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Technical Paper

The Effects of Natural Aging on Fleet and Durability Vehicle Engine Mounts from a Dynamic Characterization Perspective

2001-04-30
2001-01-1449
Elastomers are traditionally designed for use in applications that require specific mechanical properties. Unfortunately, these properties change with respect to many different variables including heat, light, fatigue, oxygen, ozone, and the catalytic effects of trace elements. When elastomeric mounts are designed for NVH use in vehicles, they are designed to isolate specific unwanted frequencies. As the elastomers age however, the desired elastomeric properties may have changed with time. This study looks at the variability seen in new vehicle engine mounts and how the dynamic properties change with respect to miles accumulated on fleet and durability test vehicles.
Technical Paper

Thermal Fatigue of Automotive Components

2001-03-05
2001-01-0829
Modern approaches for thermal fatigue damage assessment in automotive components are discussed. Three prominent methods are reviewed, and issues with related material testing, numerical implementations and applications to general thermal cycles are presented. In summary, the chosen methods can produce good thermal fatigue life predictions. Common difficulties include first, prolonged experimental programs to determine the required material parameters, and second, significant computational times involved in analysis of realistic models and loading histories.
Technical Paper

Light Truck Stabilizer Bar Attachment Non-linear Fatigue Analysis

1998-11-16
982833
The stabilizer bar attachments problem can not be simply analyzed by using linear FEA methodology. The large deformation in the bushing, the elastic-plastic material property in the bushing retainer bracket, and the contact between different parts all add complexity to the problem and result in the need for an analysis method using a non-linear code, such as ABAQUS. The material properties of the bushing were experimentally determined and applied to the CAE model. It was found that using strains to estimate the fatigue life was more accurate and reliable than using stress. Many modeling techniques used in this analysis were able to improve analysis efficiency.
Technical Paper

A Thermoviscoplastic FE Model for the Strain Prediction in High Temperature, Thermal Cycling Applications for Silicon Molybdenum Nodular Cast Iron

1998-02-23
980697
The design of components for high temperature, thermal cycling situations has traditionally been a challenging problem because the analysis must compensate for the non-linear behavior of the material. One example for automotive applications is the exhaust manifold, where temperatures may reach 900°C during thermal cycling. Fatigue failure and excessive deformation of these components must be analyzed with thermoviscoplastic models. A Finite Element (FE) model is developed to simulate the material behavior at high temperature, thermal cycling conditions. A specimen of Silicon Molybdenum Nodular Cast Iron (4% Si, 0.8% Mo) is cycled between maximum temperatures of 500°C and 960°C while the stress is measured with respect to time. The model predictions for stress are compared to the experimental results for two rates of thermal cycling. The analysis is conducted with and without creep effects to understand its contribution to the overall strain.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Head Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue Risk Assessment under Customer Usage

2017-03-28
2017-01-1086
For aluminum automotive cylinder head designs, one of the concerning failure mechanisms is thermo-mechanical fatigue from changes in engine operating conditions. After an engine is assembled, it goes through many different operating conditions such as cold start, through warm up, peak power, and intermediate cycles. Strain alternation from the variation in engine operation conditions change may cause thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) failure in combustion chamber and exhaust port. Cylinder heads having an integrated exhaust manifold are especially exposed to this failure mode due to the length and complexity of the exhaust gas passage. First a thermo-mechanical fatigue model is developed to simulate a known dynamometer/bench thermal cycle and the corresponding thermo-mechanical fatigue damage is quantified. Additionally, strain state of the cylinder head and its relation to thermo-mechanical fatigue are discussed. The bench test was used to verify the TMF analysis approach.
Technical Paper

Field Risk Assessment Based on Cylinder Head Design Process to Improve High Cycle Fatigue Performance

2017-03-28
2017-01-1085
In a separate SAE paper (Cylinder Head Design Process to Improve High Cycle Fatigue Performance), cylinder head high cycle fatigue (HCF) analysis approach and damage calculation method were developed and presented. In this paper, the HCF damage calculation method is used for risk assessment related to customer drive cycles. Cylinder head HCF damage is generated by repeated stress alternation under different engine operation conditions. The cylinder head high cycle fatigue CAE process can be used as a transfer function to translate engine operating conditions to cylinder head damage/life. There are many inputs, noises, and design parameters that contribute to the cylinder head HCF damage CAE transfer function such as cylinder pressure, component temperature, valve seat press fit, and cylinder head manufacturing method. Material properties and the variation in material properties are also important considerations in the CAE transfer function.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Head Design Process to Improve High Cycle Fatigue Performance

2017-03-28
2017-01-1074
Cylinder head design is a highly challenging task for modern engines, especially for the proliferation of boosted, gasoline direct injection engines (branded EcoBoost® engines by Ford Motor Company). The high power density of these engines results in higher cylinder firing pressures and higher operating temperatures throughout the engine. In addition to the high operating stresses, cylinder heads are normally heat treated to optimize their mechanical properties; residual stresses are generated during heat treatment, which can be detrimental for high-cycle fatigue performance. In this paper, a complete cylinder head high cycle fatigue CAE analysis procedure is demonstrated. First, the heat treatment process is simulated. The transient temperature histories during the quenching process are used to calculate the distribution of the residual stresses, followed by machining simulation, which results in a redistribution of stress.
Technical Paper

High Frequency Sloshing - Energy Dissipation and Viscous Damping through CFD

2017-03-28
2017-01-1317
Liquid sloshing is an important issue in ground transportation, aerospace and automotive applications. Effects of sloshing in a moving liquid container can cause various issues related to vehicle stability, safety, component fatigue, audible noise and, liquid level measurement. The sloshing phenomenon is a highly nonlinear oscillatory movement of the free-surface of liquid inside a container under the effect of continuous or momentarily excitation forces. These excitation forces can result from sudden acceleration, braking, sharp turning or pitching motions. The sloshing waves generated by the excitation forces can impact on the tank surface and cause additional vibrations. For the loads with the frequencies between 2 to 200 Hz, the structural fatigue failure is a major concern for automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Static and Fatigue Performance of Fusion Welded Uncoated DP780 Coach Joints

2008-04-14
2008-01-0695
Typical automotive joints are lap, coach, butt and miter joints. In tubular joining applications, a coach joint is common when one tube is joined to another tube without the use of brackets. Various fusion joining processes are popular in joining coach joints. Common fusion joining processes are Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), Laser and Laser Hybrid, and Gas Tungsten arc welding (GTAW). In this study, fusion welded 2.0 mm uncoated DP780 steel coach joints were investigated. Laser, Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), and laser hybrid (Laser + GMAW) welding processes were selected. Metallurgical properties of the DP780 fusion welds were evaluated using optical microscopy. Static and fatigue tests were conducted on these joints for all three joining processes. It was found that joint fit-up, type of welding process, and process parameters, especially travel speed, have significant impact on static and fatigue performance of the coach joints in this study.
Technical Paper

Automotive Manufacturing Task Analysis: An Integrated Approach

2008-06-17
2008-01-1897
Automotive manufacturing presents unique challenges for ergonomic analysis. The variety of tasks and frequencies are typically not seen in other industries. Moving these challenges into the realm of digital human modeling poses new challenges and offers the opportunity to create and enhance tools brought over from the traditional reactive approach. Chiang et al. (2006) documented an enhancement to the Siemen's Jack Static Strength Prediction tool. This paper will document further enhancements to the ErgoSolver (formerly known as the Ford Static Strength Prediction Solver).
Technical Paper

Aluminum Cylinder Head High Cycle Fatigue Durability Including the Effects of Manufacturing Processes

2012-04-16
2012-01-0540
High cycle fatigue material properties are not uniformly distributed on cylinder heads due to the casting process. Virtual Aluminum Casting (VAC) tools have been developed within Ford Motor Company to simulate the effects of the manufacturing process on the mechanical properties of cast components. One of VAC features is the ability to predict the high cycle fatigue strength distribution. Residual stresses also play an important role in cylinder head high cycle fatigue, therefore they are also simulated and used in the head high cycle fatigue analysis. Cylinder head assembly, thermal and operating stresses are simulated with ABAQUS™. The operating stresses are combined with the residual stresses for high cycle fatigue calculations. FEMFAT™ is used for the high cycle fatigue analysis. A user-defined Haigh diagram is built based on the local material properties obtained from the VAC simulation.
Technical Paper

The Use of Discrete Wavelet Transform in Road Loads Signals Compression

2009-10-06
2009-36-0238
Wavelets are a powerful mathematical tool used to multi-resolution time-frequency decomposition of signals, in order to analyze them in different scales and obtain different aspects of the information. Despite being a relatively new tool, wavelets have being applied in several areas of human knowledge, especially in signal processing, with emphasis in encoding and compression of image, video and audio. Based on a previous successful applications (FRAZIER, 1999) together a commitment to quality results, this paper evaluates the use of the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) as an compression algorithm to reduce the amount of data collected in road load signals (load history) which are used by the durability engineering teams in the automotive industry.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction for Adaptable Insert Welds between Sheet Steel and Cast Magnesium Alloy

2016-04-05
2016-01-0392
Joining technology is a key factor to utilize dissimilar materials in vehicle structures. Adaptable insert weld (AIW) technology is developed to join sheet steel (HSLA350) to cast magnesium alloy (AM60) and is constructed by combining riveting technology and electrical resistance spot welding technology. In this project, the AIW joint technology is applied to construct front shock tower structures composed with HSLA350, AM60, and Al6082 and a method is developed to predict the fatigue life of the AIW joints. Lap-shear and cross-tension specimens were constructed and tested to develop the fatigue parameters (load-life curves) of AIW joint. Two FEA modeling techniques for AIW joints were used to model the specimen geometry. These modeling approaches are area contact method (ACM) and TIE contact method.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Automotive System Fatigue Models Processed in the Time and Frequency Domain

2016-04-05
2016-01-0377
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that frequency domain methods for calculating structural response and fatigue damage can be more widely applicable than previously thought. This will be demonstrated by comparing results of time domain vs. frequency domain approaches for a series of fatigue/durability problems with increasing complexity. These problems involve both static and dynamic behavior. Also, both single input and multiple correlated inputs are considered. And most important of all, a variety of non-stationary loading types have been used. All of the example problems investigated are typically found in the automotive industry, with measured loads from the field or from the proving ground.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction of Injection Molding Tool

2017-03-28
2017-01-0340
Injection molding tools are expensive and the fatigue failure during production would result in very costly rework on the tool and downtime. Currently, mold designs are mostly based on expert experience without a careful stress analysis and the mold tool life cycle relies largely on rough estimates. The industry state of the art applies averaged temperature change and peak pressure load on the mold tool. The static analysis is then performed. Mold temperature history and thermal shock are not considered in the durability analysis. In this paper, a transient thermal analysis of the tool is performed in conjunction with the injection molding process simulation. The spatial and temporal variation of temperature, pressure and clamping forces are exported from Moldflow simulation. These histories of temperature and pressure are converted to appropriate loading curves and mapped into Abaqus FEA model.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Mixed Mode Fatigue Crack Growth of Automotive Structural Adhesive BM4601

2017-03-28
2017-01-0331
Fatigue crack growth tests have been carried out to investigate the mixed mode fatigue crack propagation behavior of an automotive structural adhesive BM4601. The tests were conducted on a compound CMM (Compact Mixed Mode) specimen under load control with 0.1 R ratio and 3Hz frequency. A long distance moving microscope was employed during testing to monitor and record the real time length of the fatigue crack in the adhesive layer. The strain energy release rates of the crack under different loading angles, crack lengths and loads were calculated by using finite element method. The pure mode I and mode II tests show that an equal value of mode I strain energy release rate results in over ten times higher FCGR (Fatigue Crack Growth Rate) than the mode II stain energy release rate does. The mixed mode tests results show that under a certain loading angle, the mixed mode FCGR is changed by changing the load, which is contrary to the find in pure mode I and mode II tests.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Motion on the Fatigue Life of Cooling Components

2017-03-28
2017-01-0337
Ensuring durability is one of the key requirements while developing cooling modules for various powertrains. Typically, road surface induced loads are the main driving force behind mechanical failures. While developing the components, road load accelerations are utilized in CAE simulations to predict the high-stress regions and estimate the fatigue life of the components mounted on the body. In certain scenarios where components are mounted to the body and attached to the engine with hoses, the components can experience additional loads associated with engine vibration. This attachment scheme requires a different analysis methodology to determine fatigue life. In the proposed paper, we look at the effect of engine motion (EM) on the fatigue life of internal transmission oil cooler (ITOC) which is mounted on the body through radiator and is simultaneously connected to the engine using a steel pipe. We propose a new CAE methodology taking into account the engine motion displacements.
Technical Paper

Frequency Effects on High-Density Polyethylene Failure under Cyclic Loading

2017-03-28
2017-01-0332
High density polyethylene (HDPE) is widely used in automotive industry applications. When a specimen made of HDPE tested under cyclic loading, the inelastic deformation causes heat generated within the material, resulting in a temperature rise. The specimen temperature would stabilize if heat transfer from specimen surface can balance with the heat generated. Otherwise, the temperature will continue to rise, leading to a thermo assist failure. It is shown in this study that both frequencies and stress levels contribute to the temperature rise. Under service conditions, most of the automotive components experience low cyclic load frequency much less than 1 Hz. However, the frequency is usually set to a higher constant number for different stress levels in current standard fatigue life tests.
Technical Paper

Frequency FE-Based Weld Fatigue Life Prediction of Dynamic Systems

2017-03-28
2017-01-0355
In most aspects of mechanical design related to a motor vehicle there are two ways to treat dynamic fatigue problems. These are the time domain and the frequency domain approaches. Time domain approaches are the most common and most widely used especially in the automotive industries and accordingly it is the method of choice for the fatigue calculation of welded structures. In previous papers the frequency approach has been successful applied showing a good correlation with the life and damage estimated using a time based approach; in this paper the same comparative process has been applied but now extended specifically to welded structures. Both the frequency domain approach and time domain approach are used for numerically predicting the fatigue life of the seam welds of a thin sheet powertrain installation bracketry of a commercial truck submitted to variable amplitude loading. Predicted results are then compared with bench tests results, and their accuracy are rated.
Technical Paper

Vibration Fatigue for Chassis-Mounted, Cantilevered Components

2017-03-28
2017-01-0360
Vehicle chassis mounted cantilevered components should meet two critical design targets: 1) NVH criterion to avoid resonance with road noise and engine vibration and 2) satisfied durability performance to avoid any incident in structure failure and dysfunction. Generally, two types of testing are performed to validate chassis mounted cantilevered component in the design process: shaker table testing and vehicle proving ground testing. Shaker table testing is a powered vibration endurance test performed with load input summarized from real proving ground data and accurate enough to replicate the physical test. The proving ground test is typically performed at critical milestones with full vehicles. Most tests are simplified lab testing to save cost and effort. CAE procedures that virtually replicate these lab tests is even more helpful in the design verification stages.
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