Influence of Elevated Injector Temperature on the Spray Characteristics of GDI Sprays
When fuel at elevated temperatures is injected into an ambient environment at a pressure lower than the saturation pressure of the fuel, the fuel vaporizes in the nozzle and/or immediately upon exiting the nozzle; that is, it undergoes flash boiling. It is characterized by a two-phase flow regime co-located with primary breakup, which significantly affects the spray characteristics. Under flash boiling conditions, the near nozzle spray angle increases, which can lead to shorter penetration because of increased entrainment. In a multi-hole injector this can cause other impacts downstream resulting from the increased plume to plume interactions. To study the effect of injector temperature and injection pressure with real fuels, an experimental investigation of the spray characteristics of a summer grade gasoline fuel with 10% ethanol (E10) was conducted in an optically accessible constant volume spray vessel.