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Technical Paper

Modeling Evaporating Diesel Sprays Using an Improved Gas Particle Model

Accurate modeling of evaporating sprays is critical for diesel engine simulations. The standard spray and evaporation models in KIVA-3V tend to under-predict the vapor penetration, especially at high ambient pressure conditions. A sharp decrease of vapor penetration gradient is observed soon after the liquid spray is completely evaporated due to the lack of momentum sources beyond the liquid spray region. In this study, a gas particle model is implemented in KIVA-3V which tracks the momentum sources resulting from the evaporated spray. Lagrangian tracking of imaginary gas particles is considered until the velocity of the gas particle is comparable to that of the gas phase velocity. The gas particle continuously exchanges momentum with the gas phase and as a result the vapor penetrations are improved. The results using the present gas particle model is compared with experimental data over a wide range of ambient conditions and good levels of agreement are observed in vapor penetration.
Technical Paper

Effects of Numerical Models on Prediction of Cylinder Pressure Ringing in a DI Diesel Engine

Pressure ringing phenomena in internal combustion engine are often observed in cylinder pressure measurement, which may be due to combustion dynamics, pressure oscillation inside the combustion chamber and/or inside a drilled probe hole for cylinder pressure sensor installation. In the present study, combustion process in a production DI diesel engine instrumented with pressure sensors in the cylinder head was analyzed using 3D combustion CFD simulation. Three combustion models (the CTC model with the Shell autoignition model, the Sage model with detailed chemistry, and the ECFM-3Z model) and three reaction mechanisms (the Shell autoignition model, the Chalmers reduced n-heptane mechanism, and the IFP PRF mechanism) were employed to validate their capability in capturing pressure ringing phenomena. Grid size within the drilled hole and speed of sound CFL number were varied to evaluate the effects on pressure ringing prediction.
Journal Article

Studies on the Impact of 300 MPa Injection Pressure on Engine Performance, Gaseous and Particulate Emissions

An investigation has been carried out to examine the influence of up to 300 MPa injection pressure on engine performance and emissions. Experiments were performed on a 4 cylinder, 4 valve / cylinder, 4.5 liter John Deere diesel engine using the Ricardo Twin Vortex Combustion System (TVCS). The study was conducted by varying the injection pressure, Start of Injection (SOI), Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) vane position and a wide range of EGR rates covering engine out NOx levels between 0.3 g/kWh to 2.5 g/kWh. A structured Design of Experiment approach was used to set up the experiments, develop empirical models and predict the optimum results for a range of different scenarios. Substantial fuel consumption benefits were found at the lowest NOx levels using 300 MPa injection pressure. At higher NOx levels the impact was nonexistent. In a separate investigation a Cambustion DMS-500 fast particle spectrometer, was used to sample and analyze the exhaust gas.