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Technical Paper

Motorcycle Toroidal CVT Design Concepts

Although the toroidal continuously variable transmission (CVT) has been successfully introduced into the automotive market, it has not been developed for the motorcycle community even though manufacturers have shown interest. Further, little information is available with regards to their application in motorcycles. To aid in the development process, continuously variable toroidal transmission design concepts for a motorcycle application are presented. Alternate packaging configurations developed in this paper represent potential future motorcycle transmission arrangements. Variator design parameters and their effect on transmission operation are discussed. Both single and dual cavity designs as well as orientation of the engine and final drive are reviewed.
Technical Paper

An Overview of Current CVT Mechanisms, Forces and Efficiencies

Usage of CVTs in automotive applications has begun to increase, however because of their relative newness and previous usage in nonautomotive applications, a broad base of technical information on the various types of CVT's does not exist. Most importantly though, no comparison information exists on the different types of configurations. Currently, there are a number of CVT technologies that have been used in automotive, off-road and industrial applications. This paper will highlight the characteristics, design limitations and efficiencies of the following basic CVT types:
Technical Paper

Manual Transmission Efficiency Trends and Characteristics

This paper presents a discussion on manual transmission torque losses and focuses specifically on the relationship between torque loss, input speed and torque. It also includes a discussion on other factors affecting torque loss, such as inclination angle and lube oil temperature. Manual transmissions used in compact light truck applications have torque losses that are a function of input speed and torque. Efficiency studies done on manual transmissions in the engine-driving mode indicate that torque losses, in other than direct-drive gears, are considerably more dependent on input torque than input speed. It was also observed that efficiency was significantly affected by the inclination angle and lube oil temperature.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Hybrid Powertrain for Heavy Duty Trucks

Heavy duty trucks account for about 50 percent of the NOx burden in urban areas and consume about 20 percent of the national transportation fuel in the United States. There is a continuing need to reduce emissions and fuel consumption. Much of the focus of current work is on engine development as a stand-alone subsystem. While this has yielded impressive gains so far, further improvement in emissions or engine efficiency is unlikely in a cost effective manner. Consequently, an integrated approach looking at the whole powertrain is required. A computer model of the heavy duty truck system was built and evaluated. The model includes both conventional and hybrid powertrains. It uses a series of interacting sub-models for the vehicle, transmission, engine, exhaust aftertreatment and braking energy recovery/storage devices. A specified driving cycle is used to calculate the power requirements at the wheels and energy flow and inefficiencies throughout the drivetrain.
Technical Paper

Frictional Performance Test for Transmission and Drive Train Oils

Lubricating oil affects the performance of friction materials in transmission, steering and brake systems. The TO-2 Test measured friction retention characteristics of lubricating oils used with sintered bronze friction discs. This paper introduces a new friction performance test for drive train lubricants that will be used to support Caterpillar's new transmission and drive train fluid requirements, TO-4, which measures static and dynamic friction, wear, and energy capacity for six friction materials, and replaces the TO-2 test. The new test device to be introduced is an oil cooled, single-faced clutch in the Link Engineering Co. M1158 Oil/Friction Test Machine.
Technical Paper

Automatic Transmission Efficiency Characteristics and Gearbox Torque Loss Data Regression Techniques

This paper presents a general discussion of automatic transmission parasitic losses and efficiency characteristics. Efficiency characteristics of the three major automatic transmission components-pump, torque converter, and gearbox-and their contribution to the transmission total torque losses are examined. A data reduction method for isolating gearbox torque losses from total transmission losses is also described. The information presented is based on pump, torque converter, and transmission testing performed at SwRI for Ford Motor Company. Test data was used to perform analytical fuel economy benchmarking studies. Testing included 13 transmissions manufactured by American, European, and Japanese manufacturers for 3.0-5.8L truck applications.
Technical Paper

Intricacies of SAE #2 Computerized Clutch Friction Durability Testing

This paper discusses the implications of computerizing the SAE #2 clutch friction durability tests that General Motors Corporation and Ford Motor Company require for automatic transmission fluid certification. There are three reasons for this paper. 1) Friction durability testing is a significant part of a much larger battery of tests needed to qualify a fluid. 2)There have been recent modifications concerning computerization of both the Ford and GM tests. 3) Because there are only two OEM qualified testing facilities, the details of certain testing intricacies in the areas of data acquisition, reduction and reporting may not be as understood as well as in other areas of automotive-based standardized testing. Formulators of automatic transmission fluid need to be aware of all details surrounding the collection and evaluation of the data that will result in the final test report.
Technical Paper

Preparation and Testing of an Electric Competition Vehicle

A Dodge Omni electric car was prepared for competition in an electric “stock car” 2-hour endurance event: the inaugural Solar and Electric 500 Race, April 7, 1991. This entry utilized a series-wound, direct-current 21-hp electric motor controlled by an SCR frequency and pulse width modulator. Two types of lead-acid batteries were evaluated and the final configuration was a set of 16 (6-volt each) deep-cycle units. Preparation involved weight and friction reduction; suspension modification; load, charge and temperature instrumentaltion; and electrical interlock and collision safety systems. Vehicle testing totalled 15 hours of operation. Ranges observed in testing with the final configuration were from 30 to 52 miles for loads of 175 to 90 amperes. These were nearly constant, continuous discharge cycles. The track qualifying speed (64mph) was near the 68 mph record set by the DEMI Honda at the event on the one-mile track.
Technical Paper

In-Situ Measurement of Transmission Efficiency in Vehicles

SAE Recommended Practice J1540 [1] specifies test procedures to map transmission efficiency and parasitic losses in a manual transmission. The procedure comprises two parts. The first compares input and output torque over a range of speed to determine efficiency. The second measures parasitic losses at zero input torque over a range of speed. As specified in J1540, efficiency of transmissions is routinely measured on a test-stand under steady torque and speed [2] [3]. While such testing is useful to compare different transmissions, it is unclear whether the “in-use” efficiency of a given transmission is the same as that measured on the stand. A vehicular transmission is usually mated to a reciprocating combustion engine producing significant torque and speed fluctuations at the crankshaft. It is thus a valid question whether the efficiency under such pulsating conditions is the same as that under steady conditions.
Technical Paper

Noise Reduction Techniques as They Apply to Engine-Generator Design and Treatment

Small engines may require soundproofing to eliminate one or more of the following effects: hearing loss, speech interference, community annoyance, detectability, and psychological disorientation. Detectability criteria are frequently associated with military applications and may require the use of a soundproof enclosure in addition to other engine treatments. Acoustical noise sources are conveniently classed as either aerodynamic or mechanical. Aerodynamic sources are predominant on small engines. Treatment of exhaust noise by individual components, e.g., muffler, is inadequate; a system approach, through the use of an electro-acoustic analog computer, has proved to be a much more satisfactory procedure.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Emissions from Heavy-Duty Trucks Tested on a Road Course and by Dynamometer

This is a summary compilation and analysis of exhaust-emission results and operating parameters from forty-five heavy-duty gasoline and diesel-powered vehicles tested over a 7.24-mile road course known as the San Antonio Road Route (SARR); and, for correlative purposes, on a chassis dynamometer.(2) Exhaust samples were collected and analyzed using the Constant Volume Sampler (CVS) technique similar to that used in emission testing of light-duty vehicles. On the road course, all equipment and instrumentation were located on the vehicle while electrical power was supplied by a trailer-mounted generator. In addition to exhaust emissions, operating parameters such as vehicle speed, engine speed, manifold vacuum, and transmission gear were simultaneously measured and recorded on magnetic tape. The forty-five vehicles tested represent various model years, GVW ratings, and engine types and sizes.
Technical Paper

Microcomputer Control System Design for a Tracked Amphibious Vehicle

A 14-ton tracked amphibious vehicle has been equipped with a hydrostatic drivetrain that consists of land drive and seaborne transmissions. The transmissions and the vehicle's engine are under microcomputer control. In addition, the microcomputer reads operator inputs and does operational checks of the vehicle's various subsystems. If arty of the subsystems is found to be degraded in their performance the microcomputer informs the operator. This paper presents an overview of the drivetrain systems and the implementation of the control and diagnostic systems.
Technical Paper

Fuel Efficiency Effects of Lubricants in Military Vehicles

The US Army is currently seeking to reduce fuel consumption by utilizing fuel efficient lubricants in its ground vehicle fleet. An additional desire is for a lubricant which would consist of an all-season (arctic to desert), fuel efficient, multifunctional Single Common Powertrain Lubricant (SCPL) with extended drain capabilities. To quantify the fuel efficiency impact of a SCPL type fluid in the engine and transmission, current MIL-PRF-46167D arctic engine oil was used in place of MIL-PRF-2104G 15W-40 oil and SAE J1321 Fuel Consumption In-Service testing was conducted. Additionally, synthetic SAE 75W-140 gear oil was evaluated in the axles of the vehicles in place of an SAE J2360 80W-90 oil. The test vehicles used for the study were three M1083A1 5-Ton Cargo vehicles from the Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV).
Technical Paper

Control System Development for Retrofit Automated Manual Transmissions

For transmission suppliers tooled primarily for producing manual transmissions, retrofitting a manual transmission with actuators and a controller is business viable. It offers a low cost convenience for the consumer without losing fuel economy when compared to torque converter type automatics. For heavy duty truck fleets even the estimated 3% gain in fuel economy that the Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) offers over the manual transmission can result in lower operational costs. This paper provides a case study using a light duty transmission retrofitted with electric actuation for gears and the clutch. A high level description of the control algorithms and hardware is included. Clutch control is the most significant component of the AMT controller and it is addressed in detail during operations such as vehicle launch from rest, launch from coast and launch on grades.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a SuperTurbocharged Downsized Engine Using 1-D CFD Simulation

The VanDyne SuperTurbocharger (SuperTurbo) is a turbocharger with an integral Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). By changing the gear ratio of the CVT, the SuperTurbo is able to either pull power from the crankshaft to provide a supercharging function, or to function as a turbo-compounder, where energy is taken from the turbine and given to the crankshaft. The SuperTurbo's supercharger function enhances the transient response of a downsized and turbocharged engine, and the turbo-compounding function offers the opportunity to extract the available exhaust energy from the turbine rather than opening a waste gate. Using 1-D simulation, it was shown that a 2.0-liter L4 could exceed the torque curve of a 3.2L V6 using a SuperTurbo, and meet the torque curve of a 4.2-liter V8 with a SuperTurbo and a fresh-air bypass configuration. In each case, the part-load efficiency while using the SuperTurbo was better than the baseline engine.
Technical Paper

Modeling, Design and Validation of an Exhaust Muffler for a Commercial Telehandler

This paper describes the design, development and validation of a muffler for reducing exhaust noise from a commercial tele-handler. It also describes the procedure for modeling and optimizing the exhaust muffler along with experimental measurement for correlating the sound transmission loss (STL). The design and tuning of the tele-handler muffler was based on several factors including overall performance, cost, weight, available space, and ease of manufacturing. The analysis for predicting the STL was conducted using the commercial software LMS Virtual Lab (LMS-VL), while the experimental validation was carried out in the laboratory using the two load setup. First, in order to gain confidence in the applicability of LMS-VL, the STL of some simple expansion mufflers with and without extended inlet/outlet and perforations was considered. The STL of these mufflers were predicted using the traditional plane wave transfer matrix approach.
Technical Paper

Calibrating and Protecting Microphones to Allow Acoustic Measurements in Hazardous Environments

Performing acoustic measurements on or near engines, transmissions, as well as in other circumstances where the environment is hazardous and harsh for microphones requires special precautions. Fluids inevitably leak, and the possibility of transducer damage can be very high without proper protection. Properly protecting microphones during testing allows for consistent data quality in these hazardous and difficult environments. While this paper will present the use of a 5 mil Nitrile cover which protects against many fluids within the scope of automotive testing, including water, hydrocarbons, and alcohols, as well as having good heat resistance and high strength, the concepts developed are applicable to other types of microphone protective mechanisms. Acoustic sensitivity was measured and used to calculate the change of the microphone's response after the treatment is applied, as well as after being exposed to various contaminants.
Technical Paper

Downspeeding and Supercharging a Diesel Passenger Car for Increased Fuel Economy

The effects of downspeeding and supercharging a passenger car diesel engine were studied through laboratory investigation and vehicle simulation. Changes in the engine operating range, transmission gearing, and shift schedule resulted in improved fuel consumption relative to the baseline turbocharged vehicle while maintaining performance and drivability metrics. A shift schedule optimization technique resulted in fuel economy gains of up to 12% along with a corresponding reduction in transmission shift frequency of up to 55% relative to the baseline turbocharged configuration. First gear acceleration, top gear passing, and 0-60 mph acceleration of the baseline turbocharged vehicle were retained for the downsped supercharged configuration.
Technical Paper

Sound Power Measurement in a Semi-Reverberant, Volume Deficient Chamber

Sound power can be determined using a variety of methods, but precision methods require the volume of the noise source to be less than 1% of the chamber volume leading to relatively large test chambers. Automotive torque converter performance and noise testing is completed in an enclosed metallic test fixture which inhibits the use of precision methods due to volume and space limitations. This paper describes a new method developed to accurately determine sound power of an automotive torque converter in a relatively small enclosure through characterization of the test environment. The test environment was characterized using two reference noise sources designed to represent torque converter noise output and physical geometry. Sound pressure levels of the sources were measured at multiple microphone locations and at three source amplitude levels to characterize the environment.
Technical Paper

Dilute Combustion Assessment in Large Bore, Low Speed Engines

The promising D-EGR gasoline engine results achieved in the test cell, and then in a vehicle demonstration have led to exploration of further possible applications. A study has been conducted to explore the use of D-EGR gasoline engines as a lower cost replacement for medium duty diesel engines in trucks and construction equipment. However, medium duty diesel engines have larger displacement, and tend to require high torque at lower engine speeds than their automobile counterparts. Transmission and final drive gearing can be utilized to operate the engine at higher speeds, but this penalizes life-to-overhaul. It is therefore important to ensure that D-EGR combustion system performance can be maintained with a larger cylinder bore, and with high specific output at relatively low engine speeds.