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Technical Paper

Water-Gas-Shift Catalyst Development and Optimization for a D-EGR® Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1968
Dedicated Exhaust Gas Recirculation (D-EGR®) technology provides a novel means for fuel efficiency improvement through efficient, on-board generation of H2 and CO reformate [1, 2]. In the simplest form of the D-EGR configuration, reformate is produced in-cylinder through rich combustion of the gasoline-air charge mixture. It is also possible to produce more H2 by means of a Water Gas Shift (WGS) catalyst, thereby resulting in further combustion improvements and overall fuel consumption reduction. In industrial applications, the WGS reaction has been used successfully for many years. Previous engine applications of this technology, however, have only proven successful to a limited degree. The motivation for this work was to develop and optimize a WGS catalyst which can be employed to a D-EGR configuration of an internal combustion engine. This study consists of two parts.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Urea Derived Deposits Composition in SCR Systems and Their Potential Effect on Overall PM Emissions

2016-04-05
2016-01-0989
Ideally, complete thermal decomposition of urea should produce only two products in active Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems: ammonia and carbon dioxide. In reality, urea thermal decomposition reaction includes the formation of isocyanic acid as an intermediate product. Being highly reactive, isocyanic acid can initiate the formation of larger molecular weight compounds such as cyanuric acid, biuret, melamine, ammeline, ammelide, and dicyandimide [1,2,3,4]. These compounds can be responsible for the formation of deposits on the walls of the decomposition reactor in urea SCR systems. Composition of these deposits varies with temperature exposure, and under certain conditions, can create oligomers such as melam, melem, and melon [5, 6] that are difficult to remove from exhaust systems. Deposits can affect the efficiency of the urea decomposition, and if large enough, can inhibit the exhaust flow.
Technical Paper

Detailed Characterization of Criteria Pollutant Emissions from D-EGR® Light Duty Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1006
In this study, the criteria pollutant emissions from a light duty vehicle equipped with Dedicated EGR® technology were compared with emissions from an identical production GDI vehicle without externally cooled EGR. In addition to the comparison of criteria pollutant mass emissions, an analysis of the gaseous and particulate chemistry was conducted to understand how the change in combustion system affects the optimal aftertreatment control system. Hydrocarbon emissions from the vehicle were analyzed usin g a variety of methods to quantify over 200 compounds ranging in HC chain length from C1 to C12. The particulate emissions were also characterized to quantify particulate mass and number. Gaseous and particulate emissions were sampled and analyzed from both vehicles operating on the FTP-75, HWFET, US06, and WLTP drive cycles at the engine outlet location.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Urea Derived Deposits Composition in SCR Systems

2016-10-17
2016-01-2327
Ideally, complete decomposition of urea should produce only two products in active Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems: ammonia and carbon dioxide. In reality, urea decomposition reaction is a two-step process that includes the formation of ammonia and isocyanic acid as intermediate products via thermolysis. Being highly reactive, isocyanic acid can initiate the formation of larger molecular weight compounds such as cyanuric acid (CYN), biuret (BIU), melamine (MEL), ammeline (AML), ammelide (AMD), and dicyandimide (DICY). These compounds can be responsible for the formation of deposits on the walls of the decomposition reactor in urea SCR systems. Composition of these deposits varies with temperature exposure, and under certain conditions can create oligomers that are difficult to remove from exhaust pipes. Deposits can affect efficiency of the urea decomposition, and if large enough, can inhibit the exhaust flow and negatively impact ammonia distribution on the SCR catalyst.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Accelerated Ash Loading Methods for Gasoline Particulate Filters

2018-09-10
2018-01-1703
Recent legislation enacted for the European Union (EU) and the United States calls for a substantial reduction in particulate mass (and number in the EU) emissions from gasoline spark-ignited vehicles. The most prominent technology being evaluated to reduce particulate emissions from a gasoline vehicle is a wall flow filter known as a gasoline particulate filter (GPF). Similar in nature to a diesel particulate filter (DPF), the GPF will trap and store particulate emissions from the engine, and oxidize said particulate with frequent regeneration events. The GPF will also collect ash particles in the wall flow substrate, which are metallic components that cannot be oxidized into gaseous components. Due to high temperature operation and frequent regeneration of the GPF, the impact of ash on the GPF has the potential to be substantially different from the impact of ash on the DPF.
Journal Article

Achieving Ultra Low NOX Emissions Levels with a 2017 Heavy-Duty On-Highway TC Diesel Engine - Comparison of Advanced Technology Approaches

2017-03-28
2017-01-0956
The 2010 emissions standards for heavy-duty engines have established a limit of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions of 0.20 g/bhp-hr. However, the California Air Resource Board (ARB) projects that even when the entire on-road fleet of heavy-duty vehicles operating in California is compliant with 2010 emission standards, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) requirement for ambient particulate matter (PM) and Ozone will not be achieved without further reduction in NOX emissions. The California Air Resources Board (CARB) funded a research program to explore the feasibility of achieving 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions.
Journal Article

Achieving Ultra Low NOX Emissions Levels with a 2017 Heavy-Duty On-Highway TC Diesel Engine and an Advanced Technology Emissions System - Thermal Management Strategies

2017-03-28
2017-01-0954
The most recent 2010 emissions standards for heavy-duty engines have established a tailpipe limit of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions of 0.20 g/bhp-hr. However, it is projected that even when the entire on-road fleet of heavy-duty vehicles operating in California is compliant with 2010 emission standards, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) requirement for ambient particulate matter and Ozone will not be achieved without further reduction in NOX emissions. The California Air Resources Board (CARB) funded a research program to explore the feasibility of achieving 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions.
Journal Article

Achieving Ultra Low NOX Emissions Levels with a 2017 Heavy-Duty On-Highway TC Diesel Engine and an Advanced Technology Emissions System - NOX Management Strategies

2017-03-28
2017-01-0958
Recent 2010 emissions standards for heavy-duty engines have established a limit of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions of 0.20 g/bhp-hr. However, CARB has projected that even when the entire on-road fleet of heavy-duty vehicles operating in California is compliant with 2010 emission standards, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) requirement for ambient particulate matter and Ozone will not be achieved without further reduction in NOX emissions. The California Air Resources Board (ARB) funded a research program to explore the feasibility of achieving 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions. This paper details engine and aftertreatment NOX management requirements and model based control considerations for achieving Ultra-Low NOX (ULN) levels with a heavy-duty diesel engine. Data are presented for several Advanced Technology aftertreatment solutions and the integration of these solutions with the engine calibration.
Technical Paper

Fuel Reforming and Catalyst Deactivation Investigated in Real Exhaust Environment

2019-04-02
2019-01-0315
Increased in-cylinder hydrogen levels have been shown to improve burn durations, combustion stability, HC emissions and knock resistance which can directly translate into enhanced engine efficiency. Along with in-cylinder enrichment strategies, hardware modification, or fuel chemistry changes, external fuel reformation can also be used to increase the hydrogen yield. During the High-Efficiency, Dilute Gasoline Engine (HEDGE) consortium at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), the potential of increased hydrogen production in a dedicated-exhaust gas recirculation (D-EGR) engine was evaluated exploiting the water gas shift (WGS) and steam reformation (SR) reactions. It was found that neither approach could produce sustained hydrogen enrichment in a real exhaust environment. Platinum group metal (PGM) and Ni WGS catalysts were tested with a focus on hydrogen production and catalyst durability. A periodic lean-rich switching strategy was utilized to decrease coking.
Technical Paper

Deposit Reduction in SCR Aftertreatment Systems by Addition of Ti-Based Coordination Complex to UWS

2019-04-02
2019-01-0313
Formation of urea-derived deposits in selective catalytic reduction (SCR) aftertreatment systems continues to be problematic at temperatures at and below 215 °C. Several consequences of deposit formation include: NOx and NH3 slip, exhaust flow maldistribution, increased engine backpressure, and corrosion of aftertreatment components. Numerous methods have been developed to reduce deposit formation, but to date, there has been no solution for continuous low-temperature dosing of Urea-Water Solution (UWS). This manuscript presents a novel methodology for reducing low-temperature deposit formation in SCR aftertreatment systems. The methodology described herein involves incorporation and dissolution of an HNCO hydrolysis catalyst directly into the UWS. HNCO is a transient species formed by the thermolysis of urea upon injection of UWS into the aftertreatment system.
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