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Technical Paper

Material Damping Properties: A Comparison of Laboratory Test Methods and the Relationship to In-Vehicle Performance

This paper presents the damping effectiveness of free-layer damping materials through standard Oberst bar testing, solid plate excitation (RTC3) testing, and prediction through numerical schemes. The main objective is to compare damping results from various industry test methods to performance in an automotive body structure. Existing literature on laboratory and vehicle testing of free-layer viscoelastic damping materials has received significant attention in recent history. This has created considerable confusion regarding the appropriateness of different test methods to measure material properties for damping materials/treatments used in vehicles. The ability to use the material properties calculated in these tests in vehicle CAE models has not been extensively examined. Existing literature regarding theory and testing for different industry standard damping measurement techniques is discussed.
Technical Paper

Drawbeads in Sheet Metal Stamping - A Review

The paper reviews the role of drawbeads in sheet metal stamping. The design of drawbeads is discussed in depth, with treatment of different bead cross sections, bead end shapes, and bead materials. International standards and practices are included. This is followed by the historical development of the modeling of the drawbead restraining force, starting with basic equilibrium approaches, and leading to the use of the finite element method which permits the study of drawbead effects on sheet metal flow in three dimensions. Finally, the potential of active drawbeads is described based upon ongoing research which is directed toward closed-loop computer control of the stamping process through adjustment of the drawbead penetration.
Technical Paper

Engine and Aftertreatment Modeling for Gasoline Direct Injection

Engine and aftertreatment models have been developed in support of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine development and aftertreatment system design. A brief overview of the engine models that were used to project emissions and fuel economy performance for the GDI engine is presented. Additionally, the construction and validation of a NOx trap aftertreatment model is described in considerable detail. The insights and increased understanding which have been gained regarding the trade-offs between engine out emission targets, aftertreatment performance, and emission constrained fuel economy benefits for direct injection gasoline engines are reviewed and discussed.
Technical Paper

The Reinvention of the Wheel: Progress in Car Radios and Their Future

Advances in digital and analog electronics have drastically changed car radio circuitry. Improvements in miniaturization of electrical and mechanical components have radically altered their size and styling. Computer modeling of the vehicle's interior environment has optimized car radio acoustics. It seems that the list of modern break-throughs is never ending. It is the intent of this paper to show that many of the technical marvels of today's car radios were first applied years, even decades, ago. From those early concepts, and their current revivals, a projection into the future of automobile radios will be made. As previously mentioned [1]: “If history teaches anything, it teaches the potential for repetition.”
Technical Paper

Development of Diagnostic Tools in Automotive Electronics

Throughout the evolution of transportation technology the automotive industry has continually devised methods of diagnosing and servicing vehicle electrical and electronic concerns. Methodologies have always included special test equipment accompanied by volumes of printed manual procedures. Today's vehicle technology, with its highly interactive/integrated systems control capability, has brought on a new level of complexity and confusion to the service technician. In order to assist the technician in the diagnosis of microprocessor based control systems, the service industry has developed highly sophisticated on-board vehicle diagnostics as well as off-board computer based equipment. This paper describes the progression of service test equipment provided by Ford Motor Company to assist in vehicle electrical/electronic diagnostics. Similar to all industry manufacturers Ford Motor has devised both on-board and off-board systems which are required to fix the car right the first time.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Crankcase Pressure Variation during the Engine Cycle of an Internal Combustion Engine

High frequency variations in crankcase pressure have been observed in Inline-four cylinder (I4) engines and an understanding of the causes, frequency and magnitude of these variations is helpful in the design and effective operation of various engine systems. This paper shows through a review and explanation of the physics related to engine operation followed by comparison to measured vehicle data, the relationship between crankcase volume throughout the engine cycle and the observed pressure fluctuations. It is demonstrated that for a known or proposed engine design, through knowledge of the key engine design parameters, the frequency and amplitude of the cyclic variation in crankcase pressure can be predicted and thus utilized in the design of other engine systems.
Technical Paper

Estimation of the Effects of Auxiliary Electrical Loads on Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fuel Economy

In recent years the fuel efficiency of modern hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powertrains has progressed to a point where low voltage auxiliary electrical system loads have a pronounced impact on fuel economy (FE). While improving the energy consumption of an individual component may result in minor improvements, the collective optimization of such loads across a complete vehicle system can result in meaningful FE gains. Traditional methods using chassis dynamometer testing alone to quantify the impact of a specific auxiliary load can lead to issues where signal state changes are too small for accurate detection. This presents difficulties in accurately predicting the influence of such loads on FE of next-generation electrified vehicles under development. This paper describes a newly developed method where dynamometer test results are combined with computer simulation analyses to create a practical technique for assessing the impact of small changes in auxiliary load energy consumption.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Engine Air Induction System Hydrocarbon Traps

Engine air induction systems hydrocarbon trap (HC trap) designs to limit evaporative fuel emissions, have evolved over time. This paper discusses a range of HC traps that have evolved in engine air induction systems. (AIS) The early zeolite flow through HC trap utilized an exhaust catalyst technology internal stainless steel furnace brazed substrate coated with zeolite media. This HC trap was installed in the AIS clean air tube. This design was heavy, complicated, and expensive but met the urgency of the implementation of the new evaporative emissions regulation. The latest Ford Motor Company HC trap is a simple plastic tray containing activated carbon with breathable non-woven polyester cover. This design has been made common across multiple vehicle lines with planned production annual volume in the millions. The cost of the latest HC trap bypass design is approximately 5% of the original stainless steel zeolite flow through HC trap.
Technical Paper

A Review of Human Physiological, Psychological & Human Biomechanical Factors on Perceived Thermal Comfort of Automotive Seats.

Thermal comfort in automotive seating has been studied and discussed for a long time. The available research, because it is focused on the components, has not produced a model that provides insight into the human-seat system interaction. This work, which represents the beginning of an extensive research program, aims to establish the foundation for such a model. This paper will discuss the key physiological, psychological, and biomechanical factors related to perceptions of thermal comfort in automotive seats. The methodology to establish perceived thermal comfort requirements will also be presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Instrument Panel Design The “Control Center” of the Car

The design of an automotive instrument panel has become an increasingly complex job as product evolution in terms of customer safety, mechanical improvements, optional features and customer wants have altered the content of the automotive vehicle, and added substantially to the design requirements that must be observed in this area of the vehicle. To provide a perspective of the total job required to accommodate the changing and diverse standards and engineering requirements, this report will tell the story of the Ford Motor Company instrument panel design process. The report will cover all of the major considerations that affect the finished appearance of the design as well as the considerations required for customer convenience, and instrument panel serviceability.
Technical Paper

One Piece Stamped I-Beam Axle

Recent accomplishments, made possible by advances in manufacturing and material technology, have led to the development of a one-piece stamped I-Beam axle with ball joints as a replacemet to the forged axle with king pin design. The new stamped I-Beam axle brings with it a number of improvements to Ford's Twin I-Beam suspension system. This paper describes the objectives, improvements, evolution of the design, testing, and the manufacturing process for this latest suspension system improvement on Ford light trucks.
Technical Paper

Evolution of the New Ford Aerostar Impact Extruded Aluminum Wheel

Ford's continued effort to improve fuel economy in automotive applications has emphasized the need for lightweight components that retain all the toughness associated with Ford truck vehicle characteristics. The application of an impact extrusion process to wheel design and manufacture, for Ford Aerostar, provides strength, performance and style more efficiently than other traditional processes. It results in a valuable 33% weight saving over comparable HSLA steel wheels, and provides the customer with uncompromised value. The Ford Aerostar Impact Extruded Aluminum Wheel was designed to be of one-piece construction, manufactured from a less than 1″ thick aluminum wafer-shaped blank. The process permits manufacture in half the steps of a conventional stamped steel wheel, and eliminates extensive machining required with forged or cast aluminum wheels.
Technical Paper

A Technical Analysis of a Proposed Theory on Tire Tread Belt Separation-Induced Axle Tramp

Recently, papers have been published purporting to study the effect of rear axle tramp during tread separation events, and its effect on vehicle handling [1, 2]. Based on analysis and physical testing, one paper [1] has put forth a mathematical model which the authors claim allows vehicle designers to select shock damping values during the development process of a vehicle in order to assure that a vehicle will not experience axle tramp during tread separations. In the course of their work, “lumpy” tires (tires with rubber blocks adhered to the tire's tread) were employed to excite the axle tramp resonance, even though this method has been shown not to duplicate the physical mechanisms behind an actual tread belt separation. This paper evaluates the theories postulated in [1] by first analyzing the equations behind the mathematical model presented. The model is then tested to see if it agrees with observed physical testing.
Technical Paper

Driver Workload Effects of Cell Phone, Music Player, and Text Messaging Tasks with the Ford SYNC Voice Interface versus Handheld Visual-Manual Interfaces

A fixed-base driving simulator study was conducted to compare driver performance and eye glance behavior effects of tasks performed using the voice interface in Ford Motor Company’s SYNC® system versus handheld operation of portable music players and cellular phones. Data were analyzed from a sample of 25 test participants. All test participants were regular SYNC users (but not SYNC developers), though they varied in their familiarity with SYNC functions. During a car-following scenario at highway speeds on the simulator, the participants performed 7 tasks using SYNC’s voice interface and those same 7 tasks with their own handheld music player and cellular phone. The seven tasks under test were: dial a 10-digit number; call a specific person from a phonebook; receive a call while driving; play a specific song; play songs from a specific artist; review (listen to or read) a text message; and select a reply from a list or type a reply to a text message.
Technical Paper

Summary of Flow Metering Options for Injector Characterization

A review was conducted of the various fuel injector flow rate measurement methods that are commercially available. The scope of the review was primarily focused on the gasoline applications of Port Fuel Injection (PFI) and Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI), but Diesel applications were reviewed as well. These flow meters were compared at the Powertrain & Fuel Subsystems Laboratory (PFSL) of Ford Motor Company. The purpose of this paper is to review the capabilities of each flow meter that is commercially available for use in injector characterization benches and engine test beds.
Technical Paper

Implementation and Evaluation of a Coriolis Flow Meter

The Micro Motion CMF010P flow meter is a Coriolis-type mass flow meter used to measure dynamic and static flow rate. A detailed review of this system and five other mass flow rate measuring devices was previously completed at Ford Motor Company’s Powertrain and Fuel Subsystems Laboratory [1, 2]. The comparison analyzed the dynamic mass flow rate results of a high-pressure gasoline fuel injector. The Micro Motion flow meter proved to be easy to use while providing sufficient accuracy and repeatability at a reasonable price. The meter’s inherent technology measures the change in flow tube oscillation frequency and twist to obtain highly accurate density and flow rate measurements. Unfortunately, the operating principle can be subject to resonance. Therefore, the resonant frequencies need to be identified and avoided when taking measurements.
Technical Paper

Determination of Vehicle Frontal Area Using Image Processing

The projected frontal area of a vehicle has a significant impact on aerodynamic drag, and thus is an important parameter, for vehicle development, benchmarking, and modeling. However, determining vehicle frontal area can be tedious, time consuming, expensive, or inaccurate. Existing methods include analysis of engineering drawings, vehicle projections, 3D scanners, planimeter measurements from photographs, and estimations using vehicle dimensions. Currently accepted approximation methods can be somewhat unreliable. This study focuses on introducing a method to find vehicle frontal area using digital images and subtraction functions via MATLABs' Image Processing Toolbox. In addition to an overview of the method, this paper describes several variables that were examined to optimize and improve the process such as camera position, surface glare, and vehicle shadow effects.
Technical Paper

Statistical Energy Analysis Applications for Structureborne Vehicle NVH

Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is an established high-frequency analysis technique for generating acoustic and vibration response predictions in the automotive, aerospace, machinery, and ship industries. SEA offers unique NVH prediction and target-setting capabilities as a design tool at early stages of vehicle design where geometry is still undefined and evolving and no prototype hardware is available yet for testing. The exact frequencies at which SEA can be used effectively vary according to the size and the amount of damping in the vehicle subsystems; however, for automotive design the ability to predict acoustic and vibration responses due to both airborne and structure-borne sources has been established to frequencies of 500 Hz and above. This paper presents the background, historical use, and current industrial applications of structure-borne SEA. The history and motivation for the development of structure-borne SEA are discussed.
Technical Paper

Using Virtual Seat Prototyping to Understand the Influence of Craftsmanship on Safety, and Seating Comfort

Traditional automotive seat development has relied on a series of physical prototypes that are evaluated and refined in an iterative fashion. Costs are managed by sharing prototypes across multiple attributes. To further manage costs, many OEMs and Tier 1s have, over the past decade, started to investigate various levels of virtual prototyping. The change, which represents a dramatic paradigm shift, has been slow to materialize since virtual prototyping has not significantly reduced the required number of physical prototypes. This is related to the fact virtual seat prototyping efforts have been focused on only selected seat attributes - safety / occupant positioning and mechanical comfort are two examples. This requires that physical prototypes still be built for seat attributes like craftsmanship, durability, and thermal comfort.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Error Assessment of Response Time Histories (EEARTH) Metric and Calibration Process

Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) has become a vital tool for product development in automotive industry. Increasing computer models are developed to simulate vehicle crashworthiness, dynamic, and fuel efficiency. Before applying these models for product development, model validation needs to be conducted to assess the validity of the models. However, one of the key difficulties for model validation of dynamic systems is that most of the responses are functional responses, such as time history curves. This calls for the development of an objective metric which can evaluate the differences of both the time history and the key features, such as phase shift, magnitude, and slope between test and CAE curves. One of the promising metrics is Error Assessment of Response Time Histories (EARTH), which was recently developed. Three independent error measures that associated with physically meaningful characteristics (phase, magnitude, and slope) were proposed.