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Technical Paper

Comparison of Analytically and Experimentally Obtained Residual Fractions and NOX Emissions in Spark-Ignited Engines

Using a fast-sampling valve, residual-fraction levels were determined in a 2.0L spark-ignited production engine, over varying engine operating conditions. Individual samples for each operating condition were analyzed by gas-chromatography which allowed for the determination of in-cylinder CO and CO2 levels. Through a comparison of in-cylinder measurement and exhaust data measurements, residual molar fraction (RMF) levels were determined and compared to analytical results. Analytical calculations were performed using the General Engine SIMulation (GESIM) which is a steady state quasi-dimensional engine combustion cycle simulation. Analytical RMF levels, for identical engine operating conditions, were compared to the experimental results as well as a sensitivity study on wave-dynamics and heat transfer on the analytically predicted RMF. Similarly, theoretical and experimental NOx emissions were compared and production sensitivity on RMF levels explored.
Technical Paper

Application of Fuzzy Classification Methods for Diagnosis of Reject Root Causes in Manufacturing Environment

This paper presents an approach of using neural network and fuzzy logic methods for the diagnosis of fault root causes in a manufacturing environment. As the first step in this approach, data from all the valid test points were collected and studied based on their statistical characteristics. An information-gain-based procedure was then followed to quantitatively evaluate the relevance of each test point to the diagnosis process. Accordingly, an objective rank of all relevant test points was generated for a particular reject. The root cause of rejects was then identified by a procedure based on an information-gain-weighted radial basis function neural network and a fuzzy multiple voting classification algorithm. This method has been tested with the top five rejects of the transmission main control component at Ford and promising results have been obtained.
Technical Paper

Effect of Magnet Temperature on Optimal Current Control Trajectory of an Interior PM Synchronous Machines

In an interior permanent magnet machine, magnet temperature plays a critical role in determining optimal current control trajectory. Monitoring magnet temperature is a challenging task. In lab and various specialized applications, infrared sensors or thermocouples are used to measure the temperature. But it adds cost, maintenance issues and their integration to electric machine drives could be complicated. To tackle issues due to sensor based methods, various sensorless model based approaches are proposed in the literature recently such as flux observer, high-frequency signal injection, and thermal models, etc. Although magnet temperature monitoring received a lot of attention of researchers, very few papers give a detailed overview of the effects of magnet temperature on motor control from a controls perspective. This paper discusses the impact of magnet temperature variation on Maximum Torque per Ampere control and Flux Weakening Control trajectory.
Technical Paper

Geometrical Optimization of an Automotive Halfshaft

Halfshafts are very important components from vehicle powertrain. They are the element responsible to transmit torque and rotation from transmission to wheels. Its most basic design consists of a solid bar with joints at each extreme. Depending of bar length, the natural frequency of first bending mode might have a modal alignment with engine second order, resulting in undesired noise on vehicle interior. Many design alternatives are available to overpass this particular situation, like adding dampers, use tube shafts or use link-shafts, however, all of them are cost affected. This study proposes an investigation to obtain an optimal profile for a solid shaft, pursuing the lowest possible frequency for the first bending mode by changing its diameter at specific regions. The study is divided in four main stages: initially, a modal analysis of a halfshaft is done at vehicle to determinate its natural frequency when assembled on vehicle.
Technical Paper

Time to Torque Optimization by Evolutionary Computation Methods

Time to torque (TTT) is a quantity used to measure the transient torque response of turbocharged engines. It is referred as the time duration from an idle-to-full step torque command to the time when 95% of maximum torque is achieved. In this work, we seek to control multiple engine actuators in a collaborative way such that the TTT is minimized. We pose the TTT minimization problem as an optimization problem by parameterizing each engine actuator’s transient trajectory as Fourier series, followed by minimizing proper cost function with the optimization of those Fourier coefficients. We first investigate the problem in CAE environment by constructing an optimization framework that integrates high-fidelity GT (Gamma Technology) POWER engine model and engine actuators’ Simulink model into ModeFrontier computation platform. We conduct simulation optimization study on two different turbocharged engines under this framework with evolutionary computation algorithms.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Deep Data: A Case Study in Robust Scalable Data Collection

Onboard, embedded cellular modems are enabling a range of new connectivity features in vehicles and rich, real-time data set transmissions from a vehicle’s internal network up to a cloud database are of particular interest. However, there is far too much information in a vehicle’s electrical state for every vehicle to upload all of its data in real-time. We are thus concerned with which data is uploaded and how that data is processed, structured, stored, and reported. Existing onboard data processing algorithms (e.g. for DTC detection) are hardcoded into critical vehicle firmware, limited in scope and cannot be reconfigured on the fly. Since many use cases for vehicle data analytics are still unknown, we require a system which is capable of efficiently processing and reporting vehicle deep data in real-time, such that data reporting can be switched on/off during normal vehicle operation, and that processing/reporting can be reconfigured remotely.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Coupling Coefficient Estimation for Inductive Power Transfer Systems

Loosely coupled transformers are commonly used in inductive power transfer (IPT) systems which are inevitable part of electrified transportation. Since efficiency of these systems is mainly dependent on alignment of primary (ground side) and secondary (vehicle side) coils, estimation of coupling coefficient has a significant impact on the performance of IPT chargers. However, despite the requisite need for a plausible estimation algorithm, the lack of a simple, optimal and unsusceptible to noise algorithm is noticeable. In this paper, we introduce a new online optimal prediction method for IPT systems allowing a precise real time estimation of the coupling coefficient in the presence of measurement noises and system uncertainties. Using IPT system dynamics, the estimation scheme is proposed based on Kalman filter algorithm. This algorithm is optimal, tractable and robust and its estimation are promising as simulation results reveal.
Technical Paper

Real-time Crash Detection and Its Application in Incident Reporting and Accident Reconstruction

Characterizing or reconstructing incidents ranging from light to heavy crashes is one of the enablers for mobility solutions for fleet management, car-sharing, ride-hailing, insurance etc. While crashes involving airbag deployment are noticeable, light crashes without airbag deployment can be hidden and most drivers do not report these incidents. In this paper, we are using vehicle responses together with a dynamics model to trace back if abnormal forces have been applied to a vehicle so as to detect light crashes. The crash location around the perimeter of the vehicle, the direction of the crash force, and the severity of the crashes are all determined in real-time based on on-board sensor measurements which has further application in accident reconstruction. All of this information will be integrated to a feature called “Incident Report”, which enable reporting of minor accidents to the relevant entities such as insurance agencies, fleet managements, etc.
Technical Paper

Personalized Driver Workload Estimation in Real-World Driving

Drivers often engage in secondary in-vehicle activity that is not related to vehicle control. This may be functional and/or to relieve monotony. Regardless, drivers believe they can safely do so when their perceived workload is low. In this paper, we describe a data acquisition system and machine learning based algorithms to determine perceived workload. Data collected were from on-road driving in light and heavy traffic, and individual physiological measures were recorded while the driver also performed in-vehicle tasks. Initial results show how the workload function can be personalized to an individual, and what implications this may have for vehicle design.
Technical Paper

A Model and the Methodology for Determining Wear Particle Generation Rate and Filter Efficiency in a Diesel Engine Using Ferrography

Monitoring of the wear rate of a diesel engine will yield valuable information regarding the wear mechanism within a diesel engine and ultimately will improve the predictions of failing engines and/or their components to allow preventive maintenance which will prolong the life of the engine. A mathematical model was developed that describes the wear particle concentration as a function of time in a diesel engine. This model contains engine and lubrication system parameters that determine the concentration of wear particles in the engine sump. These variables are the oil system volume, oil flow rate, particle generation rate, filtering efficiency and the initial particle concentration. The model has been employed to study the wear particle concentrations in the sump and the mass of particles in the filter for the Cummins VT-903 diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Acquisition of Transient Tire Force and Moment Data for Dynamic Vehicle Handling Simulations

This paper describes the issues encountered in using conventionally acquired tire test data for dynamic total vehicle handling simulations and the need for improved methodology. It describes the new test procedure that was used to acquire all three forces and three moments in a transient mode for a matrix of loads, slip and camber angles. A study of the test data supports the premises that the overturning moment, Mx, should not be neglected in dynamic simulations, and that the effects of camber should not be treated as only an independent, linearly additive, camber thrust. Instead of the conventional application of a bi-cubic regression fit to a six region data division, a new algorithm is applied. The data is divided differently into five regions in the α - Fz plane, and a variable format regression equation is applied as appropriate. The resulting regression coefficients matrix is readily usable in dynamic simulations, and is shown to have a superior curve fit to the test data.
Technical Paper

A Technical Analysis of a Proposed Theory on Tire Tread Belt Separation-Induced Axle Tramp

Recently, papers have been published purporting to study the effect of rear axle tramp during tread separation events, and its effect on vehicle handling [1, 2]. Based on analysis and physical testing, one paper [1] has put forth a mathematical model which the authors claim allows vehicle designers to select shock damping values during the development process of a vehicle in order to assure that a vehicle will not experience axle tramp during tread separations. In the course of their work, “lumpy” tires (tires with rubber blocks adhered to the tire's tread) were employed to excite the axle tramp resonance, even though this method has been shown not to duplicate the physical mechanisms behind an actual tread belt separation. This paper evaluates the theories postulated in [1] by first analyzing the equations behind the mathematical model presented. The model is then tested to see if it agrees with observed physical testing.
Technical Paper

Auto-Correlation of an Occupant Restraint System Model Using a Bayesian Validation Metric

Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) has become a vital tool for product development in automotive industry. Various computer models for occupant restraint systems are developed. The models simulate the vehicle interior, restraint system, and occupants in different crash scenarios. In order to improve the efficiency during the product development process, the model quality and its predictive capabilities must be ensured. In this research, an objective model validation metric is developed to evaluate the model validity and its predictive capabilities when multiple occupant injury responses are simultaneously compared with test curves. This validation metric is based on the probabilistic principal component analysis method and Bayesian statistics approach for multivariate model assessment. It first quantifies the uncertainties in both test and simulation results, extracts key features, and then evaluates the model quality.
Technical Paper

Development of Universal Brake Test Data Exchange Format and Evaluation Standard

Brake system development and testing is spread over vehicle manufacturers, system and component suppliers. Test equipment from different sources, even resulting from different technology generations, different data analysis and report tools - comprising different and sometimes undocumented algorithms - lead to a difficult exchange and analysis of test results and, at the same time, contributes to unwanted test variability. Other studies regarding the test variability brought up that only a unified and unambiguous data format will allow a meaningful and comparative evaluation of these data and only standardization will reveal the actual reasons of test variability. The text at hand illustrates that a substantial part of test variability is caused by a misinterpretation of data and/or by the application of different algorithms.
Technical Paper

Constrained Control of UAVs Using Adaptive Anti-windup Compensation and Reference Governors

Gliders can climb to substantial altitudes without employing any on-board energy resources but using proper piloting skills to utilize rising air currents called thermals. Recent experiments on small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) indicate a significant potential to increase both the flight velocity and the range of gliders by means of such maneuvers. In these experiments the velocity to approach a thermal has been recognized as a critical performance factor, and is chosen as the controlled variable. Accurate longitudinal controllers are required to track the optimal flight trajectories generated using path planning algorithms. These controllers are challenged by the presence of uncertain and time-varying aircraft dynamics, gust disturbances, and control actuator limitations.
Technical Paper

Transient Fuel X-Tau Parameter Estimation Using Short Time Fourier Transform

This paper presents a Short Time Fourier Transform based algorithm to identify unknown parameters in fuel dynamics system during engine cold start and warm-up. A first order system is used to model the fuel dynamics in a port fuel injection engine. The feed forward transient fuel compensation controller is designed based on the identified model. Experiments are designed and implemented to verify the proposed algorithm. Different experiment settings are compared.
Technical Paper

Use of Body Mount Stiffness and Damping In CAE Crash Modeling

This paper reports a study of the dynamic characteristics of body mounts in body on frame vehicles and their effects on structural and occupant CAE results. The body mount stiffness and damping are computed from spring-damper models and component test results. The model parameters are converted to those used in the full vehicle structural model to simulate the vehicle crash performance. An effective body mount in a CAE crash model requires a set of coordinated damping and stiffness to transfer the frame pulse to the body. The ability of the pulse transfer, defined as transient transmissibility[1]1, is crucial in the early part of the crash pulse prediction using a structural model such as Radioss[2]. Traditionally, CAE users input into the model the force-deflection data of the body mount obtained from the component and/or full vehicle tests. In this practice, the body mount in the CAE model is essentially represented by a spring with the prescribed force-deflection data.
Technical Paper

Efficient Method for Modeling and Code Generation of Custom Functions

Custom functions are widely used in real-time embedded automotive applications to conserve scarce processor resources. Typical examples include mathematical functions, filtering routines and lookup tables. The custom routines are very efficient and have been in production for many years [ 1 ]. These hand-crafted functions can be reused in new control algorithm designs being developed using Model Based Design (MBD) tools. The next generation of vehicle control software may contain a mix of both automatically generated software and manually developed code. At Ford Motor Company, the code is automatically generated from control algorithm models that are developed using The MathWorks tool chain. Depending on the project-specific needs, the control algorithm models are automatically translated to efficient C code using either The Math Works Real-Time Workshop Embedded Coder (RTW-EC) or dSPACE TargetLink production code generators.
Technical Paper

Control of Powertrain Noise Using a Frequency Domain Filtered-x LMS Algorithm

An enhanced, frequency domain filtered-x least mean square (LMS) algorithm is proposed as the basis for an active control system for treating powertrain noise. There are primarily three advantages of this approach: (i) saving of computing time especially for long controller’s filter length; (ii) more accurate estimation of the gradient due to the sample averaging of the whole data block; and (iii) capacity for rapid convergence when the adaptation parameter is correctly adjusted for each frequency bin. Unlike traditional active noise control techniques for suppressing response, the proposed frequency domain FXLMS algorithm is targeted at tuning vehicle interior response in order to achieve a desirable sound quality. The proposed control algorithm is studied numerically by applying the analysis to treat vehicle interior noise represented by either measured or predicted cavity acoustic transfer functions.
Technical Paper

Automated Migration of Legacy Functions and Algorithms to Model Based Design

Automotive companies have invested a fortune over the last three decades developing real-time embedded control strategies and software to achieve desired functions and performance attributes. Over time, these control algorithms have matured and achieved optimum behavior. The companies have vast repositories of embedded software for a variety of control features that have been validated and deployed for production. These software functions can be reused with minimal modifications for future applications. The companies are also constantly looking for new ways to improve the productivity of the development process that may translate into lower development costs, higher quality and faster time-to-market. All companies are currently embracing Model Based Design (MBD) tools to help achieve the gains in productivity. The most cost effective approach would be to reuse the available legacy software for carry-over features while developing new features with the new MBD tools.