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Technical Paper

Relationship among Various Particle Characterization Metrics Using GDI Engine Based Light-Duty Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0353
In recent years, gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines have been widely used by manufacturers in light-duty to meet stringent fuel economy and emissions standards. This study focuses on the relationship between various particle metrics such as number, size, surface area and mass of dilute exhaust particles from 12 different light-duty vehicles equipped with GDI engines. The campaign included the measurement of total particulate matter (PM) using Title 40 CFR Part 1066 compliant filter measurement, soot mass using photo-acoustics based analyzer, organic carbon (OC) & elemental carbon (EC) mass using thermo-optical analysis of quartz filter samples, solid particle number using European Union Regulation No. 49 compliant number system and solid particle size/number using an electrical mobility based size spectrometer.
Technical Paper

Detailed Characterization of Criteria Pollutant Emissions from D-EGR® Light Duty Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1006
In this study, the criteria pollutant emissions from a light duty vehicle equipped with Dedicated EGR® technology were compared with emissions from an identical production GDI vehicle without externally cooled EGR. In addition to the comparison of criteria pollutant mass emissions, an analysis of the gaseous and particulate chemistry was conducted to understand how the change in combustion system affects the optimal aftertreatment control system. Hydrocarbon emissions from the vehicle were analyzed usin g a variety of methods to quantify over 200 compounds ranging in HC chain length from C1 to C12. The particulate emissions were also characterized to quantify particulate mass and number. Gaseous and particulate emissions were sampled and analyzed from both vehicles operating on the FTP-75, HWFET, US06, and WLTP drive cycles at the engine outlet location.
Technical Paper

Advanced Test Methods Aid in Formulating Engine Oils for Fuel Economy

2016-10-17
2016-01-2269
Chassis dynamometer tests are often used to determine vehicle fuel economy (FE). Since the entire vehicle is used, these methods are generally accepted to be more representative of ‘real-world’ conditions than engine dynamometer tests or small-scale bench tests. Unfortunately, evaluating vehicle fuel economy via this means introduces significant variability that can readily be mitigated with engine dynamometer and bench tests. Recently, improvements to controls and procedures have led to drastically improved test precision in chassis dynamometer testing. Described herein are chassis dynamometer results from five fully formulated engine oils (utilizing improved testing protocols on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP-75) and Highway Fuel Economy Test (HwFET) cycles) which not only show statistically significant FE changes across viscosity grades but also meaningful FE differentiation within a viscosity grade where additive systems have been modified.
Technical Paper

In-Situ Measurement of Holistic Powertrain Efficiency in Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0324
Conventional methods for determining automotive powertrain efficiency include (1) component-level testing, such as engine dynamometer, transmission stand or axle stand testing, (2) simulations based on component level test data and (3) vehicle-level testing, such as chassis dynamometer or on-road testing. This paper focuses on vehicle-level testing to show where energy is lost throughout a complete vehicle powertrain. This approach captures all physical effects of a vehicle driving in real-world conditions, including torque converter lockup strategies, transmission shifting, engine control strategies and inherent mechanical efficiency of the components. A modern rear-wheel drive light duty pickup truck was instrumented and tested on a chassis dynamometer. Power was measured at the engine crankshaft output, the rear driveshaft and at the dynamometer.
Journal Article

Engine Oil Fuel Economy Testing - A Tale of Two Tests

2017-03-28
2017-01-0882
Fuel economy is not an absolute attribute, but is highly dependent on the method used to evaluate it. In this work, two test methods are used to evaluate the differences in fuel economy brought about by changes in engine oil viscosity grade and additive chemistry. The two test methods include a chassis dynamometer vehicle test and an engine dynamometer test. The vehicle testing was conducted using the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) testing protocol while the engine dynamometer test uses the proposed American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Sequence VIE fuel economy improvement 1 (FEI1) testing methodology. In an effort to improve agreement between the two testing methods, the same model engine was used in both test methods, the General Motors (GM) 3.6 L V6 (used in the 2012 model year Chevrolet™ Malibu™ engine). Within the lubricant industry, this choice of engine is reinforced because it has been selected for use in the proposed Sequence VIE fuel economy test.
Journal Article

Optimizing Engine Oils for Fuel Economy with Advanced Test Methods

2017-10-08
2017-01-2348
Increasingly stringent fuel economy and emissions regulations around the world have forced the further optimization of nearly all vehicle systems. Many technologies exist to improve fuel economy; however, only a smaller sub-set are commercially feasible due to the cost of implementation. One system that can provide a small but significant improvement in fuel economy is the lubrication system of an internal combustion engine. Benefits in fuel economy may be realized by the reduction of engine oil viscosity and the addition of friction modifying additives. In both cases, advanced engine oils allow for a reduction of engine friction. Because of differences in engine design and architecture, some engines respond more to changes in oil viscosity or friction modification than others. For example, an engine that is designed for an SAE 0W-16 oil may experience an increase in fuel economy if an SAE 0W-8 is used.
Technical Paper

Effect of Lubricant Oil on Particle Emissions from a Gasoline Direct Injection Light-Duty Vehicle

2018-09-10
2018-01-1708
Gasoline direction injection (GDI) engines have been widely used by light-duty vehicle manufacturers in recent years to meet stringent fuel economy and emissions standards. Particulate Matter (PM) mass emissions from current GDI engines are primarily composed of soot particles or black carbon with a small fraction (15% to 20%) of semi-volatile hydrocarbons generated from unburned/partially burned fuel and lubricating oil. Between 2017 and 2025, PM mass emissions regulations in the USA are expected to become progressively more stringent going down from current level of 6 mg/mile to 1 mg/mile in 2025. As PM emissions are reduced through soot reduction, lubricating oil derived semi-volatile PM is expected to become a bigger fraction of total PM mass emissions.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions of Diesel and Alternative Diesel Fuels in Modern Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles

2011-09-11
2011-24-0198
Conventional diesel fuel has been in the market for decades and used successfully to run diesel engines of all sizes in many applications. In order to reduce emissions and to foster energy source diversity, new fuels such as alternative and renewable, as well as new fuel formulations have entered the market. These include biodiesel, gas-to-liquid, and alternative formulations by states such as California. Performance variations in fuel economy, emissions, and compatibility for these fuels have been evaluated and debated. In some cases contradictory views have surfaced. “Sustainable”, “Renewable”, and “Clean” designations have been interchanged. Adding to the confusion, results from one fuel in one type of engine such as an older heavy-duty engine, is at times compared to that of another fuel in another type such as a modern light-duty engine. This study was an attempt to compare the performance of several fuels in identical environments, using the same engine, for direct comparison.
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