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Technical Paper

Errors in the Driveline System Balancing Process

2001-04-30
2001-01-1504
Single-plane balancing is a very well-understood process, whereby an imbalance vector is determined and then opposed by a similar vector of equal magnitude but 180° out of phase. This is used in many situations to improve machine performance, vibration, noise etc. However, there is inherent in this process a sensitivity to errors of measurement and correction, since a large imbalance vector and the equally large correction vector must be of exactly equal magnitude and exactly 180° apart for perfect balance. This paper examines the effect of errors in measurement of the initial imbalance and correction of it on the residual balance of automotive drivelines. In particular, it examines the effects of the errors present in a system whereby a system balance correction is made, on a driveline assembly, at discrete points around a given plane (at bolt locations). Errors occur in measurement of vibration, in calculating correction masses and in applying those correction masses.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Front Suspension Parameters on Road Wheel Toe Dynamics

2001-03-05
2001-01-0482
Front road wheel toe dynamics directly affects tire wear and steering wheel vibration, which in turn negatively impacts customer satisfaction. Though static toe can be preset in assembly plants, the front road wheels can vibrate around steering axes or kingpin axes due to tire mass unbalance and nonuniformity. The frequency of the vibration depends on the wheel size and vehicle speed, while the amplitude of the vibration is not only dictated by the tire forces, but also by suspension and steering parameters. This paper presents a study on the sensitivities of the front road wheel toe dynamics to the parameters of a short-long-arm suspension (SLA) and a parallelogram steering system. These parameters includes hard point shift, steering gear compliance, gear friction, control arm bushing rates, friction in control arm ball joints, and compliance in tie rod outboard joints.
Technical Paper

Critical Engine Geometry Generation for Rapid Powertrain Concept Design Assessment

1998-02-23
981090
This paper presents some of the design rules used to calculate critical geometry of engine components, and the object-oriented component hierarchy system in PET. This paper also presents parametric solid model assembling schemes used to dynamically construct an assembly of whole powertrain systems. Some examples of powertrain concept design, such as the estimation of friction, packaging, and moving component clearances, will be presented. The computational efficiency of this concept design method will be compared to traditional methods also.
Technical Paper

Current and Past Technologies for Headliners Including Acoustics, Recycling and Safety

1998-02-23
980951
Headliner technology will be presented in this paper. Older established technologies such as cut & score, fiberglass, hardboard and resinated cotton are still used because of their proven reliability and low cost. But newer processes including polyester, natural fiber, Tramivex™ and urethane offer reliability, structure, acoustic performance and some recyclability. Fiberglass has always been a leader in acoustical performance but has breakage and handability issues in the assembly plants. This paper will be divided in four sections. The first section discusses manufacturing processes for headliners covering current and past. It also covers the materials used and types of facing. This section will state why headliner technology used in the USA is different than Europe or emerging markets. Second section describes acoustics. It will explain performance as related to material types. Porosity, cell type, fiber length and diameter is explained as it relates to the absorption of sound.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of 25% Post-Industrial Recycled SMC Hood Assembly for the 1998 Lincoln Continental Program

1998-02-23
981019
This paper describes the process of incorporation of 25% post-industrial recycled sheet molded composite (SMC) material in the 1998 Continental Hood inner. 1998 Continental Hood assembly consists of traditional SMC outer and this recycled hood inner along with three small steel reinforcements. BUDD Plastics collects SMC scraps from their manufacturing plants. The scrap is then processed and made into fillers for production of SMC. Strength of SMC comes from glass fibers and fillers are added to produce the final mix of raw materials. This recycled material is approximately 10% lighter and less stiff than the conventional virgin SMC. This presented unique challenges to the product development team to incorporate this material into a production vehicle in order to obtain the desired goal of reducing land fill and improving the environment.
Technical Paper

Engineering Moveable Glass Window Seals of Automotive Door Using Upfront CAE

1998-09-29
982383
The traditional moveable glass window seal development process has relied heavily on physical prototypes for design verification. Due to frequent styling changes and an overall reduction in design time, physical prototypes for the glass window seals have proven to be inadequate. Utilization of computer aided engineering (CAE) tools is necessary in order to shorten lead time. CAE tools will help to decrease expensive prototyping, free up valuable manufacturing line time, and improve overall quality. A cross functional approach has been applied to expand the scope beyond traditional methods of moveable glass window seal design, such as wedged boarding, into new computerized modeling methods. The CAE was used to address major requirements of the glass window seals including glass velocity, glass stall force, sealing-ability, seal durability, seal assembly, seal appearance, and regulator motor current.
Technical Paper

Paint Inspection Lighting

1998-09-29
982315
An improved defect detection system for painted surfaces has been developed which significantly increases topographic defect visibility (dirt-in-paint, sags/runs/drips, sealer-under-paint, spits, craters, etc.) for the final inspector / polisher. These minor defects can then be repaired before leaving the “spillout” deck. A new luminaire was designed to maximize the contribution of several applicable principles. The new process has significantly reduced the number of defects leaving the spillout area, doubled the number of “zero defect” vehicles, and increased energy savings from 25-40%. The improved Paint Inspection Lighting process was issued as a Uniform Process specification by the Ford Motor Company Vehicle Operations and was implemented in all of the Ford North American assembly plants.
Technical Paper

Non-Linear Finite Element Analysis of Valve Seats and Valve Guides Assembly in Engine Cylinder Head

2017-03-28
2017-01-1090
In the shop floor, cracking issue was noticed during assembly of valve seat and valve guide in the engine cylinder head, especially near the valve seating area. This paper reveals a non- linear finite element methodology to verify the structural integrity of a cylinder head during valve seat and valve guide assembly press-in operation under the maximum material condition, i.e., smallest hole size on cylinder head for valve seat and guide and largest diameter of valve seat and guide. Material and geometrical nonlinearities, and contact are included in this method to replicate the actual seat and guide press-in operation which is being carried out in shop floor. The press-in force required for each valve seat and valve guide assembly is extracted from simulation results to find out the tonnage capacity of pressing machine for cylinder head assembly line. Stress and plastic deformation due to assembly load are the criteria checked against the respective material yield.
Technical Paper

Effective Application of CAE Guidance for Hemmed Closures Throughout the Vehicle Development Process

2017-03-28
2017-01-1310
The perceived quality of automotive closures (flushness and margin) is strongly affected by flanging and hemming of the outer panels and assembly respectively. To improve the quality of closures, the traditional hardware approach needs significant amount of time and costly die re-cuts and trials with prototype panels. Thus, such approach may delay the vehicle program and increase the overall investment cost. The proposed CAE methodology provides upfront design guidance to dies and panels, reduces time and increases cost savings associated with flanging and hemming while improving overall quality of the closures. In this proposed approach, as a first step, analytical formulae and design of experiments (DOE) are followed to estimate magnitude of design parameters of panels and dies as the upfront design guidance.
Technical Paper

Modular Design and Methods to Optimize Seat Complete Assemblies

2017-03-28
2017-01-1309
Modularity in product architecture and its significance in product development have become an important product design topics in the last few decades. Several Product Modularity definitions and methodologies were developed by many researchers; however, most of the definitions and concepts have proliferated to the extent that it is difficult to apply one universal definition for modular product architecture and in product development. Automotive seat modular strategy and key factors for consideration towards modular seat design and assemblies are the main focus of this work. The primary objectives are focused on the most “natural segmentation” of the seat elements (i.e., cushions, backs, trims, plastics, head restraints, etc.) to enable the greatest ease of final assembly and greatest flexibility for scalable feature offerings around common assembly “hard-points.”
Technical Paper

The 1970 Ford Dual Circuit Air Brake System

1970-02-01
700504
The braking system presented in this article represents a new and forward thinking philosophy regarding commercial vehicle air brake systems. A concept that provides responsive service and emergency brake applications with optimum vehicle control, by the same driver action on the brake pedal. The uniqueness of the total system, and each circuit's function thereof, is explained in basic detail. In addition, the engineering, quality control, and assembly techniques to manufacture the vehicle with assurance that design intent is achieved, are discussed.
Technical Paper

The Use of a Modified S.A.E. H-Point Machine in Assembly Plants

1977-02-01
770252
As part of a continuing Ford Motor Company program to improve the seating packages of production cars, a simplified in-plant method was developed to check seating variations in production vehicles. The method also provided information helpful in determining causal factors when any irregularities were found. Equipment necessary for checking was designed to be easily transported to any site.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Flare Component Specifications on the Sealing of Double Inverted Flare Brake Tube Joints

2009-04-20
2009-01-1029
While SAE double inverted flares have been in use for decades, leaking joints continue to be a problem for OEMs in production settings consuming time and energy to detect and correct them before releasing vehicles from the assembly plant. It should be noted that this issue is limited to first-time vehicle assembly; once a flared brake tube joint is sealed at the assembly plant it remains sealed during normal customer usage. From their inception through the late 1980s most brake tubes have been 3/16″ nominal diameter. With the advent of higher flow requirements of Traction Control and Yaw/Stability control systems, larger tubes of 1/4″ and 5/16″ size have also been introduced. While it was known that the first-time sealing capability of the 3/16″ joint was not 100%, leakers were generally containable in the production environment and the joint was regarded as robust.
Technical Paper

Automotive Manufacturing Task Analysis: An Integrated Approach

2008-06-17
2008-01-1897
Automotive manufacturing presents unique challenges for ergonomic analysis. The variety of tasks and frequencies are typically not seen in other industries. Moving these challenges into the realm of digital human modeling poses new challenges and offers the opportunity to create and enhance tools brought over from the traditional reactive approach. Chiang et al. (2006) documented an enhancement to the Siemen's Jack Static Strength Prediction tool. This paper will document further enhancements to the ErgoSolver (formerly known as the Ford Static Strength Prediction Solver).
Technical Paper

An Estimation of Supporting Hand Forces for Common Automotive Assembly Tasks

2008-06-17
2008-01-1914
Assembly operators are rarely observed performing one-handed tasks where the unutilized hand is entirely inactive. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the forces applied to supporting hands, by automotive assembly operators, during common one-handed tasks such as hose installations or electrical connections. The data were computed as a percentage of body weight and a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) (p<0.05) was conducted. Supporting hand forces were observed to range from 5.5% to 12.1% of body mass across a variety of tasks. The results of this study can be used to account for these supporting hand forces when performing a biomechanical/ergonomic analysis.
Technical Paper

Aluminum Cylinder Head High Cycle Fatigue Durability Including the Effects of Manufacturing Processes

2012-04-16
2012-01-0540
High cycle fatigue material properties are not uniformly distributed on cylinder heads due to the casting process. Virtual Aluminum Casting (VAC) tools have been developed within Ford Motor Company to simulate the effects of the manufacturing process on the mechanical properties of cast components. One of VAC features is the ability to predict the high cycle fatigue strength distribution. Residual stresses also play an important role in cylinder head high cycle fatigue, therefore they are also simulated and used in the head high cycle fatigue analysis. Cylinder head assembly, thermal and operating stresses are simulated with ABAQUS™. The operating stresses are combined with the residual stresses for high cycle fatigue calculations. FEMFAT™ is used for the high cycle fatigue analysis. A user-defined Haigh diagram is built based on the local material properties obtained from the VAC simulation.
Technical Paper

A Matrix Array Technique for Evaluation of Adhesively Bonded Joints

2012-04-16
2012-01-0475
Adhesive bonding technology is playing an increasingly important role in automotive industry. Ultrasonic evaluation of adhesive joints of metal sheets is a challenging problem in Non-Destructive Testing due to the large acoustic impedance mismatch between metal and adhesive, variability in the thickness of metal and adhesive layers, as well as variability in joint geometry. In this paper, we present the results from a matrix array of small flat ultrasonic transducers for evaluation of adhesively bonded joints in both laboratory and production environments. The reverberating waveforms recorded by the array elements are processed to obtain an informative parameter, whose two-dimensional distribution can be presented as a C-scan. Energy of the reflected waveform, normalized with respect to the energy obtained from an area with no adhesive, is a robust parameter for discriminating "adhesive/no-adhesive" regions.
Technical Paper

Lightweight Materials for Automotive Applications: A Review

2015-09-22
2015-36-0219
Today, in order to optimize the resources usage and reduce the air pollution, the automobile industry is facing new challenges, with the necessity to improve engines fuel economy, enhance vehicles autonomy and reduce the CO2 emission. One of the solution, which is being much researched, is the car components weight reduction. There is a range of new materials that have been developed to attend the new weight standards. Together with lightweight these materials must also deliver acceptable mechanical properties, easy to manufacture and to assembly capability, good appearance, high durability, good cost-benefit relation and in some cases also acceptable impact energy absorption. This paper presents a review of some of the lightweight materials that are being applied in automobiles, like Carbon Fiber, Aluminum Alloy, Magnesium Alloy, Hybrid Material and Polymer Composites.
Technical Paper

The Finite Element Analysis of Planetary Gear Pinion Shaft Staking

2016-04-05
2016-01-1358
During the planetary gear assembly, staking is a widely-used method for affixing pinion shafts onto the position. A reliable staking process not only prevents the movement of shaft during transmission operation, but also minimizes the distortion of the assembly due to the staking process. The quality of staking operations is determined by the component designs, the process parameters, and the staking tool geometry. It would be extremely time-consuming and tedious to evaluate these factors empirically; not even mention the requirement of prototypes in the early stage of a new program. A Finite Element methodology is developed to simulate the complete staking process including shaft press in, staking, and after staking tool release. The critical process parameters, such as staking force, staking length, shaft and holes interference amount, etc., are then evaluated systematically.
Technical Paper

Radial O-Ring Insertion Force Optimization for Functionality and Assembly

2017-03-28
2017-01-0326
When sealing an application with a radial O-ring system design there is a balance that must be struck between O-ring function and the ease of assembly. If design parameters are not properly controlled or considered it is possible to design an O-ring seal that would require assembly insertion forces that exceed acceptable ergonomic practices from a manufacturing standpoint. If designs are released into production with these high insertion forces manufacturing operators will struggle to assemble parts, creating opportunity for potential operator injury due to repetitive strain or CTD. In this study several variables impacting O-ring system insertion forces were tested to quantify the effects. Results were analyzed to identify design controls that could be implemented from an early design phase to optimize both functionality and ease of assembly.
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