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Technical Paper

A New Model for Fuel Supply Dynamics in an SI Engine

In this paper we introduce an improved model for the fuel supply dynamics in an SI engine. First, we briefly investigate all the thermodynamic phenomena which are assumed to have a significant impact on fuel flow into the cylinder (i.e., fuel atomization, droplet decay, wall-wetting, film evaporation, and mixture flow back). This theoretical analysis results in a basic set of dynamic equations. Unfortunately, these equations are not convenient to use for control purposes. Therefore, we proceed to a simplified formulation. Several unknown parameters remain, describing phenomena which are difficult to quantify, such as heat and material transfer characteristics. These parameters are subject to operating conditions and are not discussed further. In order to validate the model dynamics, we refer to frequency and step response measurements performed on a 4-cylinder, 1.8 liter BMW engine with sequential fuel injection.
Technical Paper

Measurement of the Wall-Wetting Dynamics of a Sequential Injection Spark Ignition Engine

In this paper the fuel path of a sequentially injected gasoline engine is discussed. Since a fraction of the injected fuel suffers a delay due to the wall-wetting phenomenon, in transient phases a significant deviation of the air-to-fuel ratio from its setpoint can arise. The amount of fuel on the manifold wall and its rate of evaporation cannot be measured directly. Therefore, the effects of the wall-wetting on exhaust lambda and engine torque have to be considered for the identification of the dynamics. The dynamics of the exhaust-gas-oxygen (EGO) sensor is not negligible for the interpretation of the lambda measurement. Since both the dynamics and the statics of a ZrO2 Sensor are very nonlinear, a normal EGO-sensor is not suitable for these investigations. On the other hand, the engine torque is a good measure for the cylinder lambda when all other effects which lead to torque changes can be eliminated.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Pneumatic Atomization on the Lean Limit and IMEP

Lean limit characteristics of a pneumatic port fuel injection system is compared to a conventional port fuel injection system. The lean limit was based on the measured peak pressure. Those cycles with peak pressures greater than 105 % of the peak pressure for a nonfiring cycle were counted. Experimental data suggests that there are differences in lean limit characteristics between the two systems studied, indicating that fuel preparation processes in these systems influence the lean limit behaviors. Lean limits are generally richer for pneumatic fuel injection than those for conventional fuel injection. At richer fuel-to-air ratios the pneumatic injector usually resulted in higher torques. A simple model to estimate the evaporation occurring in the inlet manifold provided an explanation for the observed data.
Technical Paper

On-Line Identification of Air-to-Fuel Ratio Dynamics in a Sequentially Injected SI Engine

The problem of adaptively controlling the mixture ratio can be reduced to the problem of identifying the respective non-linear system dynamics [ 19]. In the present paper, convenient models of the significant dynamic processes, i.e., intake manifold, wall-wetting and oxygen sensor dynamics, arc deduced. We will separate the analysis in terms of an air and a fuel path. Concerning the fuel path we restrict our attention exclusively to linear sensor models in order to keep the modelling overhead small. Nevertheless, considering the overall dynamics, we will have to deal with some inherent non-linearities. Suitable parametrizations of these models with respect to the demands imposed by the filtering techniques are then introduced. In the case of linear dynamics we aim to achieve a linear regression form whereas in the case of non-linear dynamics, we will augment the system state and apply extended Kalman filter theory.
Technical Paper

Air Charge and Residual Gas Fraction Estimation for a Spark-Ignition Engine Using In-Cylinder Pressure

An accurate estimation of cycle-by-cycle in-cylinder mass and the composition of the cylinder charge is required for spark-ignition engine transient control strategies to obtain required torque, Air-Fuel-Ratio (AFR) and meet engine pollution regulations. Mass Air Flow (MAF) and Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensors have been utilized in different control strategies to achieve these targets; however, these sensors have response delay in transients. As an alternative to air flow metering, in-cylinder pressure sensors can be utilized to directly measure cylinder pressure, based on which, the amount of air charge can be estimated without the requirement to model the dynamics of the manifold.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Effects of Heat Transfer and Thermophysical Properties on Dynamics of Droplet-Wall Interaction

Fuel spray-wall interaction frequently occurs on intake manifold wall in the port fuel injection engine and on the piston in the direct injection engine, especially during the cold start. The heat transfer between the spray and wall is involved in this interaction process and influences the dynamics of the impinged spray which can further affect the engine performance. The physics of impact dynamics of a single droplet serves as a fundamental for better comprehension of spray impingement. In our previous studies, we have focused on diesel droplets, at ambient temperature, impinging on both heated and non-heated wall and found impinged droplet morphology differences. To understand the effect of heat transfer and thermophysical properties on dynamics of droplet-wall interaction better, droplet temperature variation was introduced in this study. Therefore, different conditions were framed to explore the impact of thermophysical properties of the droplet.
Technical Paper

Methods of Pegging Cylinder Pressure to Maximize Data Quality

Engine cylinder pressure is traditionally measured with a piezo-electric pressure transducer, and as such, must be referenced or pegged to a known value. Frequently, the cylinder pressure is pegged to the pressure in the intake manifold plenum whereby the manifold absolute pressure (MAP) at the end of the intake stroke is measured and the cylinder pressure trace for the entire cycle is adjusted such that the cylinder pressure is set equal to the manifold pressure at the end of the intake stroke. However, any error in pegging induces an error in the cylinder pressure trace, which has an adverse effect on the entire combustion analysis. This research is focused on assessing the pegging error for several pegging methods across a wide range of engine operating conditions, and ultimately determining best practices to minimize error in pegging and the calculated combustion metrics. The study was conducted through 1D simulations using the commercially available GT-Power.