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Technical Paper

Exhaust Manifold Radiated Noise Prediction Methodology

2001-04-30
2001-01-1433
The spark ignition engine is a prime source of vibration energy. NVH disturbances generated by the engine ultimately reach the customer in the form of objectionable noise or NVH. Exhaust Manifolds are one of the many sources of noise contributors among the engine components. Often, the exhaust manifold is identified as a source of objectionable NVH late in the design and development process. Due to the lack of an upfront NVH analysis tool, a new CAE NVH methodology for evaluating new exhaust manifold designs has been investigated and developed by the Ford Motor Company's V-Engine CAE and Exhaust Manifold Design Sections. This new CAE methodology has been developed to compare the NVH performance of current production exhaust manifolds to new design levels. Mechanical induced radiated shell noise is the predominate cause of objectionable NVH in exhaust manifolds.
Technical Paper

Errors in the Driveline System Balancing Process

2001-04-30
2001-01-1504
Single-plane balancing is a very well-understood process, whereby an imbalance vector is determined and then opposed by a similar vector of equal magnitude but 180° out of phase. This is used in many situations to improve machine performance, vibration, noise etc. However, there is inherent in this process a sensitivity to errors of measurement and correction, since a large imbalance vector and the equally large correction vector must be of exactly equal magnitude and exactly 180° apart for perfect balance. This paper examines the effect of errors in measurement of the initial imbalance and correction of it on the residual balance of automotive drivelines. In particular, it examines the effects of the errors present in a system whereby a system balance correction is made, on a driveline assembly, at discrete points around a given plane (at bolt locations). Errors occur in measurement of vibration, in calculating correction masses and in applying those correction masses.
Technical Paper

Experimental Determination of Automotive System Response Characteristics

2001-04-30
2001-01-1477
Vehicle NVH performance is significantly affected by the dynamics of various primary systems. In the automotive industry, different design activities or vendors are responsible for designing various different systems simultaneously. Therefore, it is highly desirable to gain a better understanding of the individual system characteristics and the interaction between the primary systems to achieve a desirable overall NVH performance. Unfortunately, it is usually quite difficult to construct a proper fixture to accurately measure and quantify the actual uncoupled system characteristics. This paper examines an alternate approach of applying the FRF-based substructuring method to back-calculate the system response characteristics from the full vehicle system measurements. The results are then used to forward-compute the dynamic response of the vehicle, which are also validated by comparison to the direct response function measurements.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Front Suspension Parameters on Road Wheel Toe Dynamics

2001-03-05
2001-01-0482
Front road wheel toe dynamics directly affects tire wear and steering wheel vibration, which in turn negatively impacts customer satisfaction. Though static toe can be preset in assembly plants, the front road wheels can vibrate around steering axes or kingpin axes due to tire mass unbalance and nonuniformity. The frequency of the vibration depends on the wheel size and vehicle speed, while the amplitude of the vibration is not only dictated by the tire forces, but also by suspension and steering parameters. This paper presents a study on the sensitivities of the front road wheel toe dynamics to the parameters of a short-long-arm suspension (SLA) and a parallelogram steering system. These parameters includes hard point shift, steering gear compliance, gear friction, control arm bushing rates, friction in control arm ball joints, and compliance in tie rod outboard joints.
Technical Paper

The Ford Motor Company Spin-Torsional NVH Test Facility-2

2003-05-05
2003-01-1684
The Ford Spin Torsional NVH TEST Facility developed and completed in 1999 as a state-of-the-art powertrain NVH development facility(1). Since then, various designed capabilities have been verified with test vehicles for multiple applications to facilitate powertrain NVH development. This paper describes fundamental capabilities of the test facility, including input module to simulate engine torque signatures of arbitrary engines (“virtual engine” capability) and absorbing dynamometer systems, functioning as a precision 4WD/AWD chassis dynamometer. The correlation between road test/chassis dynamometer test and Spin-Torsional test is then illustrated, verifying high correlation of vehicle/sub-system responses between conventional vehicle testing and Spin-Torsional test results.
Technical Paper

The Ford Motor Company Transmission NVH Test Cell

2003-05-05
2003-01-1681
Effectively managing transmission noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) has become increasingly important for maximizing customer satisfaction and fostering the perception of quality in contemporary cars and trucks. As overall vehicle and engine masking levels have dramatically decreased in recent times, low level tonal noises generated by transmission internals have gained significance and therefore have a greater effect on the NVH performance of vehicles. Recognizing the importance of this trend, Ford Motor Company recently designed and built a state-of-the-art research and development facility to be used for reducing noise and vibration generated by automatic and manual vehicle transmissions. The significant design features and validation results of this facility are described in this paper.
Technical Paper

Steering Column/Instrument Panel NVH Analysis in Full Size Pickup Trucks Using MSC/NASTRAN - Part 1

1996-10-01
962190
Recent surveys of customer satisfaction with full size pickup trucks have raised the standards for passenger comfort and refinement of such vehicles. Customers for this type of vehicle demand performance levels for attributes such as NVH, ride, and handling that previously belonged to luxury passenger cars. Along with the increased passenger comfort, full size pickup trucks must retain a tough image and be as durable as the previous generation trucks. The challenge is to design for NVH performance that can match and surpass many well behaved and “good” NVH passenger cars without any compromise in durability performance. One aspect of “good” NVH is a steering wheel which is free from vibration. As part of the development of a new design for a full sized pick up truck, an NVH subjective rating of 8-9 (10 is maximum) was targeted for the design of steering column/ instrument panel assembly.
Technical Paper

The Application of Experimental Design Method to Brake Induced Vehicle Vibrations

1998-02-23
980902
Vehicle sensitivity to brake induced vehicle vibration has been one of the key factors impacting overall vehicle quality. This directly affects long term customer satisfaction. The objective of this investigation is to understand the sensitivities of a given suspension, and steering system with respect to brake induced vehicle vibration, and develop possible solutions to this problem. Design of experiment methods have been used for this chassis system sensitivity study. The advantage of applying the design of experiment methodology is that it facilitates an understanding of the interactions between the hardware components and the sensitivity of the system due to the component change. The results of this investigation have indicated that the friction of suspension joints may affect vehicle system response significantly.
Technical Paper

Chassis System Integration Approach for Vehicle High Mileage NVH Robustness

1998-02-23
980903
High mileage NVH performance is one of the major concerns in vehicle design for long term customer satisfaction. Elastomeric bushings and brake rotors are key chassis components which tend to degrade as vehicle mileage accumulates with time. The degradation of these components normally causes the overall degradation of vehicle NVH performance. In the current paper two categories of problems are addressed respectively: road-induced vibration due to bushing degradation, and brake roughness due to rotor wear. A system integration approach is used to derive the design strategies that can potentially make the vehicle more robust in these two NVH attributes. The approach links together bushing degradation characteristics, brake rotor wear characteristics, the design of experiment (DOE) method, and CAE modeling in a systematic fashion. The concept and method are demonstrated using a production vehicle.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Analysis of Powertrain Torsional Response

1998-02-23
980276
An analytical model is developed to describe the torsional responses of the powertrain system. The model is used to analyze system equilibrium, free vibration, forced and self-excited vibrations. The equations of motion are linearized about the equilibrium to determine natural frequencies and mode shapes of the torsional modes. The forced responses of the system are investigated by including the excitations of gas combustion forces and inertia torques induced by the reciprocating motions of the piston and connecting rod. The self-excited vibration induced by negative damping behavior of clutch torque capacity is studied. For an example rear-wheel drive powertrain considered, the free vibration analyses show the natural frequencies and the associated mode shapes. The forced and the self-excited vibrations for the transmission gearset and the driveline components are examined. Experimental measurements from a test powertrain are used to confirm the theoretical predictions.
Technical Paper

Application of Multiple Dynamic Vibration Absorbers to Reduce NVH Risks Caused by Alternative Half Shaft Design

2017-03-28
2017-01-1058
Increased focus on fuel efficiency and vehicle emissions has led the automotive industry to look into low weight alternative designs for powertrain system components. These new design changes pose challenges to vehicle attributes like NVH, durability, etc. Further, the requirement of high power applications produces even more complexities. The present work explains how a potential design change of half shafts driven by a desire to reduce weight and cost can lead to NVH problems caused by half shaft resonances and explains how using multiple dynamic vibration absorbers can solve the issue to meet customer expectation while improving efficiency. With the aid of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) & optimization software, interactions between multiple DVA’s on a system was understood and optimal damper parameters for effective damping was identified. The final DVA design was tested and verified on the vehicle for optimal attribute performance.
Technical Paper

CAE Predictions for Cardan Joint Induced Driveline NVH

2017-03-28
2017-01-1136
Automotive vehicles equipped with Cardan joints may experience low frequency vehicle launch shudder vibration (5-30Hz) and high frequency driveline moan vibration (80-200Hz) under working angles and speeds. The Cardan joint introduces a 2nd order driveshaft speed variation and a 4th order joint articulation torque (JAT) causing the vehicle shudder and moan NVH issues. Research on the Cardan joint induced low frequency vehicle shudder using a Multi-Body System (MBS) method has been attempted. A comprehensive MBS method to predict Cardan joint induced high frequency driveline moan vibration is yet to be developed. This paper presents a hybrid MBS and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) approach to predict Cardan joint induced high frequency driveshaft moan vibration. The CAE method considers the elastically coupled driveshaft bending and engine block vibration due to Cardan joint excitation.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Powertrain Operation Optimization Considering Cross Attribute Performance Metrics

2017-03-28
2017-01-1145
Hybrid electric vehicles are continuously challenged to meet cross attribute performance while minimizing energy usage and component cost in a very competitive automotive market. As electrified vehicles become more mainstream in the marketplace, hybrid customers are expecting more attribute refinement in combination with the enhanced fuel economy benefits. Minimizing fuel consumption, which tends to drive hybrid powertrain engines to operate under lugging type calibrations, traditionally challenge noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) metrics. Balancing the design space to satisfy the cost metrics, energy efficiency, noise and vibration & drivability under the hybrid engine lugging conditions can be optimized through the use of multiple CAE tools. This paper describes how achieving NVH metrics can put undesirable boundaries on Powertrain Operation which could affect other performance attributes.
Technical Paper

Computational Requirements for Powertrain Analytical Simulations

1985-02-25
850474
Finite element simulations of powertrain assemblies and components such as an engine block, transmission case, and structural oil pan, are regularly carried out at Ford Motor Company to provide directions for design improvements relevant to durability, minimum weight, noise and vibration characteristics. This paper presents hands-on experience with analyses of two powertrains in terms of computational strategies and resource requirements. The course of future analysis work in the light of current developments in computer technology, is also presented.
Technical Paper

End-of-line noise testing for transmission plant

2008-03-30
2008-36-0553
In NVH, the common sense is that quiet vehicles are vehicle which sources of noise are controlled. Transmission whine noise is an example of how is important to avoid unexpected noise coming from a specific component or system to the consumers. This paper is based on Ford's recent experience of researching and measuring to improve the end-of-line noise testing of its transmission manufacturing plant in Brazil. The approach is based on 6Sigma disciplines. There is not emphasis in the academic behaves of noise and vibration, or even the root cause of problems, but basically in the methodology in how to detect transmission noise still in the manufacturing line for immediate action and repair (if necessary) avoiding any issue to the consumer (internal - vehicle assemble line and vehicle buyers).
Technical Paper

Statistical Energy Analysis Applications for Structureborne Vehicle NVH

2010-10-17
2010-36-0526
Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is an established high-frequency analysis technique for generating acoustic and vibration response predictions in the automotive, aerospace, machinery, and ship industries. SEA offers unique NVH prediction and target-setting capabilities as a design tool at early stages of vehicle design where geometry is still undefined and evolving and no prototype hardware is available yet for testing. The exact frequencies at which SEA can be used effectively vary according to the size and the amount of damping in the vehicle subsystems; however, for automotive design the ability to predict acoustic and vibration responses due to both airborne and structure-borne sources has been established to frequencies of 500 Hz and above. This paper presents the background, historical use, and current industrial applications of structure-borne SEA. The history and motivation for the development of structure-borne SEA are discussed.
Technical Paper

Noise Source Identification Using Phase Analysis

2010-10-17
2010-36-0543
Noise source identification has been a subject well studied in the past few years. Automobile manufactures along with specialized supplies have been developed some methods in this matter. The importance of such subject is quite obvious, especially in the auto industry: identify potential problems and point out solutions for NVH. There are several methods of noise source identification widely used. Among them, one can mention "Hotspot Search," which consists of noise intensity measurement, mapping and ranking the relative contribution of each substructure of one body. Another method used, one can point out is the STSF (Spatial Transformation of Sound Fields). It consists of a measurement over a scan plane using a set of microphone array. In this way, a 2D sound field can be transformed in a 3D description and source direction can be identified.
Technical Paper

Use of SEA to Support Sound Package Design Studies and Vehicle Target Setting

2009-05-19
2009-01-2206
Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) vehicle models are well-accepted tools for predicting the high-frequency interior acoustic effects of a design change to the structure or sound package of the vehicle. [1] SEA models do not strongly depend on geometric details, which allows SEA to be uniquely used as an analysis tool very early in the vehicle design phase to identify potential Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) issues caused by proposed changes to acoustic or vibration source levels, component materials, construction details, or sound package details of the vehicle. SEA models can also be used to suggest alternatives while the vehicle is still in the development stages to compensate for a predicted or known degradation to NVH in a vehicle due to a design or source level change. This paper presents a case study in which validation testing and an SEA model were combined to obtain recommendations for the most effective sound package changes to meet NVH targets.
Technical Paper

Mass Damper Optimization Study to Reduce Seat Vibration

2008-04-14
2008-01-0873
In order to remain competitive in the current challenging automotive industry, there is a great demand for a common design that can be used across different platforms. Such common design can not only lower the cost due to the high volume production, but also significantly reduces the design development time. However, how to meet different programs' unique requirements by the same design remains as a challenge. In the case of a seat design, it is important that the seat natural frequencies are separated from the full vehicle system's resonant frequencies to avoid the possible alignment causing the seat vibration issue. This paper describes a method of how to design a mass damper that not only separates the seat modes from the vehicle's specific resonant frequency range but also reduces the seat back vibration amplitude significantly. The response surface based optimization method is used to tune the elastic mass damper parameters to meet the program's specific requirements.
Technical Paper

Time - Frequency Analysis Techniques Applied to Automotive Noise and Vibration Signals

2008-10-07
2008-36-0350
Automotive stationary noise and vibration signals are normally analyzed using Fourier methods. However, many noise and vibration signals are non-stationary (transient or time-varying). In those situations, the time characteristics of the signals can be lost using standard Fourier methods. Lately, time-frequency (TF) analysis methods have become more popular and are applied in many different areas of NVH (Noise, Vibration, and Harshness) in order to preserve the time-frequency information. The objective of this paper is to present some of the different time-frequency analysis tools, such as the Short Time Fourier transform (spectrogram), the Gabor Transform, the Wavelet transforms (scalograms), and the Wigner-Ville Distribution. Examples of application of these techniques to automotive non-stationary noise and vibration signals are presented.
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