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Technical Paper

Exhaust Manifold Radiated Noise Prediction Methodology

The spark ignition engine is a prime source of vibration energy. NVH disturbances generated by the engine ultimately reach the customer in the form of objectionable noise or NVH. Exhaust Manifolds are one of the many sources of noise contributors among the engine components. Often, the exhaust manifold is identified as a source of objectionable NVH late in the design and development process. Due to the lack of an upfront NVH analysis tool, a new CAE NVH methodology for evaluating new exhaust manifold designs has been investigated and developed by the Ford Motor Company's V-Engine CAE and Exhaust Manifold Design Sections. This new CAE methodology has been developed to compare the NVH performance of current production exhaust manifolds to new design levels. Mechanical induced radiated shell noise is the predominate cause of objectionable NVH in exhaust manifolds.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection Pressure in an Optically-Accessed DISI Engine with Side-Mounted Fuel Injector

This paper presents the results of an experimental study into the effects of fuel injection pressure on mixture formation within an optically accessed direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine. Comparison is made between the spray characteristics and in-cylinder fuel distributions due to supply rail pressures of 50 bar and 100 bar subject to part-warm, part-load homogeneous charge operating conditions. A constant fuel mass, corresponding to stoichiometric tune, was maintained for both supply pressures. The injected sprays and their subsequent liquid-phase fuel distributions were visualized using the 2-D laser Mie-scattering technique. The experimental injector (nominally a hollow-cone pressure-swirl design) was seen to produce a dense filled spray structure for both injection pressures under investigation. In both cases, the leading edge velocities of the main spray suggest the direct impingement of liquid fuel on the cylinder walls.
Technical Paper

Fiber Optic Sensor for Crank Angle Resolved Measurements of Burned Gas Residual Fraction in the Cylinder of an SI Engine

A fiber optic infrared spectroscopic sensor was developed to measure the crank angle resolved residual fraction of burned gas retained in the cylinder of a four-stroke SI engine. The sensor detected the attenuation of infrared radiation in the 4.3 μm infrared vibrational-rotational absorption band of CO2. The residual fraction remaining in the cylinder is proportional to the CO2 concentration. The sensor was tested in a single-cylinder CFR spark ignition engine fired on propane at a speed of 700 rpm. The sensor was located in one of two spark plug holes of the CFR engine. A pressure-transducer-type spark plug was used to record the cylinder pressure and initiate the spark. The temporal resolution of the measurements was 540 μs (equivalent to 2.3 crank angle degrees) and the spatial resolution was 6 mm. Measurements were made during the intake and compression stroke for several intake manifold pressures. The compression ratio of the engine was varied from 6.3 to 9.5.
Technical Paper

Fuel Evaporation Parameter Identification during SI Cold Start

The stochastic properties of continuous time model parameters obtained through discrete least squares estimation are examined. Particular attention is given to the application of estimating the fuel evaporation dynamics of a V-8 SI engine. The continuous time parameter distributions in this case are biased. The bias is shown to be a function of both measurement noise and sampling rate selection. Analysis and experimental results suggest that for each particular model, there is a corresponding optimum sampling rate. A bias compensation formula is proposed that improves the accuracy of least squares estimation without iterative techniques.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Analytically and Experimentally Obtained Residual Fractions and NOX Emissions in Spark-Ignited Engines

Using a fast-sampling valve, residual-fraction levels were determined in a 2.0L spark-ignited production engine, over varying engine operating conditions. Individual samples for each operating condition were analyzed by gas-chromatography which allowed for the determination of in-cylinder CO and CO2 levels. Through a comparison of in-cylinder measurement and exhaust data measurements, residual molar fraction (RMF) levels were determined and compared to analytical results. Analytical calculations were performed using the General Engine SIMulation (GESIM) which is a steady state quasi-dimensional engine combustion cycle simulation. Analytical RMF levels, for identical engine operating conditions, were compared to the experimental results as well as a sensitivity study on wave-dynamics and heat transfer on the analytically predicted RMF. Similarly, theoretical and experimental NOx emissions were compared and production sensitivity on RMF levels explored.
Technical Paper

The Volume Acoustic Modes of Spark-Ignited Internal Combustion Chambers

Acoustic standing waves are excited in internal combustion chambers by both normal combustion and autoignition. The energy in these acoustic modes can be transmitted through the engine block and radiated as high-frequency engine noise. Using finite-element models of two different (four-valve and two-valve) production engine combustion chambers, the mode shapes and relative frequencies of the in-cylinder volume acoustic modes are calculated as a function of crank angle. The model is validated by comparison to spectrograms of experimental time-sampled waveforms (from flush-mounted cylinder pressure sensors and accelerometers) from these two typical production spark-ignited engines.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Pneumatic Atomization on the Lean Limit and IMEP

Lean limit characteristics of a pneumatic port fuel injection system is compared to a conventional port fuel injection system. The lean limit was based on the measured peak pressure. Those cycles with peak pressures greater than 105 % of the peak pressure for a nonfiring cycle were counted. Experimental data suggests that there are differences in lean limit characteristics between the two systems studied, indicating that fuel preparation processes in these systems influence the lean limit behaviors. Lean limits are generally richer for pneumatic fuel injection than those for conventional fuel injection. At richer fuel-to-air ratios the pneumatic injector usually resulted in higher torques. A simple model to estimate the evaporation occurring in the inlet manifold provided an explanation for the observed data.
Technical Paper

Parametric Simulation of Significant Design and Operating Alternatives Affecting the Fuel Economy and Emissions of Spark-Ignited Engines

A fundamental thermodynamic model of the complete spark-ignited, homogeneous charge engine cycle has been used in several parametric analyses to predict the effects of engine design and operating alternatives on fuel consumption and emissions of NOx and unburned hydrocarbons (HC). The simulation includes sub-models for wall heat transfer, NOx and HC emissions, and the engine breathing processes. This work demonstrates the power and utility of a comprehensive engine simulation by presenting several independent parametric studies that were carried out in response to genuine engine design and/or operating strategy questions. Included in this compilation are the effects of cycle heat loss, exhaust port heat loss, combustion duration, and charge dilution (EGR and/or lean air-fuel ratio). In addition, the influence of the design variables associated with bore-stroke ratio, intake and exhaust valve lift, and cam timing are considered.
Technical Paper

A Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engine with Low Exhaust Emissions and Improved Fuel Economy

Turbocharging, in addition to increasing an engine's power output, can be effectively used to maintain exhaust emission levels while improving fuel economy. This paper presents the emission and performance results obtained from a turbocharged multicylinder spark ignition engine with thermal reactors and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) operated at steady-state, part-load conditions for four engine speeds. When comparing a turbocharged engine to a larger displacement naturally aspirated engine of equal power output, the emissions expressed in grams per mile were relatively unchanged both with and without EGR. However, turbocharging provided an average of 20% improvement in fuel economy both with and without EGR. When comparing the turbocharged and nonturbocharged versions of the same engine without EGR at a given load and speed, turbocharging increased the hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and decreased oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions.
Technical Paper

Optical Methodology for Characterization of a Gasoline Direct Injection Closing Event Droplet Distribution

The characteristics of gasoline sprayed directly into combustion chambers are of critical importance to engine out emissions and combustion system development. The optimization of the spray characteristics to match the in-cylinder flow field, chamber geometry, and spark location are vital tasks during the development of an engine combustion strategy. Furthermore, the presence of liquid fuel during combustion in Spark-Ignition (SI) engines causes increased hydro-carbon (HC) emissions [1]. Euro 6, LEVIII, and US Tier 3 emissions regulations reduce the allowable particulate mass significantly from the previous standards. LEVIII standards reduce the acceptable particulate emission to 1 mg/mile [2]. A good DISI strategy vaporizes the correct amount of fuel just in time for optimal power output with minimal emissions. The opening and closing phases of DISI injectors is crucial to this task as the spray produces larger droplets during both theses phases.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Air Fuel Ratio with Ionization Signal Metrics in a Multicylinder Spark Ignited Engine

Accurate individual cylinder Air Fuel Ratio (AFR) feedback provide opportunities for improved engine performance and reduced emissions in spark ignition engines. One potential measurement for individual cylinder AFR is in-cylinder ionization measured by employing the spark plug as a sensor. A number of previous investigations have studied correlations of the ionization signal with AFR and shown promising results. However the studies have typically been limited to single cylinders under restricted operating conditions. This investigation analyzes and characterizes the ionization signals in correlation to individual AFR values obtained from wide-band electrochemical oxygen sensors located in the exhaust runners of each cylinder. Experimental studies for this research were conducted on a 2.0L inline 4 cylinder spark ignited engine with dual independent variable cam phasing and an intake charge motion control valve.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Spark Ignition Events in Lean and Dilute Methane/Air Mixtures Using a Detailed Energy Deposition Model

It is beneficial but challenging to operate spark-ignition engines under highly lean and dilute conditions. The unstable ignition behavior can result in downgraded combustion performance in engine cylinders. Numerical approach is serving as a promising tool to identify the ignition requirements by providing insight into the complex physical/chemical phenomena. An effort to simulate the early stage of flame kernel initiation in lean and dilute fuel/air mixture has been made and discussed in this paper. The simulations are set to validate against laboratory results of spark ignition behavior in a constant volume combustion vessel. In order to present a practical as well as comprehensive ignition model, the simulations are performed by taking into consideration the discharge circuit analysis, the detailed reaction mechanism, and local heat transfer between the flame kernel and spark plug.
Technical Paper

Application of a New Turbulent Flame Speed Combustion Model on Burn Rate Simulation of Spark Ignition Engines

This work presents turbulent premixed combustion modeling in spark ignition engines using G-equation based turbulent combustion model. In present study, a turbulent flame speed expression proposed and validated in recent years by two co-authors of this paper is applied to the combustion simulation of spark ignition engines. This turbulent flame speed expression has no adjustable parameters and its constants are closely tied to the physics of scalar mixing at small scales. Based on this flame speed expression, a minor modification is introduced in this paper considering the fact that the turbulent flame speed changes to laminar flame speed if there is no turbulence. This modified turbulent flame speed expression is implemented into Ford in-house CFD code MESIM (multi-dimensional engine simulation), and is validated extensively.
Technical Paper

Carbureted SI Engine Air Flow Measurements

Measurement of internal combustion engine air flow is challenging due to the required modification of the intake system and subsequent change in the air flow pattern. In this paper, various surge tank volumes were investigated to improve the accuracy of measuring air flow rate into a 674-cm3, four-stroke, liquid-cooled, internal combustion engine. According to the experimental results, when the venturi meter is used to measure the intake air flow rate, an air surge tank is required to be installed downstream of the venturi to smoothen the air flow. Moreover, test results revealed that increasing air surge tank volume beyond a limit could have a negative effect on the engine performance parameters especially in carbureted engines where controlling AFR is difficult. Although the air flow rate into the engine changed with increasing tank volume, the air-fuel ratio was leaner for smaller tank volumes.
Technical Paper

Spark Ignited Direct Injection Natural Gas Combustion in a Heavy Duty Single Cylinder Test Engine - AFR and EGR Dilution Effects

The increased availability of natural gas (NG) in the United States (US) and its relatively low cost compared to diesel fuel has heightened interest in the conversion of medium duty (MD) and heavy duty (HD) engines to NG fueled combustion systems. The aim for development for these NG engines is to realize fuel cost savings and reduce harmful emissions while maintaining durability. Transforming part of the vehicle fleet to NG is a path to reduce dependence on crude oil. Traditionally, port-fuel injection (PFI) or premixed NG spark-ignited (SI) combustion systems have been used for MD and HD engines with widespread use in the US and Europe. But this technology exhibits poor cycle efficiency and is load limited due to knock phenomenon. Direct Injection of NG during the compression stroke promises to deliver improved thermal efficiency by avoiding excessive premixing and extending the lean limits which helps to extend the knock limit.
Technical Paper

Impact of Ignition Energy Phasing and Spark Gap on Combustion in a Homogenous Direct Injection Gasoline SI Engine Near the EGR Limit

For spark-ignition gasoline engines operating under the wide speed and load conditions required for light duty vehicles, ignition quality limits the ability to minimize fuel consumption and NOx emissions via dilution under light and part load conditions. In addition, during transients including tip-outs, high levels of dilution can occur for multiple combustion events before either the external exhaust gas can be adjusted and cleared from the intake or cam phasing can be adjusted for correct internal dilution. Further improvement and a thorough understanding of the impact of the ignition system on combustion near the dilution limit will enable reduced fuel consumption and robust transient operation. To determine and isolate the effects of multiple parameters, a variable output ignition system (VOIS) was developed and tested on a 3.5L turbocharged V6 homogeneous charge direct-injection gasoline engine with two spark plug gaps and three ignition settings.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Benefits of Integrating a Multi-Mode Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) Engine in a Series Extended Range Electric Powertrain

Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engines are promising to improve powertrain fuel economy and reduce NOx and soot emissions by improving the in-cylinder combustion process. However, the narrow operating range of LTC engines limits the use of these engines in conventional powertrains. Extended range electric vehicles (EREVs), by decoupling the engine from the drivetrain, allows the engine to operate in a limited operating range; thus, EREVs offer an ideal platform for realizing the advantages of LTC engines. In this study, the global optimum fuel economy improvement of an experimentally developed 2-liter multi-mode LTC engine in a series EREV is investigated. The engine operation modes include Homogeneous-Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI), and conventional Spark Ignition (SI).
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Four Methods for Determining the Octane Index and K on a Modern Engine with Upstream, Port or Direct Injection

Combustion in modern spark-ignition (SI) engines is increasingly knock-limited with the wide adoption of downsizing and turbocharging technologies. Fuel autoignition conditions are different in these engines compared to the standard Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Numbers (MON) tests. The Octane Index, OI = RON - K(RON-MON), has been proposed as a means to characterize the actual fuel anti-knock performance in modern engines. The K-factor, by definition equal to 0 and 1 for the RON and MON tests respectively, is intended to characterize the deviation of modern engine operation from these standard octane tests. Accurate knowledge of K is of central importance to the OI model; however, a single method for determining K has not been well accepted in the literature.
Technical Paper

Spark Ignited Direct Injection Natural Gas Combustion in a Heavy Duty Single Cylinder Test Engine - Nozzle Included Angle Effects

The increased availability of natural gas (NG) in the United States (US) and its relatively low cost versus diesel fuel has increased interest in the conversion of medium duty (MD) and heavy duty (HD) engines to NG fueled combustion systems. The aim for development for these NG engines is to realize fuel cost savings and increase operating range while reduce harmful emissions and maintaining durability. Traditionally, port-fuel injection (PFI) or premixed NG spark-ignited (SI) combustion systems have been used for light duty LD, and MD engines with widespread use in the US and Europe [1]. However, this technology exhibits poor thermal efficiency and is load limited due to knock phenomenon that has prohibited its use for HD engines. Spark Ignited Direct Injection (SIDI) can be used to create a partially stratified combustion (PSC) mixture of NG and air during the compression stroke.
Technical Paper

Modelling and Control of Engine Torque for Short-Circuit Flow and EGR Evacuation

Low-Pressure Exhaust Gas Recirculation (LP-EGR) has been shown to be an effective means of improving fuel economy and suppressing knock in downsized, boosted, spark ignition engines. LP-EGR is particularly beneficial at low-speed, high-load conditions, but can lead to combustion instability at lower loads. The transport delays inherent in LP-EGR systems slow the reduction of intake manifold EGR concentrations during tip-out events, which may lead to excessive EGR concentrations at low load. This paper explores leveraging Variable Valve Timing (VVT) as a means of improving the rate of reduction of intake manifold EGR concentration prior to tip-out. At higher boost levels, high valve overlap may result in intake manifold gas passing directly to the exhaust manifold. This short-circuiting behaviour could potentially improve EGR evacuation rates.