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Technical Paper

Flow-Acoustic Coupling in Quarter-Wave Resonators Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Quarter-wave resonators are commonly used as acoustic silencers in automotive air induction systems. Similar closed side branches can also be formed in the idle air bypass, exhaust gas recirculation, and positive crankcase ventilation systems of engines. The presence of a mean flow across these side branches can lead to an interaction between the mean flow and the acoustic resonances of the side branch. At discrete flow conditions, this coupling between the flow and acoustic fields may produce high amplitude acoustic pressure pulsations. For the quarter-wave resonator, this interaction can turn the silencer into a noise generator, while for systems where a valve is located at the closed end of the side branch the large pressure pulsations can cause the valve to fail. This phenomenon is not limited to automotive applications, and also occurs in natural gas pipelines, aircraft, and numerous other internal and external flows.
Technical Paper

Overall Results: Phase I Ad Hoc Diesel Fuel Test Program

The future of diesel-engine-powered passenger cars and light-duty vehicles in the United States depends on their ability to meet Federal Tier 2 and California LEV2 tailpipe emission standards. The experimental purpose of this work was to examine the potential role of fuels; specifically, to determine the sensitivity of engine-out NOx and particulate matter (PM) to gross changes in fuel formulation. The fuels studied were a market-average California baseline fuel and three advanced low sulfur fuels (<2 ppm). The advanced fuels were a low-sulfur-highly-hydrocracked diesel (LSHC), a neat (100%) Fischer-Tropsch (FT100) and 15% DMM (dimethoxy methane) blended into LSHC (DMM15). The fuels were tested on modern, turbocharged, common-rail, direct-injection diesel engines at DaimlerChrysler, Ford and General Motors. The engines were tested at five speed/load conditions with injection timing set to minimize fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Some Alternative Diesel Fuels for Low Emissions and Improved Fuel Economy

This paper reports on Ford's participation in the PNGV ‘Ad Hoc’ Diesel Fuel Test program - Phase I. The purpose of this program was to assess the potential benefits of various fuel properties aimed at reducing engine-out emissions of NOx and particulates to meet LEV2 and Tier 2 emission standards. Four alternative fuels were evaluated using a Ford 1.2L DIATA diesel engine: 1) California Certification fuel (CARB), 2) low sulfur hydro-cracked fuel (LSHC), 3) LSHC fuel with a 15% Dimethoxy Methane blend (DMM), and 4) neat Fischer-Tropsch (FT100) fuel. Design of Experiments (DOE) and conventional techniques were used to evaluate the fuels at five speed and load conditions. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), injection rail pressure, and beginning of injection (BOI) timing were controlled during the tests. Steady-state engine performance, emissions, and cylinder pressure (combustion) data were recorded for each fuel.
Technical Paper

Flame Temperature Correlation of Emissions from Diesels Operated on Alternative Fuels

Work by Plee, Ahmad, and coworkers in the 1980s [1, 2, 3, 4 and 5] showed that for changes in intake air state, Diesel NOx, soot, soluble organic fraction, and HC emissions could be correlated using the stoichiometric flame temperature calculated at SOC or peak pressure conditions. In the present work, similar flame temperature correlations are obtained for emissions from three test engines; a 1.2L high speed direct injection (HSDI) Diesel, a 2.4L HSDI Diesel, and a 2.34 L single cylinder direct injection (DI) Diesel engine, the first of which was tested using four alternative fuels. Use of the flame temperature correlations presented may reduce the number of engine tests required to evaluate the effects of EGR on emissions of NOx, particulate, and HC, even when alternative fuels are used.
Technical Paper

A Fuel Vapor Model (FVSMOD) for Evaporative Emissions System Design and Analysis

A fuel vapor system model (FVSMOD) has been developed to simulate vehicle evaporative emission control system behavior. The fuel system components incorporated into the model include the fuel tank and pump, filler cap, liquid supply and return lines, fuel rail, vent valves, vent line, carbon canister and purge line. The system is modeled as a vented system of liquid fuel and vapor in equilibrium, subject to a thermal environment characterized by underhood and underbody temperatures and heat transfer parameters assumed known or determined by calibration with experimental liquid temperature data. The vapor/liquid equilibrium is calculated by simple empirical equations which take into account the weathering of the fuel, while the canister is modeled as a 1-dimensional unsteady absorptive and diffusive bed. Both fuel and canister submodels have been described in previous publications. This paper presents the system equations along with validation against experimental data.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Vapor- and Particle-Phase Sulfur Species in the Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine EGR Cooler

To meet future NO, heavy-duty diesel emissions standards, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technology is likely to be used. To improve fuel economy and further lower emissions, the recirculated exhaust gas needs to be cooled, with the possibility that cooling of the exhaust gas may form sulfuric acid condensate in the EGR cooler. This corrosive condensate can cause EGR cooler failure and consequentially result in severe damage to the engine. Both a literature review and a preliminary experimental study were conducted. In this study, a manually controlled EGR system was installed on a 1995 Cummins Ml l-330E engine which was operated at EPA mode 9* (1800 rpm and 75% load). The Goksoyr-Ross method (1)** was used to measure the particle-phase sulfate and vapor-phase H2SO4 and SO2 at the inlet and outlet locations of the EGR cooler, obtaining H2SO4 and SO2 concentrations. About 0.5% of fuel sulfur in the EGR cooler was in the particle-phase.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Stability of Ceria-Zirconia Supported Pd Model Catalysts

A series of ceria and ceria-zirconia supported Pd model automotive catalysts were prepared and aged under air or redox conditions at 1050°C for 12 h. The supports were manufactured by different methods and represent a range of compositions. The samples were characterized before and after aging by BET, X-ray diffraction, mercury porosimetry, XPS, H2 temperature-programmed reduction, and oxygen storage capacity measurements. Oxygen storage measurements revealed that the behavior of the catalysts varied according to aging conditions and temperature of measurement. Pd/ceria-zirconia catalysts showed higher oxygen storage characteristics after 1050°C aging than Pd/ceria catalysts, and the phase purity of the ceria-zirconia was shown to positively affect the amount of oxygen storage. The initial rates of oxygen release from the model catalysts at 350°C were shown to depend on the preparation conditions of the supports.
Technical Paper

Closed-Loop Air-Fuel Ratio Control Using Forced Air-Fuel Ratio Modulation

An air-to-fuel ratio (A/F) modulation scheme is presented in which a linear feedback signal is generated from a heated exhaust gas oxygen (EGO) sensor. In this scheme, the engine A/F is modulated with a triangular waveform, and the mean value of the EGO output is obtained using a rolling average filter. The resulting output is linearly related to the exhaust A/F, and is used to provide closed-loop lean A/F operation following a cold start to enhance catalyst light-off and minimize vehicle exhaust emissions. Some engine-dynamometer results obtained using the method are presented.
Technical Paper

A View of Flexible Fuel Vehicle Aldehyde Emissions

The aldehyde emissions of 1.6L and 5.0L flexible fuel vehicles (FFV) have been measured, with and without a catalyst, on a range of fuels. The “zero mile” catalyzed emission levels of formaldehyde when operating on M85 (85% methanol and 15% gasoline) are in the 5-15 mg/mi range, but as mileage accumulates they tend to be in the 30-50 mg/mi range. The feedgas levels are high and appear to correlate with engine displacement. The formaldehyde and methanol emissions are higher when operating on M100, compared to M85, but the non-oxygenated hydrocarbon emissions are about the same for both fuels, which suggests that the use of M85 may actually provide more air quality benefit than M100. High mileage control of aldehydes to the level of gasoline vehicles does not appear possible with current technology.
Technical Paper

50,000 Mile Vehicle Road Test of Three-Way and NOx Reduction Catalyst Systems

The performance of three way and NOx catalysts was evaluated on vehicles utilizing non-feedback fuel control and electronic feedback fuel control. The vehicles accumulated 80,450 km (50,000 miles) using fuels representing the extremes in hydrogen-carbon ratio available for commercial use. Feedback carburetion compared to non-feedback carburetion improved highway fuel economy by about 0.4 km/l (1 mpg) and reduced deterioration of NOx with mileage accumulation. NOx emissions were higher with the low H/C fuel in the three way catalyst system; feedback reduced the fuel effect on NOx in these cars by improving conversion efficiency with the low H/C fuel. Feedback had no measureable effect on HC and CO catalyst efficiency. Hydrocarbon emissions were lower with the low H/C fuel in all cars. Unleaded gasoline octane improver, MMT, at 0.015g Mn/l (0.06 g/gal) increased tailpipe hydrocarbon emissions by 0.05 g/km (0.08 g/mile).
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Three-Way Catalysts - Part III Formation of NH3, Its Suppression by SO2 and Re-Oxidation

This is the third and final communication in this series of laboratory evaluation of three-way catalysts. The effect of inlet NO concentration and temperature on the NH3 formation over fresh, pulsator-aged and dynamometer-aged three-way catalysts of the current generation has been investigated under temperatures and exhaust compositions of practical interest. In spite of differences in aging procedures employed, both the pulsator and dynamometer-aged catalysts show similar selectivity behavior. The effect of SO2 in feed-gas on gross NO conversion and NH3 formation was studied over Pt-Rh and Pt-Rh-Ru types of three-way catalysts. A strong dependence of the gross NO conversion on the SO2 concentration in exhaust gas mixtures was noted. A simultaneous suppression of gross NO conversion and NH3 formation, in presence of SO2 in feed-gas, is attributed to the poisoning of Pt sites on aged three-way catalysts.
Technical Paper

A Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engine with Low Exhaust Emissions and Improved Fuel Economy

Turbocharging, in addition to increasing an engine's power output, can be effectively used to maintain exhaust emission levels while improving fuel economy. This paper presents the emission and performance results obtained from a turbocharged multicylinder spark ignition engine with thermal reactors and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) operated at steady-state, part-load conditions for four engine speeds. When comparing a turbocharged engine to a larger displacement naturally aspirated engine of equal power output, the emissions expressed in grams per mile were relatively unchanged both with and without EGR. However, turbocharging provided an average of 20% improvement in fuel economy both with and without EGR. When comparing the turbocharged and nonturbocharged versions of the same engine without EGR at a given load and speed, turbocharging increased the hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions and decreased oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions.
Technical Paper

Virtual Exhaust Gas Temperature Measurement

Exhaust temperature models are widely used in the automotive industry to estimate catalyst and exhaust gas temperatures and to protect the catalyst and other vehicle hardware against over-temperature conditions. Modeled exhaust temperatures rely on air, fuel, and spark measurements to make their estimate. Errors in any of these measurements can have a large impact on the accuracy of the model. Furthermore, air-fuel imbalances, air leaks, engine coolant temperature (ECT) or air charge temperature (ACT) inaccuracies, or any unforeseen source of heat entering the exhaust may have a large impact on the accuracy of the modeled estimate. Modern universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensors have heaters with controllers to precisely regulate the oxygen sensing element temperature. These controllers are duty cycle based and supply more or less current to the heating element depending on the temperature of the surrounding exhaust gas.
Technical Paper

Three-Way Catalyst Diagnostics and Prognostics Based on Support Vector Machines

A three-way catalytic converter (TWC) is an emissions control device, used to treat the exhaust gases in a gasoline engine. The conversion efficiency of the catalyst, however, drops with age or customer usage and needs to be monitored on-line to meet the on board diagnostics (OBD II) regulations. In this work, a non-intrusive catalyst monitor is developed to diagnose the track the remaining useful life of the catalyst based on measured in-vehicle signals. Using air mass and the air-fuel ratio (A/F) at the front (upstream) and rear (downstream) of the catalyst, the catalyst oxygen storage capacity is estimated. The catalyst capacity and operating exhaust temperature are used as an input features for developing a Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm based classifier to identify a threshold catalyst. In addition, the distance of the data points in hyperspace from the calibrated threshold plane is used to compute the remaining useful life left.
Technical Paper

Evolution of Engine Air Induction System Hydrocarbon Traps

Engine air induction systems hydrocarbon trap (HC trap) designs to limit evaporative fuel emissions, have evolved over time. This paper discusses a range of HC traps that have evolved in engine air induction systems. (AIS) The early zeolite flow through HC trap utilized an exhaust catalyst technology internal stainless steel furnace brazed substrate coated with zeolite media. This HC trap was installed in the AIS clean air tube. This design was heavy, complicated, and expensive but met the urgency of the implementation of the new evaporative emissions regulation. The latest Ford Motor Company HC trap is a simple plastic tray containing activated carbon with breathable non-woven polyester cover. This design has been made common across multiple vehicle lines with planned production annual volume in the millions. The cost of the latest HC trap bypass design is approximately 5% of the original stainless steel zeolite flow through HC trap.
Technical Paper

Improving Transient Torque Response for Boosted Engines with VCT and EGR

Modern gasoline engines have increased part-load fuel economy and specific power output through technologies such as downsizing, turbocharging, direct injection, and exhaust gas recirculation. These engines tend to have higher sensitivity to driving behavior because of the steady-state efficiency versus output characteristics (e.g., sweet spot at lower output) and the dynamic response characteristics (e.g., turbo lag). It has been observed that the technologies aimed at increased engine efficiency may improve fuel economy for less aggressive cycles and drivers while hurting fuel economy for more aggressive cycles and drivers. The higher degrees of freedom in these engines and the increased sensitivity make controls and calibration more complex and more important at the same time.
Technical Paper

Ion Current Measurement of Diluted Combustion Using a Multi-Electrode Spark Plug

Close-loop feedback combustion control is essential for improving the internal combustion engines to meet the rigorous fuel efficiency demands and emission legislations. A vital part is the combustion sensing technology that diagnoses in-cylinder combustion information promptly, such as using cylinder pressure sensor and ion current measurement. The promptness and fidelity of the diagnostic are particularly important to the potential success of using intra-cycle control for abnormal cycles such as super knocking and misfiring. Many research studies have demonstrated the use of ion-current sensing as feedback signal to control the spark ignition gasoline engines, with the spark gap shared for both ignition and ion-current detection. During the spark glow phase, the sparking current may affect the combustion ion current signal. Moreover, the electrode gap size is optimized for sparking rather than measurement of ion current.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging the 1983½-1984 Ford 2.3L OHC Engine

Successful application of turbocharger technology to the Ford 2.3L OHC engine requires management of thermal loading. The 1979/1980 2.3L draw-thru carbureted engine was octane and spark advance limited, requiring calibration to worse case 91 RON conditions. Since no adaptive calibration control was possible relatively late ignition timing compromised engine performance. To improve performance, driveability, fuel economy and emission control, work was initiated in mid 1980 on a blow-thru electronic fuel injected engine scheduled for 1983½ production. Program assumptions were issued specifying a tuned EFI blow-thru inlet system, exhaust manifold mounted AiResearch T03 turbocharger with integral wastegate and 8.0:1 compression ratio with a dished piston. Also included were base engine revisions to accommodate increased thermal and mechanical loads.
Technical Paper


For the past seven years, the Ford Motor Company has been working on the development of catalytic exhaust treating systems designed to minimize the emission of certain vehicle exhaust gas constituents. In 1959, the development of a low-temperature, catalytic-converter system for the oxidation of exhaust gas hydrocarbons was described in a paper presented to the SAE. That system, which used vanadium pentoxide as the catalyst, has since been extensively developed in a program that included 250,000 miles of converter evaluation on vehicles. Many of the basic system requirements and problems covered in those tests are relevant in vehicle applications of a catalytic converter system with any type of catalyst. With the insertion of a carbon monoxide limit in the California Exhaust Standard, work on the low-temperature, catalytic converter system was discontinued since this system did not, and was not designed to, oxidize carbon monoxide.
Technical Paper

Laboratory Study to Determine Impact of Na and K Exposure on the Durability of DOC and SCR Catalyst Formulations

A laboratory flow reactor study was utilized to determine the durability impact of alkali metal (Na and K) exposure on three Pt/Pd-based diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC), two vanadium-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts, and two Cu/zeolite-based SCR catalysts. All catalyst samples were contaminated by direct deposition of Na or K by an incipient wetness technique. The activity impact on the contaminated DOCs was accomplished by evaluating for changes in CO and HC light-off. The activity impact on the contaminated SCR catalysts was accomplished by evaluating for changes in the Standard SCR Reaction, the Fast SCR Reaction, the Ammonia Oxidation Reaction, and the Ammonia Storage Capacity. Contamination levels of 3.0 wt% Na was found to have a higher negative impact on Pt-based and zeolite containing DOCs for T-50 CO and HC light-off.