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Technical Paper

In search of SULEV-compliant THC emission reduction technologies

This paper describes the development of THC reduction technologies compliant with SULEV regulations. Technologies embodied by the developmental work include improvement of fuel spay atomization, quick warm-up through coolant control shut off, and acceleration of fuel atomization for the fast rise of cylinder head temp inside the water jacket as well as the improvement of combustion state. The technologies likewise entail reduced HC while operating in lean A/F condition during engine warm-up with the cold lean-burn technology, individual cylinder A/F control for improvement of catalytic converting efficiency, aftertreatment such as thin-wall catalyst, HC absorber and EHC and etc., through vehicle application evaluation in cold start. We carried out an experimental as well as a practical study against SULEV regulations, and the feasibility of adopting these items in vehicle was likewise investigated.
Technical Paper

Combustion System Development in a Small Bore HSDI Diesel Engine for Low Fuel Consuming Car

As CO2 emissions from vehicles is gaining a global attention the low fuel consuming power-train is in much greater demand than before. Some alternatives are suggested but the HSDI diesel engine would be the most realistic solution. Vehicle simulation shows that low fuel consuming car can be realized by applying 1∼1.2L HSDI diesel engine in vehicles weighing about 750kg. While the direct injection diesel engine has been researched for a long time enhancement of mixing between air and fuel in a limited space makes it challenging area to develop a small swept volume HSDI diesel engine. We are investigating small HSDI diesel engine combustion technologies as an effort to realize low fuel consuming vehicle. Our main objective in this study is to have a better understanding of the combustion related parameters from such a small size HSDI diesel engine in order to improve engine performance.
Technical Paper

A Cascade Atomization and Drop Breakup Model for the Simulation of High-Pressure Liquid Jets

A further development of the ETAB atomization and drop breakup model for high pressure-driven liquid fuel jets, has been developed, tuned and validated. As in the ETAB model, this breakup model reflects a cascade of drop breakups, where the breakup criterion is determined by the Taylor drop oscillator and each breakup event resembles experimentally observed breakup mechanisms. A fragmented liquid core due to inner-nozzle disturbances is achieved by injecting large droplets subject to this breakup cascade. These large droplets are equipped with appropriate initial deformation velocities in order to obtain experimentally observed breakup lengths. In contrast to the ETAB model which consideres only the bag breakup or the stripping breakup mechanism, the new model has been extended to include the catastrophic breakup regime. In addition, a continuity condition on the breakup parameters has lead to the reduction of one model constant.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Injection Parameters on a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with TICS System

In this study, a series of tests have been carried out to evaluate the effects of the injection rate and timing on bsfc, NOx, and PM emissions in a heavy-duty diesel engine with TICS FIE system. Injection line pressure, cylinder pressure, NOx and smoke were measured with various injection times and injection rates. The injection rate was altered at a fixed injection timing, which could be realized either by changing the TICS setting time or by using different cam profiles. The injection time was varied by using TICS timing control function at a given setting time. A parametric study of the injection rate in in-line pump system was tried to correlate injection rate variations with combustion characteristics and emission. Two parameters, the injection pressure rising rate and the initially injected fuel quantity were introduced to characterize fuel injection.
Technical Paper

Development of Hyundai Motor Company Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle

In HMC, the fundamental research on the hydrogen fueled engine and vehicle has been carried out. For this engine, solenoid driven injector is used to supply gaseous hydrogen into the cylinder and various operating parameters have been changed to study the combustion characteristics of hydrogen. After these experiments on engine, hydrogen fueled vehicle has been constructed and it is controlled by ECU. The amount of emission from the hydrogen vehicle with stoichiometric operation is less than 1/3 of the ULEV legislation.
Technical Paper

Application of High Performance Powder Metal Connecting Rod in the V6 Engine

Today, light connecting rods are vital to satisfying the demands of modern internal combustion engines. HYUNDAI Motor Company (HMC) has applied powder metal forged connecting rods instead of conventional hot forged connecting rods to obtain low product costs and to improve NVH characteristics and bearing reliability. Light connecting rods were developed through optimized design with high quality and low cost. Notably, the mass of a powder metal forged connecting rod is 17.7% lighter than that of a conventional hot forged type connecting rod, and its crank end is 22.5 % lighter than that of a conventional type connecting rod. Light connecting rods result in reduced crankshaft mass, so the mass of the main moving parts can be reduced. With this mass reduction, bearing reliability and NVH characteristics can be enhanced.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Flame Photographs With High Pressure Injection

The effect of high pressure injection (using an accumulator type unit injector with peak injection pressure of approximately 20,000 psi, having a decreasing injection rate profile) on combustion was studied. Combustion results were obtained using a DDA Series 3–53 diesel engine with both conventional analysis techniques and high speed photography. Diesel No. 2 fuel and a low viscosity - high volatility fuel, similar to gasoline were used in the study. Results were compared against baseline data obtained with standard injectors. Some of the characteristics of high pressure injection used with Diesel No. 2 fuel include: substantially improved ignition, shorter ignition delay, and higher pressure rise. Under heavy load - high speed conditions, greater smokemeter readings were achieved with the high pressure injection system with Diesel No. 2 fuel. Higher flame speeds and hence, greater resistance to knock were observed with the high volatility low cetane fuel.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Pneumatic Atomization on the Lean Limit and IMEP

Lean limit characteristics of a pneumatic port fuel injection system is compared to a conventional port fuel injection system. The lean limit was based on the measured peak pressure. Those cycles with peak pressures greater than 105 % of the peak pressure for a nonfiring cycle were counted. Experimental data suggests that there are differences in lean limit characteristics between the two systems studied, indicating that fuel preparation processes in these systems influence the lean limit behaviors. Lean limits are generally richer for pneumatic fuel injection than those for conventional fuel injection. At richer fuel-to-air ratios the pneumatic injector usually resulted in higher torques. A simple model to estimate the evaporation occurring in the inlet manifold provided an explanation for the observed data.
Technical Paper

Development of HMC Axially Stratified Lean Combustion Engine

Four ports which have slightly different shapes have been applied to 3-valve MPI SI engine to develop Axially Stratified Lean Combustion engine. The purpose of port modification test was to investigate the effects of swirl ratio and direction on engine performance and emissions. In the engine test injection characteristics, i.e. timing, flow rate, direction as well as port design significantly effected on the engine combustion. Especially, it was observed that injection timing was the most important factor for combustion stability, but its effect on performance has some differences in accordance with the port designs. To verify the relationship between port shape and injection timing, in-cylinder gas was sampled by high speed gas sampling device varing injection timing through whole intake and compression,. strokes at spark plug position and analyzed by gas chromatography.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Tumble Flow on Engine Performance and Flame Propagation

In this study, single cylinder engines with different tumble ratio were made to show the effects of tumble motion on engine performance and flame propagation. Particle tracking velocimetry technique by using chopper was adopted to examine the in-cylinder flow field for the full understanding of tumble motion. And equivalent angular speed of tumble vortex was obtained from each crank angle and compared with tumble ratio derived from the steady state flow rig test. Flame propagation speed were obtained with the gasket ionization probe and the piston ionization probe. And the combustion pressure in cylinder was measured to analyze the combustion characteristics. In case of high tumble engine, BSFC and BSHC were decreased and BSNOx was increased at part load test, BMEP and combustion peak pressure was increased at full load test. Also, flame propagation characteristics could be understood by use of piston ionization probe.
Technical Paper

Study of Gasoline Combustion Process By High Speed In- Cylinder Gas Sampling

An experiment has been carried out to investigate the combustion process in an operating S.I. engine (MPI and Multi- valve), using in-cylinder high speed gas sampling techniques. Measurements have been made of local air fuel ratios and time-resolved concentrations of combustion gases such as CO, CO2, THC, NOx, and O2, particularly focused on spark plug location. The effects of fuel injection timing, swirl generating air motion, sampling location, spark timing, speed and load have been considered. With the end of fuel injection at 120° ATDC on the intake stroke, A/F ratio at spark plug location has the leanest value for standard inlet port, while it has the richest value for swirl generating inlet port. The initial NOx concentration in the unburned gas region, diluted by the residual gases, has been substantially reduced between 5° BTDC and 15° ATDC crank angle prior to combustion.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Behavior on Combustion Characteristics of Spark Ignition Engines

The purpose of this paper is to closely examine the influence of the behavior of fuel mixture in the intake manifold on combustion characteristics, performances of engine output and exhaust emission by using a 4-stroke spark ignition engine. In case of removing the liquid film fuel flowing on the wall of the intake manifold and of not removing it, the values of combustion characteristics such as the heat release delay, the combustion delay, the rate of heat release, the burned mass fraction and the maximum combustion pressure were obtained from the analysis of pressure indicator diagram. And then, the values of engine performance and concentration of exhaust gas were obtained.
Technical Paper

Idle Sound Quality Development for Diesel V6 Engine

A comprehensive investigation was carried out in order to develop the idle sound quality for diesel V6 engine when the engine development process is applied to power-train system, which included new 8-speed automatic transmission for breaking down the noise contribution between the mechanical excitation and the combustion excitation. First of all, the improvement of dynamic characteristic can be achieved during the early stages of the engine development process using experimental modal analysis (EMA) & the robust design of each engine functional system. In addition, the engine structural attenuation (SA) is enhanced such that the radiated combustion noise of the engine can be maintained at a target level even with an increased combustion excitation. It was found that the engine system has better parts and worse parts in frequency range throughout the SA analysis. It is important that weak points in the system should be optimized.
Technical Paper

Determination of Heat Transfer Augmentation Due to Fuel Spray Impingement in a High-Speed Diesel Engine

As the incentive to produce cleaner and more efficient engines increases, diesel engines will become a primary, worldwide solution. Producing diesel engines with higher efficiency and lower emissions requires a fundamental understanding of the interaction of the injected fuel with air as well as with the surfaces inside the combustion chamber. One aspect of this interaction is spray impingement on the piston surface. Impingement on the piston can lead to decreased combustion efficiency, higher emissions, and piston damage due to thermal loading. Modern high-speed diesel engines utilize high pressure common-rail direct-injection systems to primarily improve efficiency and reduce emissions. However, the high injection pressures of these systems increase the likelihood that the injected fuel will impinge on the surface of the piston.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Air Fuel Ratio with Ionization Signal Metrics in a Multicylinder Spark Ignited Engine

Accurate individual cylinder Air Fuel Ratio (AFR) feedback provide opportunities for improved engine performance and reduced emissions in spark ignition engines. One potential measurement for individual cylinder AFR is in-cylinder ionization measured by employing the spark plug as a sensor. A number of previous investigations have studied correlations of the ionization signal with AFR and shown promising results. However the studies have typically been limited to single cylinders under restricted operating conditions. This investigation analyzes and characterizes the ionization signals in correlation to individual AFR values obtained from wide-band electrochemical oxygen sensors located in the exhaust runners of each cylinder. Experimental studies for this research were conducted on a 2.0L inline 4 cylinder spark ignited engine with dual independent variable cam phasing and an intake charge motion control valve.
Technical Paper

Influence of Water Injection on Performance and Emissions of a Direct-Injection Hydrogen Research Engine

The application of hydrogen (H2) as an internal combustion (IC) engine fuel has been under investigation for several decades. The favorable physical properties of hydrogen make it an excellent alternative fuel for IC engines and hence it is widely regarded as the energy carrier of the future. Direct injection of hydrogen allows optimizing this potential as it provides multiple degrees of freedom to influence the in-cylinder combustion processes and consequently engine efficiency and exhaust emissions. At certain operating conditions the stratification associated with hydrogen direct injection (DI) leads to an efficiency improvement. However, it also results in higher emissions levels. This paper examines the effects of combining an advanced direct injection strategy with water injection for efficiency benefits and emissions reduction of a hydrogen fuelled DI spark ignition (SI) engine.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Injector Location and Nozzle Design in a Direct-Injection Hydrogen Research Engine

The favorable physical properties of hydrogen (H2) make it an excellent alternative fuel for internal combustion (IC) engines and hence it is widely regarded as the energy carrier of the future. Hydrogen direct injection provides multiple degrees of freedom for engine optimization and influencing the in-cylinder combustion processes. This paper compares the results in the mixture formation and combustion behavior of a hydrogen direct-injected single-cylinder research engine using two different injector locations as well as various injector nozzle designs. For this study the research engine was equipped with a specially designed cylinder head that allows accommodating a hydrogen injector in a side location between the intake valves as well as in the center location adjacent to the spark plug.
Technical Paper

Individual Cylinder Air-Fuel Ratio Estimation Algorithm for Variable Valve Lift (VVL) Engines

In a multi-cylinder variable valve lift (VVL) engine, in spite of its high efficiency and low emission performance, operation of the variable valve lift brings about not only variation of the air-fuel ratio at the exhaust manifold, but also individual cylinder air-fuel ratio maldistribution. In this study, in order to reduce the air-fuel ratio variation and maldistribution, we propose an individual cylinder air-fuel ratio estimation algorithm for individual cylinder air-fuel ratio control. For the purpose of the individual cylinder air-fuel ratio estimation, air charging dynamics are modeled according to valve lift conditions. In addition, based on the air charging model, individual cylinder air-fuel ratios are estimated by multi-rate sampling from single universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor located on the exhaust manifold. Estimation results are validated with a one-dimensional engine simulation tool.
Technical Paper

Development of a Micro-Engine Testing System

A test stand was developed to evaluate an 11.5 cc, two-stroke, internal combustion engine in anticipation of future combustion system modifications. Detailed engine testing and analysis often requires complex, specialized, and expensive equipment, which can be problematic for research budgets. This problem is compounded by the fact that testing “micro” engines involves low flow rates, high rotational speeds, and compact dimensions which demand high-accuracy, high-speed, and compact measurement systems. On a limited budget, the task of developing a micro-engine testing system for advanced development appears quite challenging, but with careful component selection it can be accomplished. The anticipated engine investigation includes performance testing, fuel system calibration, and combustion analysis. To complete this testing, a custom test system was developed.
Technical Paper

A Study of Combustion Control Parameter Optimization in a Diesel Engine Using Cylinder Pressure

In diesel engine development, fuel consumption, emissions and combustion noise have been main development objectives for fuel economy, low emissions and NVH. These main objectives can be achieved with advanced engine technologies. As electronic actuating systems are widely applied on diesel engines, elaborate control is required. This is because the main development targets are greatly affected by engine control parameters but frequently have a trade-off relationship. Therefore, the optimization of combustion control parameters is one of the most challenging tasks for improvement. As an efficient method, the DOE methodology has been used in engine calibration. In order to develop a mathematical model, the input and output values must be measured. Unlike other variables, combustion noise has been continually reported to have better indication method in simplified way. In this paper, advanced noise index from cylinder pressure signal is applied on engine test.