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Technical Paper

Powerplant Block-Crank Dynamic Interaction and Radiated Noise Prediction

2003-05-05
2003-01-1735
This paper discusses flexible, multi-body, coupled dynamic simulation of a crankshaft system acting upon a power plant structure that includes an engine block, cylinder heads, oil pan, crank train (i.e., crankshaft, connecting rods, bearings etc.) and transmission. The simulation is conducted using AVL/EXCITE [1]. Engine loads are first predicted, and then used to compute radiated noise from the engine assembly. Radiated noise level is computed by sweeping the excitation frequency through a range associated with the normal operating RPM of the engine. The results of the radiated noise computation are plotted on a “3D” Campbell plot diagram. The effects of different crankshaft materials is evaluated by imposing steel and cast iron material properties on the analysis model. A design of experiment (DOE) study is also performed to investigate the effects of main and rod bearing clearance, damper, and flexplate design on overall engine radiated sound power.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Friction Modifiers on the Low-Speed Friction Characteristics of Automatic Transmission Fluids Observed with Scanning Force Microscopy

1998-02-23
981099
The effect of friction modifiers on the low-speed frictional properties of automatic transmission fluids (ATFs) was investigated by scanning force microscopy (SFM). A clutch lining material was covered by a droplet of test ATF, and a steel tip was scanned over the sample. The scanning speeds were varied from 0.13 to 8.56 mm /sec, and the frictional force was deduced from the torsion of the SFM cantilever. A reduction in dynamic friction due to the addition of the friction modifier was clearly observed over the entire speed range. This indicates that the boundary lubrication mechanism is dominant under this condition, and therefore surface-active friction modifiers can effectively improve the frictional characteristics. The friction reduction was more pronounced at lower sliding speeds. Thus addition of friction modifiers produced a more positive slope in the μ-ν (friction vs. sliding speed) plots, and would contribute to make wet clutch systems less susceptible to shudder vibrations.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of 25% Post-Industrial Recycled SMC Hood Assembly for the 1998 Lincoln Continental Program

1998-02-23
981019
This paper describes the process of incorporation of 25% post-industrial recycled sheet molded composite (SMC) material in the 1998 Continental Hood inner. 1998 Continental Hood assembly consists of traditional SMC outer and this recycled hood inner along with three small steel reinforcements. BUDD Plastics collects SMC scraps from their manufacturing plants. The scrap is then processed and made into fillers for production of SMC. Strength of SMC comes from glass fibers and fillers are added to produce the final mix of raw materials. This recycled material is approximately 10% lighter and less stiff than the conventional virgin SMC. This presented unique challenges to the product development team to incorporate this material into a production vehicle in order to obtain the desired goal of reducing land fill and improving the environment.
Technical Paper

Strain-Rate Characterization of Automotive Steel and the Effect of Strain-Rate in Component Crush Analysis

1998-09-29
982392
The effects of strain-rate and element mesh size on the numerical simulation of an automotive component impacted by a mass dropped from an instrumented drop tower was investigated. For this study, an analysis of a simple steel rail hat-section impacted by a mass moving at an initial velocity of 28Mph was performed using the explicit finite element code Radioss. Three constitutive material models: Elasto-Plastic (without strain rate), Johnson-Cook, and Zerilli-Armstrong were used to characterize the material properties for mild and high strength steel. Results obtained from the numerical analyses were compared to the experimental data for the maximum crush, final deformation shape, average crush force and the force-deflection curve. The results from this study indicate that the mechanical response of steel can be captured utilizing a constitutive material model which accounts for strain rate effect coupled with an average mesh size of 6 to 9mm.
Technical Paper

Laser & Fine Plasma Trimming of Sheet Metal Parts for Low Volume Production

1998-09-29
982333
This study compared laser and fine plasma technology for cutting typical electro-galvanized steel and aluminum automotive stampings. Comparisons were made of various aspects of cut quality, accuracy, disturbance of parent material, cycle time, and capital and operating costs. A sensitivity analysis was included to determine how different scenarios would impact the operating costs. It was found that both processes were capable of high quality cuts at 3800mm/min. Capital savings were achievable through the fine plasma system, but careful consideration of the specific application was essential. This work will allow for an advised comparison of options for sheet metal flexible cutting.
Technical Paper

Deconstruction of UN38.3 into a Process Flowchart

2017-03-28
2017-01-1208
This paper will discuss a compliance demonstration methodology for UN38.3, an international regulation which includes a series of tests that, when successfully met, ensure that lithium metal and lithium ion batteries can be safely transported. Many battery safety regulations, such as FMVSS and ECE, include post-crash criteria that are clearly defined. UN38.3 is unique in that the severity of the tests drove changes to battery design and function. Another unique aspect of UN38.3 is that the regulatory language can lead to different interpretations on how to run the tests and apply pass/fail criteria; there is enough ambiguity that the tests could be run very differently yet all meet the actual wording of the regulation. A process was created detailing exactly how to run the tests to improve consistency among test engineers. As part of this exercise, several tools were created which assist in generating a test plan that complies with the UN38.3 regulation.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Engine Air Induction System Hydrocarbon Traps

2017-03-28
2017-01-1014
Engine air induction systems hydrocarbon trap (HC trap) designs to limit evaporative fuel emissions, have evolved over time. This paper discusses a range of HC traps that have evolved in engine air induction systems. (AIS) The early zeolite flow through HC trap utilized an exhaust catalyst technology internal stainless steel furnace brazed substrate coated with zeolite media. This HC trap was installed in the AIS clean air tube. This design was heavy, complicated, and expensive but met the urgency of the implementation of the new evaporative emissions regulation. The latest Ford Motor Company HC trap is a simple plastic tray containing activated carbon with breathable non-woven polyester cover. This design has been made common across multiple vehicle lines with planned production annual volume in the millions. The cost of the latest HC trap bypass design is approximately 5% of the original stainless steel zeolite flow through HC trap.
Technical Paper

Wear of D2 Tool Steel Dies during Trimming DP980-type Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) for Automotive Parts

2017-03-28
2017-01-1706
Automobile body panels made from advanced high strength steel (AHSS) provide high strength-to-mass ratio and thus AHSS are important for automotive light-weighting strategy. However, in order to increase their use, the significant wear damage that AHSS sheets cause to the trim dies should be reduced. The wear of dies has undesirable consequences including deterioration of trimmed parts' edges. In this research, die wear measurement techniques that consisted of white-light optical interferometry methods supported by large depth-of-field optical microscopy were developed. 1.4 mm-thick DP980-type AHSS sheets were trimmed using dies made from AISI D2 steel. A clearance of 10% of the thickness of the sheets was maintained between the upper and lower dies. The wear of the upper and lower dies was evaluated and material abrasion and chipping were identified as the main damage features at the trim edges.
Technical Paper

MMLV: Chassis Design and Component Testing

2015-04-14
2015-01-1237
The Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) developed by Magna International and Ford Motor Company is a result of a US Department of Energy project DE-EE0005574. The project demonstrates the lightweighting potential of a five passenger sedan, while maintaining vehicle performance and occupant safety. Prototype vehicles were manufactured and limited full vehicle testing was conducted. The Mach-I vehicle design, comprised of commercially available materials and production processes, achieved a 364kg (23.5%) full vehicle mass reduction, enabling the application of a 1.0-liter three-cylinder engine resulting in a significant environmental benefits and fuel consumption reduction. As part of this project, several automotive chassis components were selected for development and evaluation on the MMLV C/D segment passenger sedan.
Technical Paper

The Relative Effect of Paint Film Thickness on Bimetallic and Crevice Corrosion

1986-02-01
860109
The proliferation of Unibody construction, for vehicle weight reduction, and the expanded use of precoated steel, for improvement in outer body rust-through protection, has significantly increased the number of bimetallic and crevice unions on U.S. manufactured vehicles. Cyclic corrosion and proving ground testing has shown that these unions are highly active electrochemically, resulting in extensive anodic corrosion and cathodic de-lamination of the paint film. This work examines the individual contribution of each layer of the applied protective coatings package, with respect to applied film thickness, to the reduction of permeation by water, oxygen, and NaCl and resultant corrosion.
Technical Paper

Evolution of the New Ford Aerostar Impact Extruded Aluminum Wheel

1984-11-01
841694
Ford's continued effort to improve fuel economy in automotive applications has emphasized the need for lightweight components that retain all the toughness associated with Ford truck vehicle characteristics. The application of an impact extrusion process to wheel design and manufacture, for Ford Aerostar, provides strength, performance and style more efficiently than other traditional processes. It results in a valuable 33% weight saving over comparable HSLA steel wheels, and provides the customer with uncompromised value. The Ford Aerostar Impact Extruded Aluminum Wheel was designed to be of one-piece construction, manufactured from a less than 1″ thick aluminum wafer-shaped blank. The process permits manufacture in half the steps of a conventional stamped steel wheel, and eliminates extensive machining required with forged or cast aluminum wheels.
Technical Paper

Application of Advanced High Strength Stainless Steel for Mass Reduction in Automotive Structures - A Front Bumper Beam Case Study

2011-04-12
2011-01-1054
The front bumper of a current production vehicle, which is made of hot-stamped 15B21 aluminized steel, was studied for mass and cost reductions using the Advanced High Strength Stainless Steel product NITRONIC® 30 (UNS Designation S20400) manufactured by AK Steel Corporation. This grade of stainless steel offers a combination of high ductility and strength, which was utilized to significantly modify the design of the bumper beam to incorporate geometry changes that improved its stiffness and strength. The structural performance of the bumper assembly was evaluated using LS-Dyna-based CAE simulations of the IIHS 40% Offset Full-Vehicle Impact at 40 mph with a deformable barrier, and the IIHS Full Width Centerline 6 mph Low-Speed Impact. Optimization of the bumper beam shape and gauge was performed using a combination of manual design iterations and a multi-objective optimization methodology using LS-Opt.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Stamping Tooling Durability for Dual Phase Steels

2011-04-12
2011-01-1060
Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) have become an essential part of the lightweighting strategy for automotive body structures. The ability to fully realize the benefits of AHSS depends upon the ability to aggressively form, trim, and pierce these steels into challenging parts. Tooling wear has been a roadblock to stamping these materials. Traditional die materials and designs have shown significant problems with accelerated wear, galling and die pickup, and premature wear and breakage of pierce punches. [1] This paper identifies and discusses the tribological factors that contribute to the successful stamping of AHSS. This includes minimizing tool wear and galling/die pick-up; identifying the most effective pierce clearance (wear vs. burr height) when piercing AHSS; and determining optimal die material and coating performance for tooling stamping AHSS.
Technical Paper

Development of Shear Fracture Criterion for Dual-Phase Steel Stamping

2009-04-20
2009-01-1172
Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) have been widely and successfully used in sheet metal stamping as a failure criterion to detect localized necking, which is the most common failure mechanism for conventional steels during forming. However, recent experience from stamping Dual-Phase steels found that, under certain circumstances such as stretching-bend over a small die radius, the sheet metal fails earlier than that predicted by the FLD based on the initiation of a localized neck. It appears that a different failure mechanism and mode are in effect, commonly referred to as “shear fracture” in the sheet metal stamping community. In this paper, experimental and numerical analysis is used to investigate the shear fracture mechanism. Numerical models are established for a stretch-bend test on DP780 steel with a wide range of bend radii for various failure modes. The occurrences of shear fracture are identified by correlating numerical simulation results with test data.
Technical Paper

Static and Fatigue Performance of Fusion Welded Uncoated DP780 Coach Joints

2008-04-14
2008-01-0695
Typical automotive joints are lap, coach, butt and miter joints. In tubular joining applications, a coach joint is common when one tube is joined to another tube without the use of brackets. Various fusion joining processes are popular in joining coach joints. Common fusion joining processes are Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), Laser and Laser Hybrid, and Gas Tungsten arc welding (GTAW). In this study, fusion welded 2.0 mm uncoated DP780 steel coach joints were investigated. Laser, Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), and laser hybrid (Laser + GMAW) welding processes were selected. Metallurgical properties of the DP780 fusion welds were evaluated using optical microscopy. Static and fatigue tests were conducted on these joints for all three joining processes. It was found that joint fit-up, type of welding process, and process parameters, especially travel speed, have significant impact on static and fatigue performance of the coach joints in this study.
Technical Paper

Bending Performance of Advanced High Strength Steel Tubes

2009-04-20
2009-01-0085
To reach safety, emissions, and cost objectives, manufacturers of automotive body structural components shape thin gauge, high strength steel tube using a series of manufacturing steps that often include bending, preforming and hydroforming. Challenging grades and bend severity require a sensitive optimization of the tubular bending process. To this end, it is necessary to achieve an understanding of efficient measurement methods capable of capturing small differences in bending formability. In preparation for an optimization of a 90o bend using Dual Phase 780 (DP780) and High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA350) thin walled tube, the measurement techniques of three formability characteristics: thinning, strain, and final geometry were statistically evaluated. In addition, the difference in the bending behaviour of the two grades was evaluated.
Technical Paper

Resistance Spot Welding Evaluation of Transformation Induced Plasticity 780 (TRIP780) Steel for Automotive Body Structural Applications

2009-04-20
2009-01-0805
There has been a substantial increase in the use of advanced high strength steel (AHSS) in automotive structures in the last few years. The usage of these materials is projected to grow significantly in the next 5–10 years with the introduction of new safety and fuel economy regulations. AHSS are gaining popularity due to their superior mechanical properties and use in parts for weight savings potential, as compared to mild steels. These new materials pose significant manufacturing challenges, particularly for welding and stamping. Proper understanding of the weldability of these materials is critical for successful application on future vehicle programs. Due to the high strength nature of AHSS materials, higher weld forces and longer weld times are often needed to weld these advanced steels.
Technical Paper

DP590 GI Mechanical Property Variability and Structural Response CAE Studies

2009-04-20
2009-01-0799
Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) such as DP590 HDGI are helping automakers meet increasingly higher structural performance requirements while maintaining or reducing weight of the vehicle body structure [7]. One of the issues facing design engineers implementing new materials such as AHSS is the lack of understanding the expected material variability within a steel supplier and also from one steel supplier to another; and how the variability affects product attribute performances. In this paper, we present an analysis of the aggregated mechanical property variability data obtained from several steel suppliers for a popular AHSS grade and also present studies related to the effect of material variability on structural responses.
Technical Paper

Bending Process Optimization of Dual Phase 780 (DP780) Tubes for Body Structural and Chassis Applications

2010-04-12
2010-01-0230
To reach safety, emissions, and cost objectives, manufacturers of automotive body structural and chassis components shape thin gauge, high strength steel tube with a bending, pre-forming and hydroforming process. Challenging grades and bend severity require a careful optimization of the bending procedure. A joint project between Ford and ArcelorMittal Tubular Products investigated suitable bending parameters for severe bends using commercially available thin-walled DP780 and HSLA350 tubes. This paper summarizes the measurement methods found to be capable of capturing small differences in bending formability and details the influence of bender variables such as boost, pressure die, center-line bend radius and bend angle on the wrinkling, thinning and springback of these tubes. As a result of this work, recommendations were made as to effective bender set-ups for these tubes.
Technical Paper

Laser Hybrid Welding of Aluminized Coated Boron Steel for Automotive Body Construction

2008-04-14
2008-01-1112
The automotive industry is in constant pursuit of alternative materials and processes to address the ever changing needs of their customer and the environment. This paper presents findings from a study using a laser hybrid process (laser with MIG) to join aluminum-silicon coated boron steel (USIBOR). In this report the influence of heat from the laser hybrid welding process and its effect on the coated boron steel is discussed. In order to understand the affect from laser hybrid joining process, bead on plate experiments were conducted using 1.0 mm, 1.6 mm and 2.0 mm thick coupons. Further, two lap joint configurations were also investigated using the 1.6 mm and 2.0 mm thick coupons. Based on the test results, a significant reduction in tensile strength was observed at the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ).
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