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Technical Paper

Exhaust Manifold Radiated Noise Prediction Methodology

2001-04-30
2001-01-1433
The spark ignition engine is a prime source of vibration energy. NVH disturbances generated by the engine ultimately reach the customer in the form of objectionable noise or NVH. Exhaust Manifolds are one of the many sources of noise contributors among the engine components. Often, the exhaust manifold is identified as a source of objectionable NVH late in the design and development process. Due to the lack of an upfront NVH analysis tool, a new CAE NVH methodology for evaluating new exhaust manifold designs has been investigated and developed by the Ford Motor Company's V-Engine CAE and Exhaust Manifold Design Sections. This new CAE methodology has been developed to compare the NVH performance of current production exhaust manifolds to new design levels. Mechanical induced radiated shell noise is the predominate cause of objectionable NVH in exhaust manifolds.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of Engine Noise Radiation through the use of Acoustic Transfer Vectors - A Case Study

2001-04-30
2001-01-1514
This paper presents the numerical modeling of noise radiated by an engine, using the so-called Acoustic Transfer Vectors and Modal Acoustic Transfer Vectors concept. Acoustic Transfer Vectors are input-output relations between the normal structural velocity of the radiating surface and the sound pressure level at a specific field point and can thus be interpreted as an ensemble of Acoustic Transfer Functions from the surface nodes to a single field point or microphone position. The modal counter part establishes the same acoustic transfer expressed in modal coordinates of the radiating structure. The method is used to evaluate the noise radiated during an engine run-up in the frequency domain. The dynamics of the engine is described using a finite element model loaded with a rpm-dependent excitation. The effectiveness of the method in terms of calculation speed, compared with classical boundary element methods, is illustrated.
Technical Paper

Errors in the Driveline System Balancing Process

2001-04-30
2001-01-1504
Single-plane balancing is a very well-understood process, whereby an imbalance vector is determined and then opposed by a similar vector of equal magnitude but 180° out of phase. This is used in many situations to improve machine performance, vibration, noise etc. However, there is inherent in this process a sensitivity to errors of measurement and correction, since a large imbalance vector and the equally large correction vector must be of exactly equal magnitude and exactly 180° apart for perfect balance. This paper examines the effect of errors in measurement of the initial imbalance and correction of it on the residual balance of automotive drivelines. In particular, it examines the effects of the errors present in a system whereby a system balance correction is made, on a driveline assembly, at discrete points around a given plane (at bolt locations). Errors occur in measurement of vibration, in calculating correction masses and in applying those correction masses.
Technical Paper

Experimental Determination of Automotive System Response Characteristics

2001-04-30
2001-01-1477
Vehicle NVH performance is significantly affected by the dynamics of various primary systems. In the automotive industry, different design activities or vendors are responsible for designing various different systems simultaneously. Therefore, it is highly desirable to gain a better understanding of the individual system characteristics and the interaction between the primary systems to achieve a desirable overall NVH performance. Unfortunately, it is usually quite difficult to construct a proper fixture to accurately measure and quantify the actual uncoupled system characteristics. This paper examines an alternate approach of applying the FRF-based substructuring method to back-calculate the system response characteristics from the full vehicle system measurements. The results are then used to forward-compute the dynamic response of the vehicle, which are also validated by comparison to the direct response function measurements.
Technical Paper

Wavelet-Based Visualization of Impulsive and Transient Sounds in Stationary Background Noise

2001-04-30
2001-01-1475
Scalograms based on shift-invariant orthonormal wavelet transforms can be used to analyze impulsive and transient sounds in the presence of more stationary sound backgrounds, such as wind noise or drivetrain noise. The visual threshold of detection for impulsive features on the scalogram (signal energy content vs. time and frequency,) is shown to be similar to the audible threshold of detection of the human auditory system for the corresponding impulsive sounds. Two examples of impulsive sounds in a realistic automotive sound background are presented: automotive interior rattle in a vehicle passenger compartment, and spark knock recorded in an engine compartment.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Front Suspension Parameters on Road Wheel Toe Dynamics

2001-03-05
2001-01-0482
Front road wheel toe dynamics directly affects tire wear and steering wheel vibration, which in turn negatively impacts customer satisfaction. Though static toe can be preset in assembly plants, the front road wheels can vibrate around steering axes or kingpin axes due to tire mass unbalance and nonuniformity. The frequency of the vibration depends on the wheel size and vehicle speed, while the amplitude of the vibration is not only dictated by the tire forces, but also by suspension and steering parameters. This paper presents a study on the sensitivities of the front road wheel toe dynamics to the parameters of a short-long-arm suspension (SLA) and a parallelogram steering system. These parameters includes hard point shift, steering gear compliance, gear friction, control arm bushing rates, friction in control arm ball joints, and compliance in tie rod outboard joints.
Technical Paper

Powerplant Block-Crank Dynamic Interaction and Radiated Noise Prediction

2003-05-05
2003-01-1735
This paper discusses flexible, multi-body, coupled dynamic simulation of a crankshaft system acting upon a power plant structure that includes an engine block, cylinder heads, oil pan, crank train (i.e., crankshaft, connecting rods, bearings etc.) and transmission. The simulation is conducted using AVL/EXCITE [1]. Engine loads are first predicted, and then used to compute radiated noise from the engine assembly. Radiated noise level is computed by sweeping the excitation frequency through a range associated with the normal operating RPM of the engine. The results of the radiated noise computation are plotted on a “3D” Campbell plot diagram. The effects of different crankshaft materials is evaluated by imposing steel and cast iron material properties on the analysis model. A design of experiment (DOE) study is also performed to investigate the effects of main and rod bearing clearance, damper, and flexplate design on overall engine radiated sound power.
Technical Paper

Local-Global Finite-Element Analysis for Cam Cover Noise Reduction

2003-05-05
2003-01-1725
Valve covers are a primary source of radiated engine noise. In this paper, we discuss an analytical approach that captures the complicated nonlinear response of the cam cover gaskets and grommets without the need for a prohibitively large finite-element model of the cam cover system. We utilize a detailed local analysis of the gasket and grommet components and abstract their isolation characteristics for later use in a global NVH (Noise-Vibration-Harshness) system analysis.
Technical Paper

Influence of Mount Stiffness on Body/Subframe Acoustic Sensitivities

2003-05-05
2003-01-1714
A comparison of acoustic sensitivities of the 2000 Ford Taurus and 1999 Toyota Camry identifies an interesting paradox: the Taurus has a competitive advantage over the Camry when comparing body-only transfer functions, but a handicap to the Camry when the subframe is included in the measurements. Further, the Taurus subframe/mount subsystem actually behaves as an amplifier rather than an isolator over most of the powertrain excited frequency range. This report attempts to explain the cause of these behaviors through a hybrid CAE/test method and recommends a design strategy to lower the Subframe to Driver's Right Ear sensitivities of the Taurus.
Technical Paper

Development of Dual Mode Engine Crank Damper

2003-05-05
2003-01-1675
The paper presents development work of dual mode crank dampers implemented on 3.0L V6 engines. The history and the theoretic background of the crank dampers are reviewed. The development starts with measurement of crank bending by modal testing on static condition and by optical decode system on a running engine. Modal analysis theory is also described in the Appendix to explain how the test boundary conditions may greatly affect the measured damper frequencies and a recommended method is presented. The damper frequencies are defined by using transmissibility ratio to simplify the test process and eliminate effects of boundary conditions. To verify the effectiveness of the damper, engine dyno and vehicle road tests are conducted. The results show that the dual mode dampers cannot substantially reduce airborne noise, however they can make engine mount vibrations lower (about 30% in high RPM range) and therefore reduce the structure-borne noise.
Technical Paper

A New Experimental Methodology to Estimate Chassis Force Transmissibility and Applications to Road NVH Improvement

2003-05-05
2003-01-1711
The performance of structure-borne road NVH can be cascaded down to three major systems: 1) vehicle body structure, 2) chassis/suspension, 3) tire/wheel. The forces at the body attachment points are controlled by the isolation efficiency of the chassis/suspension system and the excitation at the spindle/knuckle due to the tire/road interaction. The chassis force transmissibility is a metric to quantify the isolation efficiency. This paper presents a new experimental methodology to estimate the chassis force transmissibility from a fully assembled vehicle. For the calculation of the transmissibility, the spindle force/moment estimation and the conventional Noise Path Analysis (NPA) methodologies are utilized. A merit of the methodology provides not only spindle force to body force transmissibility but also spindle moment to body force transmissibility. Hence it enables us to understand the effectiveness of the spindle moments on the body forces.
Technical Paper

Wind Noise and Drag Optimization Test Method for Sail-Mounted Exterior Mirrors

2003-05-05
2003-01-1702
An L18 Taguchi-style Design of Experiments (DOE) with eight factors was used to optimize exterior mirrors for wind noise and drag. Eighteen mirror properties were constructed and tested on a full size greenhouse buck at the Lockheed low-speed wind tunnel in Marietta, GA. Buck interior sound data and drag measurements were taken at 80 MPH wind speed (0° yaw angle). Key wind noise parameters were the fore/aft length of mirror housing and the plan view angle of the mirror housing's inboard surface. Key drag parameters were the fore/aft length of the mirror housing, the cross-section shape of the mirror pedestal, and the angle of the pedestal (relative to the wind).
Technical Paper

The Ford Motor Company Spin-Torsional NVH Test Facility-2

2003-05-05
2003-01-1684
The Ford Spin Torsional NVH TEST Facility developed and completed in 1999 as a state-of-the-art powertrain NVH development facility(1). Since then, various designed capabilities have been verified with test vehicles for multiple applications to facilitate powertrain NVH development. This paper describes fundamental capabilities of the test facility, including input module to simulate engine torque signatures of arbitrary engines (“virtual engine” capability) and absorbing dynamometer systems, functioning as a precision 4WD/AWD chassis dynamometer. The correlation between road test/chassis dynamometer test and Spin-Torsional test is then illustrated, verifying high correlation of vehicle/sub-system responses between conventional vehicle testing and Spin-Torsional test results.
Technical Paper

The Ford Motor Company Transmission NVH Test Cell

2003-05-05
2003-01-1681
Effectively managing transmission noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) has become increasingly important for maximizing customer satisfaction and fostering the perception of quality in contemporary cars and trucks. As overall vehicle and engine masking levels have dramatically decreased in recent times, low level tonal noises generated by transmission internals have gained significance and therefore have a greater effect on the NVH performance of vehicles. Recognizing the importance of this trend, Ford Motor Company recently designed and built a state-of-the-art research and development facility to be used for reducing noise and vibration generated by automatic and manual vehicle transmissions. The significant design features and validation results of this facility are described in this paper.
Technical Paper

Steering Column/Instrument Panel NVH Analysis in Full Size Pickup Trucks Using MSC/NASTRAN - Part 1

1996-10-01
962190
Recent surveys of customer satisfaction with full size pickup trucks have raised the standards for passenger comfort and refinement of such vehicles. Customers for this type of vehicle demand performance levels for attributes such as NVH, ride, and handling that previously belonged to luxury passenger cars. Along with the increased passenger comfort, full size pickup trucks must retain a tough image and be as durable as the previous generation trucks. The challenge is to design for NVH performance that can match and surpass many well behaved and “good” NVH passenger cars without any compromise in durability performance. One aspect of “good” NVH is a steering wheel which is free from vibration. As part of the development of a new design for a full sized pick up truck, an NVH subjective rating of 8-9 (10 is maximum) was targeted for the design of steering column/ instrument panel assembly.
Technical Paper

The Application of Experimental Design Method to Brake Induced Vehicle Vibrations

1998-02-23
980902
Vehicle sensitivity to brake induced vehicle vibration has been one of the key factors impacting overall vehicle quality. This directly affects long term customer satisfaction. The objective of this investigation is to understand the sensitivities of a given suspension, and steering system with respect to brake induced vehicle vibration, and develop possible solutions to this problem. Design of experiment methods have been used for this chassis system sensitivity study. The advantage of applying the design of experiment methodology is that it facilitates an understanding of the interactions between the hardware components and the sensitivity of the system due to the component change. The results of this investigation have indicated that the friction of suspension joints may affect vehicle system response significantly.
Technical Paper

The Volume Acoustic Modes of Spark-Ignited Internal Combustion Chambers

1998-02-23
980893
Acoustic standing waves are excited in internal combustion chambers by both normal combustion and autoignition. The energy in these acoustic modes can be transmitted through the engine block and radiated as high-frequency engine noise. Using finite-element models of two different (four-valve and two-valve) production engine combustion chambers, the mode shapes and relative frequencies of the in-cylinder volume acoustic modes are calculated as a function of crank angle. The model is validated by comparison to spectrograms of experimental time-sampled waveforms (from flush-mounted cylinder pressure sensors and accelerometers) from these two typical production spark-ignited engines.
Technical Paper

Chassis System Integration Approach for Vehicle High Mileage NVH Robustness

1998-02-23
980903
High mileage NVH performance is one of the major concerns in vehicle design for long term customer satisfaction. Elastomeric bushings and brake rotors are key chassis components which tend to degrade as vehicle mileage accumulates with time. The degradation of these components normally causes the overall degradation of vehicle NVH performance. In the current paper two categories of problems are addressed respectively: road-induced vibration due to bushing degradation, and brake roughness due to rotor wear. A system integration approach is used to derive the design strategies that can potentially make the vehicle more robust in these two NVH attributes. The approach links together bushing degradation characteristics, brake rotor wear characteristics, the design of experiment (DOE) method, and CAE modeling in a systematic fashion. The concept and method are demonstrated using a production vehicle.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Analysis of Powertrain Torsional Response

1998-02-23
980276
An analytical model is developed to describe the torsional responses of the powertrain system. The model is used to analyze system equilibrium, free vibration, forced and self-excited vibrations. The equations of motion are linearized about the equilibrium to determine natural frequencies and mode shapes of the torsional modes. The forced responses of the system are investigated by including the excitations of gas combustion forces and inertia torques induced by the reciprocating motions of the piston and connecting rod. The self-excited vibration induced by negative damping behavior of clutch torque capacity is studied. For an example rear-wheel drive powertrain considered, the free vibration analyses show the natural frequencies and the associated mode shapes. The forced and the self-excited vibrations for the transmission gearset and the driveline components are examined. Experimental measurements from a test powertrain are used to confirm the theoretical predictions.
Technical Paper

Global Acoustic Sensitivity Analysis Applied to the Reduction of Shell Noise Radiation of a Simulated Engine Air Induction System Component

1998-02-23
980280
Global acoustic sensitivity analysis [1] is a technique used to identify structural modifications to a component that can reduce the total radiated power of a vibrating structure or the sound pressure levels at specified field points. This report describes the use of global sensitivity analysis within SYSNOISE to determine what structural changes are required to reduce radiated noise from flexible structures in an open duct system. The technique can help optimize design parameters that define the behavior of a flexible structure such as shell thickness and Young's Modulus. The sensitivity analysis approach consists of separately evaluating structural and acoustic sensitivities. A structural finite element model (FEM) of an open duct system is used to compute the sensitivity of the structural response to changes in thickness. A boundary element model (BEM) is then used to relate changes in the calculated acoustic response to changes in the structural design variables.
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