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Technical Paper

Differences in Pre- and Post-Converter Lambda Sensor Characteristics

The two characteristics of wide-range air/fuel ratio sensors when located in front of and behind a three-way catalytic converter are investigated. Input as well as output gas concentration measurements and sensor readouts are presented. Behind a new converter almost no oxygen can be measured for rich air/fuel ratios. The wide-range sensor's signal is sensitive to changes in the gas composition when keeping the air/fuel ratio constant at a rich value. Since the gas compositions up- and down-stream of the converter differ, the sensor signals are not identical for the same rich air/fuel ratio before and after the converter. The various diffusion coefficients of the exhaust gas species flowing through the porous coating of the sensor combinded with the different up- and downstream gas compositions are responsible for the different sensor characteristics.
Technical Paper

Wall-Wetting Parameters Over the Operating Region of a Sequential Fuel-Injected SI Engine

In modern engine control applications, there is a distinct trend towards model-based control schemes. There are various reasons for this trend: Physical models allow deeper insights compared to heuristic functions, controllers can be designed faster and more accurately, and the possibility of obtaining an automated application scheme for the final engine to be controlled is a significant advantage. Another reason is that if physical effects can be separated, higher order models can be applied for different subsystems. This is in contrast to heuristic functions where the determination of the various maps poses large problems and is thus only feasible for low order models. One of the most important parts of an engine management system is the air-to-fuel control. The catalytic converter requires the mean air-to-fuel ratio to be very accurate in order to reach its optimal conversion rate. Disturbances from the active carbon filter and other additional devices have to be compensated.
Technical Paper

On-Line Identification Scheme for Various Wall-Wetting Models

Modern engine management systems increasingly rely on on-line identification schemes. These are used either for self-tuning regulators or the rapid parametrization of controllers. In this paper the on-line parameter identification of the wall-wetting dynamics is studied in detail. The identification is performed by exciting the fuel path dynamics of the engine at a constant operating point. The amount of fuel injected serves as input and the air-to-fuel ratio, which is measured with a linear oxygen sensor, as output. In order to gain precise information about the amount of fuel in the cylinder, a new measurement concept is used. For one, the placement of the lambda sensor close to the exhaust valve minimizes the effects of gas mixing on the measurements. Additionally, by an appropriate collection of the data, the sensor dynamics are bypassed. This is also illustrated by a measurement with a very fast NOx sensor.
Technical Paper

Fast NO Measuring Device for Internal Combustion Engines

A fast, versatile nitric oxide (NO) measuring device applying the principles of chemiluminescence has been developed. This device consists of a small sensor head attachable to the engine exhaust system and a mobile cart containing all the necessary auxiliary aggregates and the signal processing unit. Optimization techniques based on a physico-chemical model and strict miniaturization were applied in the development of this NO measuring device. Subsequent tests utilizing a, solenoid valve and bottled calibration gas con- firmed the predicted dynamic behavior of the instrument. This device now shows an extremely short sampling delay and a higher bandwidth than common NO measuring devices can offer.
Technical Paper

A New Multi-point Active Drawbead Forming Die: Model Development for Process Optimization

A new press/die system for restraining force control has been developed in order to facilitate an increased level of process control in sheet metal forming. The press features a built-in system for controlling drawbead penetration in real time. The die has local force transducers built into the draw radius of the lower tooling. These sensors are designed to give process information useful for the drawbead control. This paper focuses on developing models of the drawbead actuators and the die shoulder sensors. The actuator model is useful for developing optimal control methods. The sensor characterization is necessary in order to develop a relationship between the raw sensor outputs and a definitive process characteristic such as drawbead restraining force (DBRF). Closed loop control of local specific punch force is demonstrated using the die shoulder sensor and a PID controller developed off-line with the actuator model.
Technical Paper

Model Integration and Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) Simulation Design for the Testing of Electric Power Steering Controllers

The Electronic Control Unit (ECU) of an Electric Power Steering (EPS) system is a core device to decide how much assistance an electric motor applies on a steering wheel. The EPS ECU plays an important role in EPS systems. The effectiveness of an ECU needs to be thoroughly tested before mass production. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation provides an efficient way for the development and testing of embedded controllers. This paper focuses on the development of a HiL system for testing EPS controllers. The hardware of the HiL system employs a dSPACE HiL simulator. The EPS plant model is an integrated model consisting of a Vehicle Dynamics model of the dSPACE Automotive Simulation Model (ASM) and the Nexteer Steering model. The paper presents the design of an EPS HiL system, the simulation of sensors and actuators, the functions of the ASM Vehicle Dynamics model, and the integration method of the ASM Vehicle Dynamics model with a Steering model.
Technical Paper

Air Charge and Residual Gas Fraction Estimation for a Spark-Ignition Engine Using In-Cylinder Pressure

An accurate estimation of cycle-by-cycle in-cylinder mass and the composition of the cylinder charge is required for spark-ignition engine transient control strategies to obtain required torque, Air-Fuel-Ratio (AFR) and meet engine pollution regulations. Mass Air Flow (MAF) and Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensors have been utilized in different control strategies to achieve these targets; however, these sensors have response delay in transients. As an alternative to air flow metering, in-cylinder pressure sensors can be utilized to directly measure cylinder pressure, based on which, the amount of air charge can be estimated without the requirement to model the dynamics of the manifold.
Technical Paper

Autonomous Vehicle Sensor Suite Data with Ground Truth Trajectories for Algorithm Development and Evaluation

This paper describes a multi-sensor data set, suitable for testing algorithms to detect and track pedestrians and cyclists, with an autonomous vehicle’s sensor suite. The data set can be used to evaluate the benefit of fused sensing algorithms, and provides ground truth trajectories of pedestrians, cyclists, and other vehicles for objective evaluation of track accuracy. One of the principal bottlenecks for sensing and perception algorithm development is the ability to evaluate tracking algorithms against ground truth data. By ground truth we mean independent knowledge of the position, size, speed, heading, and class of objects of interest in complex operational environments. Our goal was to execute a data collection campaign at an urban test track in which trajectories of moving objects of interest are measured with auxiliary instrumentation, in conjunction with several autonomous vehicles (AV) with a full sensor suite of radar, lidar, and cameras.
Technical Paper

Measurements of Deer with RADAR and LIDAR for Active Safety Systems

To reduce the number and severity of accidents, automakers have invested in active safety systems to detect and track neighboring vehicles to prevent accidents. These systems often employ RADAR and LIDAR, which are not degraded by low lighting conditions. In this research effort, reflections from deer were measured using two sensors often employed in automotive active safety systems. Based on a total estimate of one million deer-vehicle collisions per year in the United States, the estimated cost is calculated to be $8,388,000,000 [1]. The majority of crashes occurs at dawn and dusk in the Fall and Spring [2]. The data includes tens of thousands of RADAR and LIDAR measurements of white-tail deer. The RADAR operates from 76.2 to 76.8 GHz. The LIDAR is a time-of-flight device operating at 905 nm. The measurements capture the deer in many aspects: standing alone, feeding, walking, running, does with fawns, deer grooming each other and gathered in large groups.