated Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems). The generated ADAMS models can be used to analyze several different characteristics concerning V-Ribbed belt drive systems. The general solution of the governing nonlinear equations provides the coupled longitudinal and transverse response of the translating belt drive system. Typical simulation outputs include pulley hubloads, belt impact dynamic forces, and belt slip rates at the pulleys.
Technical Paper

Motion Analysis Enhances Visualization of Underbody Flow

2001-03-05
2001-01-0628
Velocity profiles for air flowing under a vehicle body are determined by analyzing videotapes of neutrally buoyant soap bubbles using motion analysis software and equipment. What had heretofore been primarily a qualitative flow visualization technique has been extended to provide quantitative data. The light sources, cameras, and bubble generator, mounted on the vehicle, are powered by the vehicle's electrical system, making it possible to compare underbody velocities measured in a wind tunnel with those over the road. Results are presented for a heavy-duty 4×4 pickup truck at speeds up to 25m/s (55 mph). The velocity profiles in the tunnel and on the road were quite similar.
Technical Paper

Transient CFD Simulations of a Bell Sprayer

1998-09-29
982291
A methodology is developed that incorporates high resolution CFD flowfield information and a particle trajectory simulation, aimed at addressing Paint Transfer Efficiency (PTE) for bell sprayers. Given a solid model for the bell sprayer, the CFD simulation, through automeshing, determines a high resolution Cartesian volume mesh (14-20 million cells). With specified values of the initial shaping air, transient and steady-state flow field information is obtained. A particle trajectory visualization tool called SpraySIM uses this complicated flowfield information to determine the particle trajectories of the paint particles under the influence of drag, gravity and electrostatic potential. The sensitivity of PTE on shaping air velocity, charge-to-mass ratio, potential, and particle diameter are examined.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Issues in Automotive Veiling Glare

1997-02-24
970227
The veiling glare effect in automotive vehicles consists of diffuse and specular scattering of sunlight onto and from the windshield. This effect occurs over a wide range of solar elevation angles and increases with increased degree of inclination of the windshield. Thus its effect on visual acuity must be considered in automotive design. The present research on the subject of veiling glare only addresses scattering from a clean windshield and ignores the larger effect of scattering from dust, dirt or haze on the front and back faces of the windshield since the latter is operator dependent (can be removed by cleaning the windshield). In this paper, we present an analysis of autmotive veiling glare that takes into account windshield reflectivity without and with coatings, and the characteristics of dashboard cover materials.
Technical Paper

A Customer Driven Reliability and Quality Methodology for Existing Products

1989-02-01
890811
In order to maximize customer satisfaction in today's global market place, the quality of products and services need to be improved continually. Increased focus on quality, with the attendant proliferation of methods and tools, has created the need for a comprehensive framework to guide the selection of the tools. Individuals within an organization need to know what tools are appropriate in a given situation, and when, where and how the knowledge gained from an effort should be documented. In addition, a common nomenclature to convey quality related information to each other would avoid confusion and improve the communication process thus improving the effectiveness and productivity of the organization. This paper integrates tools that have evolved recently with the old tools that have been in use for a number of years.
Technical Paper

Development of Diagnostic Tools in Automotive Electronics

1987-08-01
871582
Throughout the evolution of transportation technology the automotive industry has continually devised methods of diagnosing and servicing vehicle electrical and electronic concerns. Methodologies have always included special test equipment accompanied by volumes of printed manual procedures. Today's vehicle technology, with its highly interactive/integrated systems control capability, has brought on a new level of complexity and confusion to the service technician. In order to assist the technician in the diagnosis of microprocessor based control systems, the service industry has developed highly sophisticated on-board vehicle diagnostics as well as off-board computer based equipment. This paper describes the progression of service test equipment provided by Ford Motor Company to assist in vehicle electrical/electronic diagnostics. Similar to all industry manufacturers Ford Motor has devised both on-board and off-board systems which are required to fix the car right the first time.
Technical Paper

An Indirect Occupancy Detection and Occupant Counting System Using Motion Sensors

2017-03-28
2017-01-1442
This paper proposes a low-cost but indirect method for occupancy detection and occupant counting purpose in current and future automotive systems. It can serve as either a way to determine the number of occupants riding inside a car or a way to complement the other devices in determining the occupancy. The proposed method is useful for various mobility applications including car rental, fleet management, taxi, car sharing, occupancy in autonomous vehicles, etc. It utilizes existing on-board motion sensor measurements, such as those used in the vehicle stability control function, together with door open and closed status. The vehicle’s motion signature in response to an occupant’s boarding and alighting is first extracted from the motion sensors that measure the responses of the vehicle body. Then the weights of the occupants are estimated by fitting the vehicle responses with a transient vehicle dynamics model.
Technical Paper

Machine Health Prediction Enhancement Using Machine Learning

2017-03-28
2017-01-1625
Use of sensors to monitor dynamic performance of machine tools at Ford’s powertrain machining plants has proven to be effective. The traditional approach to convert sensor data to actionable intelligence consists of identifying single features from cycle based signatures and setting thresholds above acceptable performance limits based on trials. The thresholds are used to discriminate between acceptable and unacceptable performance during each cycle and raise alarms if necessary. This approach requires a significant amount of resource & time intensive set up work up-front and considerable trial and error adjustments. The current state does not leverage patterns that might be discernible using multiple features simultaneously. This paper describes enhanced methods for processing the data using supervised and unsupervised machine learning methods. The objective of using these methods is to improve the prediction accuracy and reduce up-front set up.
Technical Paper

An Indirect Tire Health Monitoring System Using On-board Motion Sensors

2017-03-28
2017-01-1626
This paper proposes a method to make diagnostic/prognostic judgment about the health of a tire, in term of its wear, using existing on-board sensor signals. The approach focuses on using an estimate of the effective rolling radius (ERR) for individual tires as one of the main diagnostic/prognostic means and it determines if a tire has significant wear and how long it can be safely driven before tire rotation or tire replacement are required. The ERR is determined from the combination of wheel speed sensor (WSS), Global Positioning sensor (GPS), the other motion sensor signals, together with the radius kinematic model of a rolling tire. The ERR estimation fits the relevant signals to a linear model and utilizes the relationship revealed in the magic formula tire model. The ERR can then be related to multiple sources of uncertainties such as the tire inflation pressure, tire loading changes, and tire wear.
Technical Paper

Real-time Crash Detection and Its Application in Incident Reporting and Accident Reconstruction

2017-03-28
2017-01-1419
Characterizing or reconstructing incidents ranging from light to heavy crashes is one of the enablers for mobility solutions for fleet management, car-sharing, ride-hailing, insurance etc. While crashes involving airbag deployment are noticeable, light crashes without airbag deployment can be hidden and most drivers do not report these incidents. In this paper, we are using vehicle responses together with a dynamics model to trace back if abnormal forces have been applied to a vehicle so as to detect light crashes. The crash location around the perimeter of the vehicle, the direction of the crash force, and the severity of the crashes are all determined in real-time based on on-board sensor measurements which has further application in accident reconstruction. All of this information will be integrated to a feature called “Incident Report”, which enable reporting of minor accidents to the relevant entities such as insurance agencies, fleet managements, etc.
Technical Paper

Policies to Maximize Fuel Economy of Plug-In Hybrids in a Rental Fleet

2018-04-03
2018-01-0670
Plug-in hybrid (PHEV) technology offers the ability to achieve zero tailpipe emissions coupled with convenient refueling. Fleet adoption of PHEVs, often motivated by organizational and regulatory sustainability targets, may not always align with optimal use cases. In a car rental application, barriers to improving fuel economy over a conventional hybrid include: diminished benefits of additional battery capacity on long-distance trips, sparse electric charging infrastructure at the fleet location, lack of renter understanding of electric charging options, and a principle-agent problem where the driver accrues fewer benefits than costs for actions that improve fuel economy, like charging and eco-driving. This study uses high-resolution driving data collected from twelve Ford Fusion Energi sedans owned by University of California, Davis (UC Davis), where the vehicles are rented out for university-related activities.
Technical Paper

The Use of a Modified S.A.E. H-Point Machine in Assembly Plants

1977-02-01
770252
As part of a continuing Ford Motor Company program to improve the seating packages of production cars, a simplified in-plant method was developed to check seating variations in production vehicles. The method also provided information helpful in determining causal factors when any irregularities were found. Equipment necessary for checking was designed to be easily transported to any site.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Globalization and New Materials on the Transition to a Fully Digital Tool and Die

2009-04-20
2009-01-0979
Until recently, tool & die making was a very traditional industry, relying on extensive know-how accumulated over decades of practice. Essentially, it remained a two stage-process: engineering/manufacture, followed by tryout/productionization. Improvements focused on engineering and production methods, but tryout remained the exclusive domain of the die maker. At last, advances in computer modeling methods and the adoption of aggressive lean management principles have brought transformational changes to the tryout phase. At the same time, new safety and weight imperatives have increased the penetration of advanced materials, whose formability characteristics are quite different from mild steels. This paper will explore how these advanced materials affect this transformation.
Technical Paper

A/C Moan - its Diagnostics and Control

2009-05-19
2009-01-2054
Air-conditioning (A/C) induced moan is a very commonly observed phenomenon in automotive refrigerant systems. Since most of the automotive A/C systems cycle ON/OFF four to six times every minute, the A/C induced moan is quite readily audible under engine idle and even while driving, especially under lower engine/vehicle speeds. It is not unusual for an A/C compressor to moan or not, on some vehicle/s under certain operating conditions. Most of the OEMs resolve or suppress the A/C moan potential to barely audible levels. However, under some unique and extreme operating conditions, A/C moan is quite readily induced and often results in customer complaints. This paper discusses A/C moan related root-causes, sources and paths of propagation. A systematic diagnostic test-procedure is also described to diagnose and develop the needed most cost-effective design-fixes. Finally, based on this case-study - some objective targets are recommended to suppress the A/C moan to acceptable levels.
Technical Paper

Efficient Method for Modeling and Code Generation of Custom Functions

2011-04-12
2011-01-0055
Custom functions are widely used in real-time embedded automotive applications to conserve scarce processor resources. Typical examples include mathematical functions, filtering routines and lookup tables. The custom routines are very efficient and have been in production for many years [ 1 ]. These hand-crafted functions can be reused in new control algorithm designs being developed using Model Based Design (MBD) tools. The next generation of vehicle control software may contain a mix of both automatically generated software and manually developed code. At Ford Motor Company, the code is automatically generated from control algorithm models that are developed using The MathWorks tool chain. Depending on the project-specific needs, the control algorithm models are automatically translated to efficient C code using either The Math Works Real-Time Workshop Embedded Coder (RTW-EC) or dSPACE TargetLink production code generators.
Technical Paper

Automated Migration of Legacy Functions and Algorithms to Model Based Design

2008-04-14
2008-01-0747
Automotive companies have invested a fortune over the last three decades developing real-time embedded control strategies and software to achieve desired functions and performance attributes. Over time, these control algorithms have matured and achieved optimum behavior. The companies have vast repositories of embedded software for a variety of control features that have been validated and deployed for production. These software functions can be reused with minimal modifications for future applications. The companies are also constantly looking for new ways to improve the productivity of the development process that may translate into lower development costs, higher quality and faster time-to-market. All companies are currently embracing Model Based Design (MBD) tools to help achieve the gains in productivity. The most cost effective approach would be to reuse the available legacy software for carry-over features while developing new features with the new MBD tools.
Technical Paper

Automotive Manufacturing Task Analysis: An Integrated Approach

2008-06-17
2008-01-1897
Automotive manufacturing presents unique challenges for ergonomic analysis. The variety of tasks and frequencies are typically not seen in other industries. Moving these challenges into the realm of digital human modeling poses new challenges and offers the opportunity to create and enhance tools brought over from the traditional reactive approach. Chiang et al. (2006) documented an enhancement to the Siemen's Jack Static Strength Prediction tool. This paper will document further enhancements to the ErgoSolver (formerly known as the Ford Static Strength Prediction Solver).
Technical Paper

The Use of Discrete Wavelet Transform in Road Loads Signals Compression

2009-10-06
2009-36-0238
Wavelets are a powerful mathematical tool used to multi-resolution time-frequency decomposition of signals, in order to analyze them in different scales and obtain different aspects of the information. Despite being a relatively new tool, wavelets have being applied in several areas of human knowledge, especially in signal processing, with emphasis in encoding and compression of image, video and audio. Based on a previous successful applications (FRAZIER, 1999) together a commitment to quality results, this paper evaluates the use of the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) as an compression algorithm to reduce the amount of data collected in road load signals (load history) which are used by the durability engineering teams in the automotive industry.
Technical Paper

Development of Pneumatic Suspension Type Full Air for Commercial Vehicles

2016-05-11
2016-36-0069
The air suspension development and application has becoming increasingly applied also in commercial vehicles, offering to the driver more dynamic comfort as well as contributing to the reduction of impact loads on highways. Through this project pursuit show the analysis and application of an air suspension system for commercial tractor vehicles application. A special focus was given to pneumatic actuation system, responsible for leveling and control of suspension′s stiffness under different conditions of usage, laden and unladen. The project was conducted starting with the vehicle dynamic performance analysis, evaluating the pneumatic suspension circuit modifications in order to obtain the vehicle dynamic behavior improvement, ensuring directional stability under different maneuvering conditions. For entire development were also used quality tools, considering the possible failure modes and effects as well as virtual simulation tools (Adams) and bench validations.
Technical Paper

Arttest – a New Test Environment for Model-Based Software Development

2017-03-28
2017-01-0004
Modern vehicles become increasingly software intensive. Software development therefore is critical to the success of the manufacturer to develop state of the art technology. Standards like ISO 26262 recommend requirement-based verification and test cases that are derived from requirements analysis. Agile development uses continuous integration tests which rely on test automation and evaluation. All these drove the development of a new model-based software verification environment. Various aspects had to be taken into account: the test case specification needs to be easily comprehensible and flexible in order to allow testing of different functional variants. The test environment should support different use cases like open-loop or closed-loop testing and has to provide corresponding evaluation methods for continuously changing as well as for discrete signals.
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