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Technical Paper

Emissions From Snowmobile Engines Using Bio-based Fuels and Lubricants

Snowmobile engine emissions are of concern in environmentally sensitive areas, such as Yellowstone National Park (YNP). A program was undertaken to determine potential emission benefits of use of bio-based fuels and lubricants in snowmobile engines. Candidate fuels and lubricants were evaluated using a fan-cooled 488-cc Polaris engine, and a liquid-cooled 440-cc Arctco engine. Fuels tested include a reference gasoline, gasohol (10% ethanol), and an aliphatic gasoline. Lubricants evaluated include a bio-based lubricant, a fully synthetic lubricant, a high polyisobutylene (PIB) lubricant, as well as a conventional, mineral-based lubricant. Emissions and fuel consumption were measured using a five-mode test cycle that was developed from analysis of snowmobile field operating data.
Technical Paper

A Next-Generation Emission Test Procedure for Small Utility Engines - Part 1, Background and Approach

Measurement of emissions from small utility engines has usually been accomplished using steady-state raw emissions procedures such as SAE Recommended Practice J1088. While raw exhaust measurements have the advantage of producing modal exhaust gas concentration data for design feedback; they are laborious, may influence both engine performance and the emissions themselves, and have no provision for concurrent particulate measurements. It is time to consider a full-dilution procedure similar in principle to automotive and heavy-duty on-highway emission measurement practice, leading to improvements in many of the areas noted above, and generally to much higher confidence in data obtained. When certification and audit of small engine emissions become a reality, a brief dilute exhaust procedure generating only the necessary data will be a tremendous advantage to both manufacturers and regulatory agencies.
Technical Paper

Emission Control Strategies for Small Utility Engines

Recent approval of emission standards for small utility engines by the California Air Resources Board(1)* suggests that substantial reductions in emissions from small utility engines will soon be required. While 1994 standards may be met with simple engine adjustments or modifications, 1999 standards are much more stringent and may require the use of catalysts in conjunction with other emission reduction technologies. Assessing the feasibility of candidate emission control strategies is an important first step. Various emission reduction technologies were applied to three different 4-stroke engines. Emission tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness of air/fuel ratio changes, thermal oxidation, exhaust gas recirculation, and catalytic oxidation with and without supplemental air. Results of these evaluations, along with implications for further work, are presented. One engine's emissions were reduced below the levels of 1999 ARB standards.
Technical Paper

Toward the Environmentally-Friendly Small Engine: Fuel, Lubricant, and Emission Measurement Issues

Small engines which are friendly toward the environment are needed all over the world, whether the need is expressed in terms of energy efficiency, useful engine life, health benefits for the user, or emission regulations enacted to protect a population or an ecologically-sensitive area. Progress toward the widespread application of lower-impact small engines is being made through engine design, matching of engine to equipment and task, aftertreatment technology, alternative and reformulated fuels, and improved lubricants. This paper describes three research and development projects, focused on the interrelationships of fuels, lubricants, and emissions in Otto-cycle engines, which were conducted by Southwest Research Institute. All the work reported was funded internally as part of a commitment to advance the state of small engine technology and thus enhance human utility.
Technical Paper

Natural Gas Converter Performance and Durability

Natural gas-fueled vehicles impose unique requirements on exhaust aftertreatment systems. Methane conversion, which is very difficult for conventional automotive catalysts, may be required, depending on future regulatory directions. Three-way converter operating windows for simultaneous conversion of HC, CO, and NOx are considerably more narrow with gas engine exhaust. While several studies have demonstrated acceptable fresh converter performance, aged performance remains a concern. This paper presents the results of a durability study of eight catalytic converters specifically developed for natural gas engines. The converters were aged for 300 hours on a natural gas-fueled 7.0L Chevrolet engine operated at net stoichiometry. Catalyst performance was evaluated using both air/fuel traverse engine tests and FTP vehicle tests. Durability cycle severity and a comparison of results for engine and vehicle tests are discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of Low-Emissions Small Off-Road Engines

The purpose of this project was to modify existing small off-road engines to meet ARB's originally proposed 1999 emissions standards. A particular point was to show that compliance could be attained without the need to redesign the base engines. Four high-sales volume, ARB-certified 1997 model engines were selected from the following categories: 1) handheld two-stroke engine, 2) handheld four-stroke engine, 3) non-handheld side-valve engine, and 4) a non-handheld overhead-valve engine. Engines were selected, procured, and baseline emission tested using applicable ARB test procedures. Appropriate emission control strategies were then selected and applied to the four engines. Emission reduction strategies used included air/fuel ratio optimization, and catalytic aftertreatment. Following the development of the four emission-controlled engines, final, certification-quality emissions tests were performed. All four engines met ARB's original 1999 Tier 2 emission standards after development.
Technical Paper

Three-Way Catalyst Technology for Off-Road Equipment Engines

A project was conducted by Southwest Research Institute on behalf of the California Air Resources Board and the South Coast Air Quality Management District to demonstrate the technical feasibility of utilizing closed-loop three-way catalyst technology in off-road equipment applications. Five representative engines were selected, and baseline emission-tested using both gasoline and LPG. Emission reduction systems, employing three-way catalyst technology with electronic fuel control, were designed and installed on two of the engines. The engines were then installed in a fork lift and a pump system, and limited durability testing was performed. Results showed that low emission levels, easily meeting CARB's newly adopted large spark-ignited engine emission standards, could be achieved.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Snowmobile Particulate Emissions

The primary goal of this project was to characterize particulate emissions from a snowmobile engine through measurement of particulate matter volatile organic fraction (VOF), particle size, and biological activity. Emissions were evaluated using both a mineral oil and a biosynthetic oil. Basic criteria pollutants were also measured from diluted exhaust using conventional techniques. Particulate matter volatile organic fraction was determined using a gas chromatographic method (DFI/GC). Particle size was characterized using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and particulate matter biological activity was measured using a modification of the Ames bioassay procedure. Results revealed that more than 99 percent of the particles were ultrafine (Dp<100nm), with a peak concentration in the nanoparticle (Dp<50nm) size range. It was also observed that the use of a biosynthetic lubricant increased both volatile and total PM mass emissions compared to the mineral lubricant.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Durable Emission Controls for Large Nonroad SI Engines

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing emission standards for nonroad spark-ignition engines rated over 19 kW. Existing emission standards adopted by the California Air Resources Board for these engines were derived from emission testing with new engines, with an approximate adjustment applied to take deterioration into account. This paper describes subsequent testing with two LPG-fueled engines that had accumulated several thousand hours of operation with closed-loop control and three-way catalysts. These engines were removed from forklift trucks for characterization and optimization of emission levels. Emissions were measured over a wide range of steady-state points and several transient duty cycles. Optimized emission levels from the aged systems were generally below 1.5 g/hp-hr THC+NOx and 10 g/hp-hr CO.
Technical Paper

Development of a Transient Duty Cycle for Large Nonroad SI Engines

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed emission standards for nonroad spark-ignition engines rated over 19 kW. Existing emission standards adopted by the California Air Resources Board require testing on a steady-state duty cycle. This paper presents the results of measurements to characterize normal operation from forklift trucks, which are the dominant application for these engines. In combination with previous measurements with a welder to represent constant-speed applications, the measured data were used to derive a composite 20-minute transient duty cycle for emission testing for all nonroad industrial spark-ignition engines.
Technical Paper

The Society of Automotive Engineers Clean Snowmobile Challenge 2001 - Summary and Results

In response to increasing concern about snowmobile noise and air pollution, Teton County Wyoming Commissioner Bill Paddleford and environmental engineer Dr. Lori Fussell worked with The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the Institute of Science, Ecology, and the Environment (ISEE) to organize an intercollegiate design competition, the SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge (SAE CSC). The goal of the SAE CSC was to encourage development of a snowmobile with improved emission and noise characteristics that does not sacrifice performance. Modifications were expected to be cost effective and practical. The second year of the competition, the SAE CSC2001, was held in Jackson Hole, Wyoming from March 24 - 30, 2001.
Technical Paper

Marine Outboard and Personal Watercraft Engine Gaseous Emissions, and Particulate Emission Test Procedure Development

The U.S. EPA and the California Air Resources Board have adopted standards to reduce emissions from recreational marine vessels. Existing regulations focus on reducing hydrocarbons. There are no regulations on particulate emissions; particulate is expected to be reduced as a side benefit of hydrocarbon control. The goal of this study was to develop a sampling methodology to measure particulate emissions from marine outboard and personal watercraft engines. Eight marine engines of various engine technologies and power output were tested. Emissions measured in this program included hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen. Particulate emissions will be presented in a follow-up paper.
Technical Paper

Durability of Low-Emissions Small Off-Road Engines

The goal of the project was to reduce tailpipe-out hydrocarbon (HC) plus oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions to 50 percent or less of the current California Air Resources Board (CARB) useful life standard of 12 g/hp-hr for Class I engines, or 9 g/hp-hr for Class II engines. Low-emission engines were developed using three-way catalytic converters, passive secondary-air induction (SAI) systems, and in two cases, enleanment. Catalysts were integrated into the engine's mufflers, where feasible, to maintain a compact package. Due to the thermal sensitivity of these engines, carburetor calibrations were left unchanged in four of the six engines, at the stock rich settings. To enable HC oxidation under such rich conditions, a simple passive supplemental air injection system was developed. This system was then tuned to achieve the desired HC+NOx reduction.
Technical Paper

42 Catalytic Reduction of Marine Sterndrive Engine Emissions

A 2001 General Motors 4.3 liter V-6 marine engine was baseline emissions tested and then equipped with catalysts. Emission reduction effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) were also explored. Because of a U.S. Coast Guard requirement that inboard engine surface temperatures be kept below 200°F, the engine's exhaust system, including the catalysts, was water-cooled. Engine emissions were measured using the ISO-8178-E4 5-mode steady-state test for recreational marine engines. In baseline configuration, the engine produced 16.6 g HC+NOx/kW-hr, and 111 g CO/kW-hr. In closed-loop control with catalysts, HC+NOx emissions were reduced by 75 percent to 4.1 g/kW-hr, and CO emissions were reduced by 36 percent to 70 g/kW-hr of CO. The catalyzed engine was then installed in a Sea Ray 190 boat, and tested for water reversion on both fresh and salt water using National Marine Manufacturers Association procedures.
Technical Paper


The first Clean Snowmobile Challenge (CSC) was held in Jackson Hole, Wyoming in late March of 2000.(1)* It drew public attention to environmental issues associated with recreational products such as snowmobiles, and encouraged development of novel solutions through this SAE-sponsored student competition. While much good information was obtained, one area needing improvement was emissions measurement. In 2000, snowmobile emissions were measured using a drive-by infrared-type device. While this provided a rough indication of emission levels, more accurate data was desired to better reflect progress in reducing emissions. For this year's competition, Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) assembled the equipment necessary to provide brake-specific emissions measurement on-site. A truck-mounted mobile unit was outfitted with laboratory-grade instrumentation for measurement of HC, CO, NOx, CO2, and O2. A snowmobile chassis dynamometer was used to load the engines.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Snowmobile Engine Emission Test Procedure

An appropriate test procedure, based on a duty cycle representative of real in-use operation, is an essential tool for characterizing engine emissions. A study has been performed to develop and validate a snowmobile engine test procedure for measurement of exhaust emissions. Real-time operating data collected from four instrumented snowmobiles were combined into a composite database for analysis and formulation of a snowmobile engine duty cycle. One snowmobile from each of four manufacturers (Arctic Cat, Polaris, Ski-Doo, and Yamaha) was included in the data collection process. Snowmobiles were driven over various on- and off-trail segments representing five driving styles: aggressive (trail), moderate (trail), double (trail with operator and one passenger), freestyle (off trail), and lake driving. Statistical analysis of this database was performed, and a five-mode steady-state snowmobile engine duty cycle was developed.