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Technical Paper

Effect of CNG Start - Gasoline Run on Emissions from a 3/4 Ton Pick-Up Truck

1994-10-01
941916
This paper describes experiments to determine the effect on exhaust emissions of starting on compressed natural gas (CNG) and then switching to gasoline once the catalyst reaches operating temperature. Carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and detailed exhaust hydrocarbon speciation data were obtained for dedicated CNG, then unleaded gasoline, and finally CNG start -gasoline run using the Federal Test Procedure at 24°C and at -7°C. The result was a reduction in emissions from the gasoline baseline, especially at -7°C. It was estimated that CNG start - gasoline run resulted in a 71 percent reduction in potential ozone formation per mile.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions from Farm, Construction, and Industrial Engines and Their Impact

1975-02-01
750788
The research program on which this paper is based included both laboratory emission measurements and extrapolation of results to the national population of heavy-duty farm, construction, and industrial engines. Emission tests were made on four gasoline engines and eight diesel engines typical of those used in F, C, and I equipment. Gaseous and particulate emissions were measured during engine operation on well-accepted steady-state procedures, and diesel smoke was measured during both steady-state conditions and the Federal smoke test cycle. Emissions measured were hydrocarbons, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, O2, aliphatic aldehydes, light hydrocarbons, particulate, and smoke. Emission of sulfur oxides (SOx) was estimated on the basis of fuel consumed, and both evaporative and blowby hydrocarbons were also estimated where applicable (gasoline engines only). Data on emissions obtained from this study were compared with those available in the literature, where possible.
Technical Paper

Soak Time Effects on Car Emissions and Fuel Economy

1978-02-01
780083
Five light-duty vehicles were used to investigate HC, CO, and NOx emissions and fuel economy sensitivity to changes in the length of soak period preceding the EPA Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS). Emission tests were conducted following soak periods 10 minutes to 36 hours in length. Each of the first 8 minutes of the driving cycle was studied separately to observe vehicle warm-up. Several engine and fuel system temperatures were monitored during soak and run periods and example trends are illustrated. The extent to which emission rates and fuel consumption are affected by soak period length is discussed.
Technical Paper

Motorcycle Emissions, Their Impact, and Possible Control Techniques

1974-02-01
740627
Seven motorcycles, ranging in size from 100 to 1200 cm3, were tested for emissions characterization purposes. They were operated on the federal seven-mode test procedure (for 1971 and older light-duty vehicles), the federal LA-4 test procedure (for 1972 and later LDVs), and under a variety of steady-state conditions. Four of the machines tested had 4-stroke engines, and the other three had 2-stroke engines. Emissions which were measured included hydrocarbons, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, O2, aldehydes, light hydrocarbons, particulates, and smoke. Emissions of SOx were estimated on the basis of fuel consumed, and evaporative hydrocarbon losses were also estimated. Crankcase “blowby” emissions from one 4-stroke machine were measured. The impact of motorcycles on national pollutant totals was estimated, based on the test results and information from a variety of sources on national population and usage of motorcycles.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions from 2-Stroke Outboard Motors and Their Impact

1974-02-01
740737
To characterize exhaust emissions from water-cooled 2-stroke outboard motors (the predominant type), four new motors were tested on dynamometer stands. The engines ranged from 4-65 hp in size, and operating conditions were chosen along lines of simulated boat loading. All the measurements were taken at steady-state conditions. Emission concentrations were measured in raw exhaust gas and after the gases had been bubbled through water in a specially constructed tank. Constituents measured included hydrocarbons, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, O2, light hydrocarbons, and aldehydes. Emissions of sulfur oxides (SOx) were estimated on the basis of fuel consumed, and all the exhaust emissions data were used with available information on population and usage of motors to estimate exhaust emission factors and national exhaust emissions impact.
Technical Paper

Snowmobile Engine Emissions and Their Impact

1974-02-01
740735
This paper describes a research program on exhaust emissions from snowmobile engines, including both emissions characterization and estimation of national emissions impact. Tests were conducted on three popular 2-stroke twins and on one rotary (Wankel) engine. Emissions that were measured included total hydrocarbons, (paraffinic) hydrocarbons by NDIR, CO, CO2, NO (by two methods), NOx, O2, aldehydes, light hydrocarbons, particulate, and smoke. Emissions of SOx were estimated on the basis of fuel consumed, and evaporative hydrocarbons were projected to be negligible for actual snowmobile operation. During emissions tests, intake air temperature was controlled to approximately -7°C (20°F), and room air at approximately 24°C (75°F) was used for engine cooling. Based on test results and the best snowmobile population and usage data available, impact of snowmobile emissions on a national scale was computed to be minimal.
Technical Paper

Small Engine Emissions and Their Impact

1973-02-01
730859
In an attempt to characterize emissions from small air-cooled utility engines, five gasoline-fueled models were operated over a variety of speeds and loads, and important exhaust constituents were measured. These emissions included hydrocarbons, CO, CO2, NO, O2, aldehydes, light hydrocarbons, particulates, and smoke. Emissions of SOx were estimated on the basis of the fuel consumed; evaporative losses of hydrocarbons were also estimated. The impact of small engine emissions was calculated on the basis of the test results and information on national engine populations and usage. From these data, it appears that the 50 million or more small engines currently being used account for only a small part of pollutants from all sources.
Technical Paper

Public Opinion of Diesel Odor

1974-02-01
740214
This paper describes the results of a public opinion survey on testing of diesel exhaust odors conducted during 1969 and 1970. Major goals of the research were to relate public opinion of the odors and the objectionability associated with them to odor intensity, and to obtain a dose-response curve as the primary result. The dose-response curve was needed to assess odor-control technology by providing a criterion for deciding whether or not the effect of a given control item would be noticed by the general public, reduce complaints, or be worth the cost and effort required for its implementation. The engine used as the live odor source for the subject research was a two-stroke cycle type similar to those used in many buses. This engine type was chosen because its exposure to the public in urban bus applications is very widespread, and because a large portion of the Environmental Protection Agency's odor research had been performed with similar engines.
Technical Paper

Diesel Exhaust Hydrocarbon Measurement - A Flame-Ionization Method

1970-02-01
700106
The design and development of an instrument for the measurement of total hydrocarbons in diesel exhaust are described, and its ability to measure steady-state and transient hydrocarbon emissions is indicated. The two-section system comprises a sampling train and flame-ionization detector and a chromatograph electrometer, recorder and backpressure regulator. A mixture of 40% H2 and 60% He was found to be the best fuel for low O2 response with the system. The method has been used for more than a year in evaluating hydrocarbon emissions from a wide variety of diesel engines under a number of typical operating conditions. The greatest advantage of the high-temperature system is its potential for expressing the total hydrocarbon content in diesel exhaust.
Technical Paper

Fuel and Additive Effects on Diesel Particulate-Development and Demonstration of Methodology

1976-02-01
760130
To develop a methodology for characterizing particulate emissions from diesel engines, one 2-stroke cycle engine and one 4-stroke cycle engine were operated in both individual steady-state modes and according to a variation of the 13-mode diesel emissions measurement procedure. Both engines were operated on three fuels, each used with one of two available diesel fuel additives as well as by itself. The primary particulate sampling technique employed was a dilution tunnel, and secondary evaluation techniques included a diluter-sampler developed under contract to EPA by another organization, a light extinction smokemeter, and a filter-type sampling smokemeter. Gaseous emissions were also measured, providing a running check on engine condition. Particulate mass rates were calculated from gravimetric data; and analysis of particulate included determination of sulfur, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, phenols, nitrosamines, trace metals, and organic solubles.
Technical Paper

Emissions Control of Gasoline Engines for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

1975-02-01
750903
This paper summarizes an investigation of reductions in exhaust emission levels attainable using various techniques appropriate to gasoline engines used in vehicles over 14,000 lbs GVW. Of the eight gasoline engines investigated, two were evaluated parametrically resulting in an oxidation and reduction catalyst “best combination” configuration. Four of the engines were evaluated in an EGR plus oxidation catalyst configuration, and two involved only baseline tests. Test procedures used in evaluating the six “best combination” configurations include: three engine emission test procedures using an engine dynamometer, a determination of vehicle driveability, and two vehicle emission test procedures using a chassis dynamometer. Dramatic reductions in emissions were attained with the catalyst “best combination” configurations. Engine durability, however, was not investigated.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions from Heavy-Duty Trucks Tested on a Road Course and by Dynamometer

1975-02-01
750901
This is a summary compilation and analysis of exhaust-emission results and operating parameters from forty-five heavy-duty gasoline and diesel-powered vehicles tested over a 7.24-mile road course known as the San Antonio Road Route (SARR); and, for correlative purposes, on a chassis dynamometer.(2) Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed using the Constant Volume Sampler (CVS) technique similar to that used in emission testing of light-duty vehicles. On the road course, all equipment and instrumentation were located on the vehicle while electrical power was supplied by a trailer-mounted generator. In addition to exhaust emissions, operating parameters such as vehicle speed, engine speed, manifold vacuum, and transmission gear were simultaneously measured and recorded on magnetic tape. The forty-five vehicles tested represent various model years, GVW ratings, and engine types and sizes.
Technical Paper

Automotive Sulfates - A CVS Compatible Sampling System

1978-02-01
780644
This paper describes the development of a CVS compatible sampling system for automotive sulfate emissions. The design resulted from a consensus of ideas from EPA and industry. The system can be used with either a positive displacement pump or critical flow venturi CVS. A mist generator was developed to quantitatively inject sulfuric acid into the tunnel. While sulfate losses were acceptable using the mist generator, with actual automotive exhaust sulfate losses were much higher. The reasons for these losses were investigated. Sulfate losses in the tubing between the car and sulfate tunnel were also investigated.
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