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Technical Paper

Identifying Optimal Operating Points in Terms of Engineering Constraints and Regulated Emissions in Modern Diesel Engines

In recent decades, “physics-based” gas-dynamics simulation tools have been employed to reduce development timescales of IC engines by enabling engineers to carry out parametric examinations and optimisation of alternative engine geometry and operating strategy configurations using desktop PCs. However to date, these models have proved inadequate for optimisation of in-cylinder combustion and emissions characteristics thus extending development timescales through additional experimental development efforts. This research paper describes how a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) with reduced chemistry can be employed to successfully determine in-cylinder pressure, heat release and emissions trends from a diesel fuelled engine operated in compression ignition direct injection mode using computations which are completed in 147 seconds per cycle.
Technical Paper

Simulating Combustion of Practical Fuels and Blends for Modern Engine Applications Using Detailed Chemical Kinetics

This research describes the potential to adopt detailed chemical kinetics for practical and potential future fuels using tri-component surrogate mixtures capable of simulating fuel octane “sensitivity” . Since the combustion characteristics of modern fuels are routinely measured using the RON and MON of the fuel, a methodology to generate detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms for these fuels based on these data is presented. Firstly, a novel correlation between various tri-component blends (comprised of i-octane, n-heptane and toluene) and fuel RON and MON was obtained by carrying out standard octane tests. Secondly, a chemical kinetic mechanism for tri-component fuels was validated using a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) suite, an in-cylinder engine combustion simulator, and a series of engine experiments conducted in HCCI operating mode.
Technical Paper

Moving Toward Establishing More Robust and Systematic Model Development for IC Engines Using Process Informatics

Analyzing the combustion characteristics, engine performance, and emissions pathways of the internal combustion (IC) engine requires management of complex and an increasing quantity of data. With this in mind, effective management to deliver increased knowledge from these data over shorter timescales is a priority for development engineers. This paper describes how this can be achieved by combining conventional engine research methods with the latest developments in process informatics and statistical analysis. Process informatics enables engineers to combine data, instrumental and application models to carry out automated model development including optimization and validation against large data repositories of experimental data.
Technical Paper

Two-stage Fuel Direct Injection in a Diesel Fuelled HCCI Engine

Two-stage fuel direct injection (DI) has the potential to expand the operating region and control the auto-ignition timing in a Diesel fuelled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. In this work, to investigate the dual-injection HCCI combustion, a stochastic reactor model, based on a probability density function (PDF) approach, is utilized. A new wall-impingement sub-model is incorporated into the stochastic spray model for direct injection. The model is then validated against measurements for combustion parameters and emissions carried out on a four stroke HCCI engine. The initial results of our numerical simulation reveal that the two-stage injection is capable of triggering the charge ignition on account of locally rich fuel parcels under certain operating conditions, and consequently extending the HCCI operating range.
Technical Paper

Studying the Influence of Direct Injection on PCCI Combustion and Emissions at Engine Idle Condition Using Two Dimensional CFD and Stochastic Reactor Model

A detailed chemical model was implemented in the KIVA-3V two dimensional CFD code to investigate the effects of the spray cone angle and injection timing on the PCCI combustion process and emissions in an optical research diesel engine. A detailed chemical model for Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) consisting of 157 species and 1552 reactions was used to simulate diesel fuel chemistry. The model validation shows good agreement between the predicted and measured pressure and emissions data in the selected cases with various spray angles and injection timings. If the injection is retarded to -50° ATDC, the spray impingement at the edge of the piston corner with 100° injection angle was shown to enhance the mixing of air and fuel. The minimum fuel loss and more widely distributed fuel vapor contribute to improving combustion efficiency and lowering uHC and CO emissions in the engine idle condition.
Journal Article

Influence of Injection Timing and Piston Bowl Geometry on PCCI Combustion and Emissions

Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI), a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategy for diesel engines is of increasing interest due to its potential to simultaneously reduce soot and NOx emissions. However, the influence of mixture preparation on combustion phasing and heat release rate in LTC is not fully understood. In the present study, the influence of injection timing on mixture preparation, combustion and emissions in PCCI mode is investigated by experimental and computational methods. A sequential coupling approach of 3D CFD with a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) is used to simulate the PCCI engine. The SRM accounts for detailed chemical kinetics, convective heat transfer and turbulent micro-mixing. In this integrated approach, the temperature-equivalence ratio statistics obtained using KIVA 3V are mapped onto the stochastic particle ensemble used in the SRM.