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Technical Paper

Biofidelity of Anthropomorphic Test Devices for Rear Impact

This study examines the biofidelity, repeatability, and reproducibility of various anthropomorphic devices in rear impacts. The Hybrid III, the Hybrid III with the RID neck, and the TAD-50 were tested in a rigid bench condition in rear impacts with ΔVs of 16 and 24 kph. The results of the tests were then compared to the data of Mertz and Patrick[1]. At a AV of 16 kph, all three anthropomorphic devices showed general agreement with Mertz and Patrick's data [1]. At a AV of 24 kph, the RID neck tended to exhibit larger discrepancies than the other two anthropomorphic devices. Also, two different RID necks produced significantly different moments at the occipital condyles under similar test conditions. The Hybrid III and the Hybrid III with the RID neck were also tested on standard production seats in rear impacts for a AV of 8 kph. Both the kinematics and the occupant responses of the Hybrid III and the Hybrid III with the RID neck differed from each other.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Head Gasket Fretting/Scrub Mechanism Investigation and Analysis Procedure Developments

Typically, modern automotive engine designs include separate cylinder heads and cylinder blocks and utilize a multilayer steel head gasket to seal the resulting joint. Cylinder head bolts are used to hold the joint together and the non-linear properties of head gasket provide capability to seal the movement within the joint, which is essential for engine durability and performance. There are three major failure modes for head gasket joint: fluid or gas leakage due to low sealing pressure, head gasket bead cracking due to high gap alternation and scrubbing/fretting due to pressure and temperature fluctuations causing lateral movement in the joint. During engine operation, the head gasket design should be robust enough to prevent all three failure modes and the resulting design must consider all three major failure modes to provide acceptable performance.
Technical Paper

An Object-Oriented Approach to the Post-Processing of Cylinder Bore Distortion, Valve Seat Distortion, Valve Guide-to-Seat Misalignment and Cam Bore Misalignment

In CAE analysis of cylinder bore distortion, valve seat distortion, valve guide-to-seat misalignment and cam bore misalignment, nodal displacements on the cylinder bore inner surface and on the gage lines of valve seats, valve guides and cam bores are typically output. Best fit cylinders, best fit circles and best fit lines are computed by utilizing the output displacements of the deformed configuration. Based on the information of the best fit geometry, distortions and misalignments are assessed. Some commercial and in-house software is available to compute the best fit cylinders, best fit circles and best fit lines. However, they suffer from the drawback that only one best-fit geometry can be computed at a time. Using this kind of software to assess distortions and misalignments of engine components would be tedious and prone to error, since data transfer as well as the intermediate computation has to be done by hand, and the process is not automatic.
Technical Paper

A Method for Vehicle Occupant Height Estimation

Vehicle safety systems may use occupant physiological information, e.g., occupant heights and weights to further enhance occupant safety. Determining occupant physiological information in a vehicle, however, is a challenging problem due to variations in pose, lighting conditions and background complexity. In this paper, a novel occupant height estimation approach is presented. Depth information from a depth camera, e.g., Microsoft Kinect is used. In this 3D approach, first, human body and frontal face views (restricted by the Pitch and Roll values in the pose estimation) based on RGB and depth information are detected. Next, the eye location (2D coordinates) is detected from frontal facial views by Haar-cascade detectors. The eye-location co-ordinates are then transferred into vehicle co-ordinates, and seated occupant eye height is estimated according to similar triangles and fields of view of Kinect.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Touchscreen Shelf Study

Researchers report an estimated 35.7 million of vehicles with touchscreens will be sold in 2019 worldwide [1]. As the use of touchscreens grows in the automotive industry, there is a need to study how driver’s arm and hand moves to access the touchscreen as well as how the driver utilizes the hardware around the touchscreen. In order to aid drivers while using the touchscreen and to minimize distractions, the drivers’ hand must be able to freely move to perform a task on the touchscreen without the trim interfering with the task. At the same time some trim may be used to support the hand and fingers while accessing the touchscreen particularly during tasks that take a longer period of time to complete. A study was performed to understand the effect of the size and the angle of a shelf placed under a touchscreen. Motion capture (Mocap) data of the hand of subjects performing two different tasks on the touchscreen was collected in the Human Occupant Package Simulator (HOPS).
Technical Paper

Acetabulum Injury Investigation of Proposed US-NCAP in OI Mode

In December 2015, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published a Request for Comments on proposed changes to the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP). One potential change is the addition of a frontal oblique impact (OI) crash test using the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR). The resultant acetabulum force, which is a unique and specifically defined in the THOR dummy, will be considered as a new injury metric. In this study, the results of ten OI tests conducted by NHTSA on current production mid-sized vehicles were investigated. Specifically, the test data was used to study the lower extremity kinematics for the driver and front passenger THOR dummies. It was found that the acetabulum force patterns varied between the driver and passenger and between the left leg and the right leg of the occupants. The maximum acetabulum force can occur either on the left side or right side of a driver or a front passenger in an OI event.
Technical Paper

The Impact Behavior of the Hybrid II Dummy

The head, chest and femurs of three Hybrid II dummies were impacted with a ballistic pendulum at various angles to determine what differences in accelerometer and femur load cell output would result for a constant energy input. Also evaluated were suspicious tension loads in the femur load cell output when the legs were subjected to obvious off-center impacts during crash tests. It was found that the dummy legs can be subjected to very high torsion and bending loads which can have a significant effect on the femur load cell axial load outputs.
Technical Paper

Development of Universal Brake Test Data Exchange Format and Evaluation Standard

Brake system development and testing is spread over vehicle manufacturers, system and component suppliers. Test equipment from different sources, even resulting from different technology generations, different data analysis and report tools - comprising different and sometimes undocumented algorithms - lead to a difficult exchange and analysis of test results and, at the same time, contributes to unwanted test variability. Other studies regarding the test variability brought up that only a unified and unambiguous data format will allow a meaningful and comparative evaluation of these data and only standardization will reveal the actual reasons of test variability. The text at hand illustrates that a substantial part of test variability is caused by a misinterpretation of data and/or by the application of different algorithms.
Technical Paper

Initial Assessment of the Next-Generation USA Frontal NCAP: Fidelity of Various Risk Curves for Estimating Field Injury Rates of Belted Drivers

Various frontal impact risk curves were assessed for the next-generation USA New Car Assessment Program (NCAP). Specifically, the “NCAP risk curves” — those chosen by the government for the 2011 model year NCAP — as well as other published risk curves were used to estimate theoretically the injury rates of belted drivers in real-world frontal crashes. Two perspectives were considered: (1) a “point” estimate of NCAP-type events from NCAP fleet tests, and (2) an “aggregate” estimate of 0 ≤ ΔV ≤ 56 km/h crashes from a modeled theoretical vehicle whose NCAP performance approximated the average of the studied fleet. Four body regions were considered: head, neck, chest, and knee-thigh-hip complex (KTH). The curve-based injury rates for each body region were compared with those of real-world frontal crashes involving properly-belted adult drivers in airbag-equipped light passenger vehicles. The assessment yielded mixed results.
Technical Paper

The Handling of Non-Uniform Parts and Peak Hand Forces

Due to the challenges in quantifying hand loads in manufacturing environments it is often assumed that the load is evenly distributed between the hands, even when handling parts with non-uniform mass distribution. This study estimated hand loads for six female subjects, when handling a custom part in 8 different configurations (2 weights, 4 CofM locations). The calculated hand loads varied from 20 to 50% of the weight being handled. The magnitude of asymmetrical hand loading depended on both the part orientation and the location of the CoM. Based on this study the knowledge of part weight, CofM location and hand positioning will allow the users of digital human models to perform more realistic and reliable task analysis assessments as the force distributions will be more representative of the actual loading rather than simply assuming the load is evenly distributed between the hands.
Technical Paper

Efficient Method for Modeling and Code Generation of Custom Functions

Custom functions are widely used in real-time embedded automotive applications to conserve scarce processor resources. Typical examples include mathematical functions, filtering routines and lookup tables. The custom routines are very efficient and have been in production for many years [ 1 ]. These hand-crafted functions can be reused in new control algorithm designs being developed using Model Based Design (MBD) tools. The next generation of vehicle control software may contain a mix of both automatically generated software and manually developed code. At Ford Motor Company, the code is automatically generated from control algorithm models that are developed using The MathWorks tool chain. Depending on the project-specific needs, the control algorithm models are automatically translated to efficient C code using either The Math Works Real-Time Workshop Embedded Coder (RTW-EC) or dSPACE TargetLink production code generators.
Technical Paper

Automotive Manufacturing Task Analysis: An Integrated Approach

Automotive manufacturing presents unique challenges for ergonomic analysis. The variety of tasks and frequencies are typically not seen in other industries. Moving these challenges into the realm of digital human modeling poses new challenges and offers the opportunity to create and enhance tools brought over from the traditional reactive approach. Chiang et al. (2006) documented an enhancement to the Siemen's Jack Static Strength Prediction tool. This paper will document further enhancements to the ErgoSolver (formerly known as the Ford Static Strength Prediction Solver).
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Analysis of Knee Impact in Frontal Collisions through Finite Element Simulations with a Full Human Body Model

This study applies a detailed finite element model of the human body to simulate occupant knee impacts experienced in vehicular frontal crashes. The human body model includes detailed anatomical features of the head, neck, chest, thoracic and lumbar spine, abdomen, and lower and upper extremities. The material properties used in the model for each anatomic part of the human body were obtained from test data reported in the literature. The total human body model used in the current study has been previously validated in frontal and side impacts. Several cadaver knee impact tests representing occupants in a frontal impact condition were simulated using the previously validated human body model. Model impact responses in terms of force-time and acceleration-time histories were compared with test results. In addition, stress distributions of the patella, femur, and pelvis were reported for the simulated test conditions.
Technical Paper

An Estimation of Supporting Hand Forces for Common Automotive Assembly Tasks

Assembly operators are rarely observed performing one-handed tasks where the unutilized hand is entirely inactive. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the forces applied to supporting hands, by automotive assembly operators, during common one-handed tasks such as hose installations or electrical connections. The data were computed as a percentage of body weight and a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) (p<0.05) was conducted. Supporting hand forces were observed to range from 5.5% to 12.1% of body mass across a variety of tasks. The results of this study can be used to account for these supporting hand forces when performing a biomechanical/ergonomic analysis.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Integrated Non-Intrusive Monitoring of Driver Biological Signals

A vehicle integrated sensing and analysis system has been designed, implemented, and demonstrated to nonintrusively monitor several biological signals of the driver. The biological driver signals measured by the system are the heart electrical signals or pseudo Lead-I electrocardiography (pLI-ECG), the galvanic skin response (GSR) or electrical conductance measured from the driver's fingers to palm, the palm skin temperature, the face skin temperature, and the respiration rate. The pLI-ECG and GSR measurements are made through direct contact of the driver hands with stainless steel electrodes integrated in the steering wheel rim. The temperature measurements are made with non-contacting infrared temperature sensors, also located on the steering wheel. The respiration rate was measured using a flexible thin film piezoelectric sensor affixed to the seatbelt.
Technical Paper

Integration of Active and Passive Safety Technologies - A Method to Study and Estimate Field Capability

The objective of this study is to develop a method that uses a combination of field data analysis, naturalistic driving data analysis, and computational simulations to explore the potential injury reduction capabilities of integrating passive and active safety systems in frontal impact conditions. For the purposes of this study, the active safety system is actually a driver assist (DA) feature that has the potential to reduce delta-V prior to a crash, in frontal or other crash scenarios. A field data analysis was first conducted to estimate the delta-V distribution change based on an assumption of 20% crash avoidance resulting from a pre-crash braking DA feature. Analysis of changes in driver head location during 470 hard braking events in a naturalistic driving study found that drivers’ head positions were mostly in the center position before the braking onset, while the percentage of time drivers leaning forward or backward increased significantly after the braking onset.
Technical Paper

Derivation of a Provisional, Age-dependent, AIS2+ Thoracic Risk Curve for the THOR50 Test Dummy via Integration of NASS Cases, PMHS Tests, and Simulation Data

A provisional, age-dependent thoracic risk equation (or, “risk curve”) was derived to estimate moderate-to-fatal injury potential (AIS2+), pertaining to men with responses gaged by the advanced mid-sized male test dummy (THOR50). The derivation involved two distinct data sources: cases from real-world crashes (e.g., the National Automotive Sampling System, NASS) and cases involving post-mortem human subjects (PMHS). The derivation was therefore more comprehensive, as NASS datasets generally skew towards younger occupants, and PMHS datasets generally skew towards older occupants. However, known deficiencies had to be addressed (e.g., the NASS cases had unknown stimuli, and the PMHS tests required transformation of known stimuli into THOR50 stimuli).
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Considerations for Assessing Interactions of Children and Small Occupants with Inflatable Seat Belts

NHTSA estimates that more than half of the lives saved (168,524) in car crashes between 1960 and 2002 were due to the use of seat belts. Nevertheless, while seat belts are vital to occupant crash protection, safety researchers continue efforts to further enhance the capability of seat belts in reducing injury and fatality risk in automotive crashes. Examples of seat belt design concepts that have been investigated by researchers include inflatable, 4-point, and reverse geometry seat belts. In 2011, Ford Motor Company introduced the first rear seat inflatable seat belts into production vehicles. A series of tests with child and small female-sized Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) and small, elderly female Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) was performed to evaluate interactions of prototype inflatable seat belts with the chest, upper torso, head and neck of children and small occupants, from infants to young adolescents.
Technical Paper

Bumper on Striker: Improve Customer Perception Regarding Door Closing Sound Quality

Did you had opportunity to hear any unpleasant noise when closing some vehicle door? In some cases reminds a metallic touch condition, in other cases reminds several components loose inside the door. The fact is that this kind of noise is definitely unpleasant to the human ears. The good news is that this undesirable condition can be solved easily through of add a soft bumper in the striker; however, needs to pay attention in the material properties and tolerance stack-up conditions to avoid generate side effect, like as high door closing efforts, break parts, lose parts, etc.
Technical Paper

Derivation and Theoretical Assessment of a Set of Biomechanics-based, AIS2+ Risk Equations for the Knee-Thigh-Hip Complex

A set of risk equations was derived to estimate the probability of sustaining a moderate-to-serious injury to the knee-thigh-hip complex (KTH) in a frontal crash. The study consisted of four parts. First, data pertaining to knee-loaded, whole-body, post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) were collected from the literature, and the attendant response data (e.g., axial compressive load applied to the knee) were normalized to those of a mid-sized male. Second, numerous statistical analyses and mathematical constructs were used to derive the set of risk equations for adults of various ages and genders. Third, field data from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) were analyzed for subsequent comparison purposes.