# Search Results

Viewing 1 to 18 of 18
Technical Paper

### A New Model for Fuel Supply Dynamics in an SI Engine

1994-03-01
940208
In this paper we introduce an improved model for the fuel supply dynamics in an SI engine. First, we briefly investigate all the thermodynamic phenomena which are assumed to have a significant impact on fuel flow into the cylinder (i.e., fuel atomization, droplet decay, wall-wetting, film evaporation, and mixture flow back). This theoretical analysis results in a basic set of dynamic equations. Unfortunately, these equations are not convenient to use for control purposes. Therefore, we proceed to a simplified formulation. Several unknown parameters remain, describing phenomena which are difficult to quantify, such as heat and material transfer characteristics. These parameters are subject to operating conditions and are not discussed further. In order to validate the model dynamics, we refer to frequency and step response measurements performed on a 4-cylinder, 1.8 liter BMW engine with sequential fuel injection.
Technical Paper

### A 2-D Computational Model Describing the Heat Transfer, Reaction Kinetics and Regeneration Characteristics of a Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap

1998-02-23
980546
A 2-D CFD model was developed to describe the heat transfer, and reaction kinetics in a honeycomb structured ceramic diesel particulate trap. This model describes the steady state as well as the transient behavior of the flow and heat transfer during the trap regeneration processes. The trap temperature profile was determined by numerically solving the 2-D unsteady energy equation including the convective, heat conduction and viscous dissipation terms. The convective terms were based on a 2-D analytical flow field solution derived from the conservation of mass and momentum equations (Opris, 1997). The reaction kinetics were described using a discretized first order Arrhenius function. The 2-D term describing the reaction kinetics and particulate matter conservation of mass was added to the energy equation as a source term in order to represent the particulate matter oxidation. The filtration model describes the particulate matter accumulation in the trap.
Technical Paper

### The Theoretical Development of Vehicle Engine Cooling Airflow Models Using Incompressible Flow Methods

1991-02-01
910644
A one-dimensional incompressible flow model covering the mechanisms involved in the airflow through an automotive radiator-shroud-fan system with no heat transfer was developed. An analytical expression to approximate the experimentally determined fan performance characteristics was used in conjunction with an analytical approach for this simplified cooling airflow model, and the solution is discussed with illustrations. A major result of this model is a closed form equation relating the transient velocity of the air to the vehicle speed, pressure rise characteristics and speed of the fan, as well as the dimensions and resistance of the radiator. This provides a basis for calculating cooling airflow rate under various conditions. The results of the incompressible flow analysis were further compared with the computational results obtained with a previously developed one-dimensional, transient, compressible flow model.
Technical Paper

### The Dimensionless Correlation of Airflow for Vehicle Engine Cooling Systems

1991-02-01
910643
An analysis of vehicle engine cooling airflow by means of a one-dimensional, transient, compressible flow model was carried out and revealed that similarity theory could be applied to investigate the variation of the airflow with ambient and operating conditions. It was recognized that for a given vehicle engine cooling system, the cooling airflow behavior could be explained using several dimensionless parameters that involve the vehicle speed, fan speed, heat transfer rate through the radiator, ambient temperature and pressure, and the system characteristic dimension. Using the flow resistance and fan characteristics measured from a prototype cooling system and the computer simulation for the one-dimensional compressible flow model, a quantitative correlation of non-dimensional mass flow rate to three dimensionless parameters for a prototype heavy-duty truck was established. The results are presented in charts, tables, and formulas.
Technical Paper

### Determination of Heat Transfer Augmentation Due to Fuel Spray Impingement in a High-Speed Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0843
As the incentive to produce cleaner and more efficient engines increases, diesel engines will become a primary, worldwide solution. Producing diesel engines with higher efficiency and lower emissions requires a fundamental understanding of the interaction of the injected fuel with air as well as with the surfaces inside the combustion chamber. One aspect of this interaction is spray impingement on the piston surface. Impingement on the piston can lead to decreased combustion efficiency, higher emissions, and piston damage due to thermal loading. Modern high-speed diesel engines utilize high pressure common-rail direct-injection systems to primarily improve efficiency and reduce emissions. However, the high injection pressures of these systems increase the likelihood that the injected fuel will impinge on the surface of the piston.
Technical Paper

### Numerical Investigation of Spark Ignition Events in Lean and Dilute Methane/Air Mixtures Using a Detailed Energy Deposition Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-0609
It is beneficial but challenging to operate spark-ignition engines under highly lean and dilute conditions. The unstable ignition behavior can result in downgraded combustion performance in engine cylinders. Numerical approach is serving as a promising tool to identify the ignition requirements by providing insight into the complex physical/chemical phenomena. An effort to simulate the early stage of flame kernel initiation in lean and dilute fuel/air mixture has been made and discussed in this paper. The simulations are set to validate against laboratory results of spark ignition behavior in a constant volume combustion vessel. In order to present a practical as well as comprehensive ignition model, the simulations are performed by taking into consideration the discharge circuit analysis, the detailed reaction mechanism, and local heat transfer between the flame kernel and spark plug.
Technical Paper

### An Experimental and Computational Investigation of Water Condensation inside the Tubes of an Automotive Compact Charge Air Cooler

2016-04-05
2016-01-0224
To address the need of increasing fuel economy requirements, automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are increasing the number of turbocharged engines in their powertrain line-ups. The turbine-driven technology uses a forced induction device, which increases engine performance by increasing the density of the air charge being drawn into the cylinder. Denser air allows more fuel to be introduced into the combustion chamber, thus increasing engine performance. During the inlet air compression process, the air is heated to temperatures that can result in pre-ignition resulting and reduced engine functionality. The introduction of the charge air cooler (CAC) is therefore, necessary to extract heat created during the compression process. The present research describes the physics and develops the optimized simulation method that defines the process and gives insight into the development of CACs.
Technical Paper

### Air Charge and Residual Gas Fraction Estimation for a Spark-Ignition Engine Using In-Cylinder Pressure

2017-03-28
2017-01-0527
An accurate estimation of cycle-by-cycle in-cylinder mass and the composition of the cylinder charge is required for spark-ignition engine transient control strategies to obtain required torque, Air-Fuel-Ratio (AFR) and meet engine pollution regulations. Mass Air Flow (MAF) and Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensors have been utilized in different control strategies to achieve these targets; however, these sensors have response delay in transients. As an alternative to air flow metering, in-cylinder pressure sensors can be utilized to directly measure cylinder pressure, based on which, the amount of air charge can be estimated without the requirement to model the dynamics of the manifold.
Technical Paper

### The Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation Part 1 - Model Development

1999-03-01
1999-01-0240
The Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation (VECSS) computer code has been developed at the Michigan Technological University to simulate the thermal response of the cooling system of an on-highway heavy duty diesel powered truck under steady and transient operation. This code includes an engine cycle analysis program along with various components for the four main fluid circuits for cooling air, cooling water, cooling oil, and intake air, all evaluated simultaneously. The code predicts the operation of the response of the cooling circuit, oil circuit, and the engine compartment air flow when the VECSS is operated using driving cycle data of vehicle speed, engine speed, and fuel flow rate for a given ambient temperature, pressure and relative humidity.
Technical Paper

### Finite Difference Heat Transfer Model of a Steel-clad Aluminum Brake Rotor

2005-10-09
2005-01-3943
This paper describes the heat transfer model of a composite aluminum brake rotor and compares the predicted temperatures to dynamometer measurements taken during a 15 fade stop trial. The model is based on meshed surface geometry which is simulated using RadTherm software. Methods for realistically modeling heat load distribution, surface rotation, convection cooling and radiation losses are also discussed. A comparison of the simulation results to the dynamometer data shows very close agreement throughout the fade stop trial. As such, the model is considered valid and will be used for further Steel Clad Aluminum (SCA) rotor development.
Technical Paper

### An Efficient IC Engine Conjugate Heat Transfer Calculation for Cooling System Design

2007-04-16
2007-01-0147
This study focuses on how to predict hot spots of one of the cylinders of a V8 5.4 L FORD engine running at full load. The KIVA code with conjugate heat transfer capability to simulate the fast transient heat transfer process between the gas and the solid phases has been developed at the Michigan Technological University and will be used in this study. Liquid coolant flow was simulated using FLUENT and will be used as a boundary condition to account for the heat loss to the cooling fluid. In the first step of calculation, the coupling between the gas and the solid phases will be solved using the KIVA code. A 3D transient wall heat flux at the gas-solid interface is then compiled and used along with the heat loss information from the FLUENT data to obtain the temperature distribution for the engine metal components, such as cylinder wall, cylinder head, etc.
Technical Paper

### The Calculation of Mass Fraction Burn of Ethanol-Gasoline Blended Fuels Using Single and Two-Zone Models

2008-04-14
2008-01-0320
One-dimensional single-zone and two-zone analyses have been exercised to calculate the mass fraction burned in an engine operating on ethanol/gasoline-blended fuels using the cylinder pressure and volume data. The analyses include heat transfer and crevice volume effects on the calculated mass fraction burned. A comparison between the two methods is performed starting from the derivation of conservation of energy and the method to solve the mass fraction burned rates through the results including detailed explanation of the observed differences and trends. The apparent heat release method is used as a point of reference in the comparison process. Both models are solved using the LU matrix factorization and first-order Euler integration.
Technical Paper

### Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Diesel Particulate Trap Performance During Loading and Regeneration

2002-03-04
2002-01-1019
A 2-dimensional numerical model (MTU-FILTER) for a single channel of a honeycomb ceramic diesel particulate trap has been developed. The mathematical modeling of the filtration, flow, heat transfer and regeneration behavior of the particulate trap is described. Numerical results for the pressure drop and particulate mass were compared with existing experimental results. Parametric studies of the diesel particulate trap were carried out. The effects of trap size and inlet temperature on the trap performance are studied using the trap model. An approximate 2-dimensional analytical solution to the simplified Navier-Stokes equations was used to calculate the velocity field of the exhaust flow in the inlet and outlet channels. Assuming a similarity velocity profile in the channels, the 2-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are approximated by 1-dimenisonal conservation equations, which is similar to those first developed by Bissett.
Journal Article

### Reduction of Steady-State CFD HVAC Simulations into a Fully Transient Lumped Parameter Network

2014-05-10
2014-01-9121
Since transient vehicle HVAC computational fluids (CFD) simulations take too long to solve in a production environment, the goal of this project is to automatically create a lumped-parameter flow network from a steady-state CFD that solves nearly instantaneously. The data mining algorithm k-means is implemented to automatically discover flow features and form the network (a reduced order model). The lumped-parameter network is implemented in the commercial thermal solver MuSES to then run as a fully transient simulation. Using this network a “localized heat transfer coefficient” is shown to be an improvement over existing techniques. Also, it was found that the use of the clustering created a new flow visualization technique. Finally, fixing clusters near equipment newly demonstrates a capability to track localized temperatures near specific objects (such as equipment in vehicles).
Technical Paper

### Numerical Study on Evaporation of Spherical Droplets Impinging on the Wall Using Volume of Fluid (VOF) Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-0852
This paper aims to extend the existing Volume of Fluid (VOF) model by implementing an evaporation sub-model in an open source Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software, OpenFOAM. The paper applies the new model to numerically study the evaporation of spherical n-heptane droplets impinging on a hot wall at atmospheric pressure and a temperature above the Leidenfrost temperature. Volume of Fluid (VOF) method is chosen to track the liquid gas interface and the capability of VOF method implemented in interDyMFoam solver of OpenFOAM to simulate hydrodynamics during droplet-droplet interaction and droplet-film interaction is explored. Firstly, the in-built solver is used to simulate problems in isothermal conditions and the simulation results are compared qualitatively with the published results to validate the solver. A numerical method for modeling heat and mass transfer during evaporation is implemented in conjunction with the VOF.
Technical Paper

### Numerical Parametric Study of a Six-Stroke Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Engine Combustion

2019-04-02
2019-01-0207
Numerical investigation of engine performance and emissions of a six-stroke gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine combustion at low load conditions is presented. In order to identify the effects of additional two strokes of the six-stroke engine cycle on the thermal and chemical conditions of charge mixtures, an in-house multi-dimensional CFD code coupled with high fidelity physical sub-models along with the Chemkin library was employed. The combustion and emissions were calculated using a reduced chemical kinetics mechanism for a 14-component gasoline surrogate fuel. Two power strokes per cycle were achieved using multiple injections during compression strokes. Parametric variations of injection strategy viz., individual injection timing for both the power strokes and the split ratio that enable the control of combustion phasing of both the power strokes were explored.
Technical Paper

### Investigation of the Effects of Heat Transfer and Thermophysical Properties on Dynamics of Droplet-Wall Interaction

2019-04-02
2019-01-0296
Fuel spray-wall interaction frequently occurs on intake manifold wall in the port fuel injection engine and on the piston in the direct injection engine, especially during the cold start. The heat transfer between the spray and wall is involved in this interaction process and influences the dynamics of the impinged spray which can further affect the engine performance. The physics of impact dynamics of a single droplet serves as a fundamental for better comprehension of spray impingement. In our previous studies, we have focused on diesel droplets, at ambient temperature, impinging on both heated and non-heated wall and found impinged droplet morphology differences. To understand the effect of heat transfer and thermophysical properties on dynamics of droplet-wall interaction better, droplet temperature variation was introduced in this study. Therefore, different conditions were framed to explore the impact of thermophysical properties of the droplet.
Technical Paper

### Investigation and Optimization of Cam Actuation of an Over-Expanded Atkinson Cycle Spark-Ignited Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0250
An over-expanded spark ignited engine was investigated in this work via engine simulation with a design constrained, mechanically actuated Atkinson cycle mechanism. A conventional 4-stroke spark-ignited turbo-charged engine with a compression ratio of 9.2 and peak brake mean effective pressure of 22 bar was selected for the baseline engine. With geometry and design constraints including bore, stroke, compression ratio, clearance volume at top dead center (TDC) firing, and packaging, one over-expanded engine mechanism with over expansion ratio (OER) of 1.5 was designed. Starting with a validated 1D engine simulation model which included calibration of the in-cylinder heat transfer model and SI turbulent combustion model, investigations of the Atkinson engine including cam optimization was studied. The engine simulation study included the effects of offset of piston TDC locations as well as different durations of the 4-strokes due to the mechanism design.