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Technical Paper

The Effect of High Mileage Spot Weld Degradation on Vehicle Body Joint Stiffness

Joint stiffness is a major contributor to the vehicle body overall bending and torsional stiffness which in turn affects the vehicle NVH performance. Each joint consists of spot welds which function as load paths between adjacent sheet metal. Spot welds tend to lose structural integrity as a result of fatigue, loosening, aging, wear and corrosion of parts as a vehicle accumulates mileage. Experimental methods are used to identify potential degradation mechanisms associated with a spot weld. A CAE model which simulates a vehicle body joint generically is used to determine the effects of each individual degradation mode of a spot weld on joint stiffness. A real life B-pillar to roof joint CAE model of a production vehicle is then employed to examine the significance of weld distribution on joint stiffness degradation. The knowledge derived from this study can be used as a guidance in designing vehicle body structures with respect to spot weld distribution.
Technical Paper

Frequency Response Assurance Criterion and Applications to Model Correlation of Body Structures

Frequency response functions are frequently used production development to identify correlation levels between designs or between analytical simulation and tests. Frequency Response Assurance Criterion is one effective method to quantify such correlations. However, practical issues such as a large number of FRFs exist and complicated modal characteristics often prevent us using the traditional FRAC analysis. A Group FRAC method was developed and is introduced in this article to resolve these application difficulties. This Group FRAC method enables automatic and efficient processing of large number of FRFs in additional to other improvements. The benefit of using the Group FRAC is evidenced through practical applications.
Technical Paper

Drawbeads in Sheet Metal Stamping - A Review

The paper reviews the role of drawbeads in sheet metal stamping. The design of drawbeads is discussed in depth, with treatment of different bead cross sections, bead end shapes, and bead materials. International standards and practices are included. This is followed by the historical development of the modeling of the drawbead restraining force, starting with basic equilibrium approaches, and leading to the use of the finite element method which permits the study of drawbead effects on sheet metal flow in three dimensions. Finally, the potential of active drawbeads is described based upon ongoing research which is directed toward closed-loop computer control of the stamping process through adjustment of the drawbead penetration.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of 25% Post-Industrial Recycled SMC Hood Assembly for the 1998 Lincoln Continental Program

This paper describes the process of incorporation of 25% post-industrial recycled sheet molded composite (SMC) material in the 1998 Continental Hood inner. 1998 Continental Hood assembly consists of traditional SMC outer and this recycled hood inner along with three small steel reinforcements. BUDD Plastics collects SMC scraps from their manufacturing plants. The scrap is then processed and made into fillers for production of SMC. Strength of SMC comes from glass fibers and fillers are added to produce the final mix of raw materials. This recycled material is approximately 10% lighter and less stiff than the conventional virgin SMC. This presented unique challenges to the product development team to incorporate this material into a production vehicle in order to obtain the desired goal of reducing land fill and improving the environment.
Technical Paper

Laser & Fine Plasma Trimming of Sheet Metal Parts for Low Volume Production

This study compared laser and fine plasma technology for cutting typical electro-galvanized steel and aluminum automotive stampings. Comparisons were made of various aspects of cut quality, accuracy, disturbance of parent material, cycle time, and capital and operating costs. A sensitivity analysis was included to determine how different scenarios would impact the operating costs. It was found that both processes were capable of high quality cuts at 3800mm/min. Capital savings were achievable through the fine plasma system, but careful consideration of the specific application was essential. This work will allow for an advised comparison of options for sheet metal flexible cutting.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Analytically and Experimentally Obtained Residual Fractions and NOX Emissions in Spark-Ignited Engines

Using a fast-sampling valve, residual-fraction levels were determined in a 2.0L spark-ignited production engine, over varying engine operating conditions. Individual samples for each operating condition were analyzed by gas-chromatography which allowed for the determination of in-cylinder CO and CO2 levels. Through a comparison of in-cylinder measurement and exhaust data measurements, residual molar fraction (RMF) levels were determined and compared to analytical results. Analytical calculations were performed using the General Engine SIMulation (GESIM) which is a steady state quasi-dimensional engine combustion cycle simulation. Analytical RMF levels, for identical engine operating conditions, were compared to the experimental results as well as a sensitivity study on wave-dynamics and heat transfer on the analytically predicted RMF. Similarly, theoretical and experimental NOx emissions were compared and production sensitivity on RMF levels explored.
Technical Paper

A New Multi-point Active Drawbead Forming Die: Model Development for Process Optimization

A new press/die system for restraining force control has been developed in order to facilitate an increased level of process control in sheet metal forming. The press features a built-in system for controlling drawbead penetration in real time. The die has local force transducers built into the draw radius of the lower tooling. These sensors are designed to give process information useful for the drawbead control. This paper focuses on developing models of the drawbead actuators and the die shoulder sensors. The actuator model is useful for developing optimal control methods. The sensor characterization is necessary in order to develop a relationship between the raw sensor outputs and a definitive process characteristic such as drawbead restraining force (DBRF). Closed loop control of local specific punch force is demonstrated using the die shoulder sensor and a PID controller developed off-line with the actuator model.
Technical Paper

Investigation of a Ford 2.0 L Duratec for Touring Car Racing

This paper summarizes an investigative study done to evaluate the feasibility of a Ford Duratec engine in 2.0 L Touring Car Racing. The investigative study began in early 1996 due to an interest by British Touring Car Championship and North American Touring Car Championship sanctioning bodies to modify rules & demand the engine be production based in the vehicle entered for competition. The current Ford Touring Car entry uses a Mazda based V-6. This Study was intended to determine initial feasibility of using a 2.0 L Duratec V-6 based on the production 2.5L Mondeo engine. Other benefits expected from this study included; learning more about the Duratec engine at high speeds, technology exchange between a production and racing application, and gaining high performance engineering experience for production engineering personnel. In order to begin the Duratec feasibility study, an initial analytical study was done using Ford CAE tools.
Technical Paper

A Customer Driven Reliability and Quality Methodology for Existing Products

In order to maximize customer satisfaction in today's global market place, the quality of products and services need to be improved continually. Increased focus on quality, with the attendant proliferation of methods and tools, has created the need for a comprehensive framework to guide the selection of the tools. Individuals within an organization need to know what tools are appropriate in a given situation, and when, where and how the knowledge gained from an effort should be documented. In addition, a common nomenclature to convey quality related information to each other would avoid confusion and improve the communication process thus improving the effectiveness and productivity of the organization. This paper integrates tools that have evolved recently with the old tools that have been in use for a number of years.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Engine Air Induction System Hydrocarbon Traps

Engine air induction systems hydrocarbon trap (HC trap) designs to limit evaporative fuel emissions, have evolved over time. This paper discusses a range of HC traps that have evolved in engine air induction systems. (AIS) The early zeolite flow through HC trap utilized an exhaust catalyst technology internal stainless steel furnace brazed substrate coated with zeolite media. This HC trap was installed in the AIS clean air tube. This design was heavy, complicated, and expensive but met the urgency of the implementation of the new evaporative emissions regulation. The latest Ford Motor Company HC trap is a simple plastic tray containing activated carbon with breathable non-woven polyester cover. This design has been made common across multiple vehicle lines with planned production annual volume in the millions. The cost of the latest HC trap bypass design is approximately 5% of the original stainless steel zeolite flow through HC trap.
Technical Paper

Trends in Body Design

Customers’ demands and modern technology and materials developments have required a new approach to automobile body design. The modern body engineering department is made up of specialists in a wide variety of scientific and engineering skills. This paper describes the trends in modern design and explains why the modern automobile represents a composite of customer satisfaction, engineering achievement, and quality production. To round out the author’s presentation, discussions by R. F. Baird, Chrysler Corp., and H. S. Kaiser and C. E. Heeden of the General Motors Corp. are also included.
Technical Paper

MMLV: Lightweight Interior Systems Design

The Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) developed by Magna International and Ford Motor Company is a result of a US Department of Energy project DE-EE0005574. The project demonstrates the lightweighting potential of a five passenger sedan, while maintaining vehicle performance and occupant safety. Prototype vehicles were manufactured and limited full vehicle testing was conducted. The MMLV vehicle design, comprised of commercially available materials and production processes, achieved a 364kg (23.5%) full vehicle mass reduction, enabling the application of a 1.0-liter three-cylinder engine resulting in a significant environmental benefit and fuel reduction. This paper describes the concept design, prototyping, and validation for interior subsystems of the MMLV. Case studies are presented for two of the interior subsystems: the instrument panel/cross-car beam (IP/CCB) and the front seat structures.
Technical Paper

Engineering Development off the Probe IV Advanced Concept Vehicle

The application of aerodynamics to the automobile in the last several years has grown considerably. Ford Motor Company, a forerunner in the use of this technology in both their production and concept vehicles, recently unveiled its latest advanced concept vehicle - Probe IV. This paper discusses the various engineering developments which made this vehicle a reality. Specifically, addressed are those engineering developments which were necessary to accommodate the unique styling and aerodynamic functions.
Technical Paper

The Use of a Modified S.A.E. H-Point Machine in Assembly Plants

As part of a continuing Ford Motor Company program to improve the seating packages of production cars, a simplified in-plant method was developed to check seating variations in production vehicles. The method also provided information helpful in determining causal factors when any irregularities were found. Equipment necessary for checking was designed to be easily transported to any site.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Flare Component Specifications on the Sealing of Double Inverted Flare Brake Tube Joints

While SAE double inverted flares have been in use for decades, leaking joints continue to be a problem for OEMs in production settings consuming time and energy to detect and correct them before releasing vehicles from the assembly plant. It should be noted that this issue is limited to first-time vehicle assembly; once a flared brake tube joint is sealed at the assembly plant it remains sealed during normal customer usage. From their inception through the late 1980s most brake tubes have been 3/16″ nominal diameter. With the advent of higher flow requirements of Traction Control and Yaw/Stability control systems, larger tubes of 1/4″ and 5/16″ size have also been introduced. While it was known that the first-time sealing capability of the 3/16″ joint was not 100%, leakers were generally containable in the production environment and the joint was regarded as robust.
Technical Paper

Regression Model application in Six Sigma Projects

Six Sigma represents a mindset change – part of this mindset, is to focus our decision based on data, looking for the root causes of our issues instead of acting on the effects of the causes. Aligned to this statement, the purpose of this paper is to present through a case study, how the concepts of Six Sigma – a data driven mindset, can be used to improve a process, reducing waste and keeping the same standards of quality. The focus is to show how a transfer function, generated through a multiple regression can optimize a production process, reducing waste and improving quality.
Technical Paper

A Correlation Study between the Full Scale Wind Tunnels of Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors

A correlation of aerodynamic wind tunnels was initiated between Chrysler, Ford and General Motors under the umbrella of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR). The wind tunnels used in this correlation were the open jet tunnel at Chrysler's Aero Acoustic Wind Tunnel (AAWT), the open jet tunnel at the Jacobs Drivability Test Facility (DTF) that Ford uses, and the closed jet tunnel at General Motors Aerodynamics Laboratory (GMAL). Initially, existing non-competitive aerodynamic data was compared to determine the feasibility of facility correlation. Once feasibility was established, a series of standardized tests with six vehicles were conducted at the three wind tunnels. The size and body styles of the six vehicles were selected to cover the spectrum of production vehicles produced by the three companies. All vehicles were tested at EPA loading conditions. Despite the significant differences between the three facilities, the correlation results were very good.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Globalization and New Materials on the Transition to a Fully Digital Tool and Die

Until recently, tool & die making was a very traditional industry, relying on extensive know-how accumulated over decades of practice. Essentially, it remained a two stage-process: engineering/manufacture, followed by tryout/productionization. Improvements focused on engineering and production methods, but tryout remained the exclusive domain of the die maker. At last, advances in computer modeling methods and the adoption of aggressive lean management principles have brought transformational changes to the tryout phase. At the same time, new safety and weight imperatives have increased the penetration of advanced materials, whose formability characteristics are quite different from mild steels. This paper will explore how these advanced materials affect this transformation.
Technical Paper

Efficient Method for Modeling and Code Generation of Custom Functions

Custom functions are widely used in real-time embedded automotive applications to conserve scarce processor resources. Typical examples include mathematical functions, filtering routines and lookup tables. The custom routines are very efficient and have been in production for many years [ 1 ]. These hand-crafted functions can be reused in new control algorithm designs being developed using Model Based Design (MBD) tools. The next generation of vehicle control software may contain a mix of both automatically generated software and manually developed code. At Ford Motor Company, the code is automatically generated from control algorithm models that are developed using The MathWorks tool chain. Depending on the project-specific needs, the control algorithm models are automatically translated to efficient C code using either The Math Works Real-Time Workshop Embedded Coder (RTW-EC) or dSPACE TargetLink production code generators.
Technical Paper

Automated Migration of Legacy Functions and Algorithms to Model Based Design

Automotive companies have invested a fortune over the last three decades developing real-time embedded control strategies and software to achieve desired functions and performance attributes. Over time, these control algorithms have matured and achieved optimum behavior. The companies have vast repositories of embedded software for a variety of control features that have been validated and deployed for production. These software functions can be reused with minimal modifications for future applications. The companies are also constantly looking for new ways to improve the productivity of the development process that may translate into lower development costs, higher quality and faster time-to-market. All companies are currently embracing Model Based Design (MBD) tools to help achieve the gains in productivity. The most cost effective approach would be to reuse the available legacy software for carry-over features while developing new features with the new MBD tools.