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Technical Paper

The Effects of Natural Aging on Fleet and Durability Vehicle Engine Mounts from a Dynamic Characterization Perspective

2001-04-30
2001-01-1449
Elastomers are traditionally designed for use in applications that require specific mechanical properties. Unfortunately, these properties change with respect to many different variables including heat, light, fatigue, oxygen, ozone, and the catalytic effects of trace elements. When elastomeric mounts are designed for NVH use in vehicles, they are designed to isolate specific unwanted frequencies. As the elastomers age however, the desired elastomeric properties may have changed with time. This study looks at the variability seen in new vehicle engine mounts and how the dynamic properties change with respect to miles accumulated on fleet and durability test vehicles.
Technical Paper

Visualization techniques to identify and quantify sources and paths of exterior noise radiated from stationary and nonstationary vehicles

2000-06-12
2000-05-0326
In recent years, Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) has been used to identify stationary vehicle exterior noise sources. However that application has usually been limited to individual components. Since powertrain noise sources are hidden within the engine compartment, it is difficult to use NAH to identify those sources and the associated partial field that combine to create the complete exterior noise field of a motor vehicle. Integrated Nearfield Acoustical Holography (INAH) has been developed to address these concerns: it is described here. The procedure entails sensing the sources inside the engine compartment by using an array of reference microphones, and then calculating the associated partial radiation fields by using NAH. In the second part of this paper, the use of farfield arrays is considered. Several array techniques have previously been applied to identify noise sources on moving vehicles.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Electric Turbo Compound Technology

2003-06-23
2003-01-2294
A cooperative program between the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology and Caterpillar is aimed at demonstrating electric turbo compound technology on a Class 8 truck engine. The goal is to demonstrate the level of fuel efficiency improvement attainable with an electric turbocompound system. The system consists of a turbocharger with an electric motor/generator integrated into the turbo shaft. The generator extracts surplus power at the turbine, and the electricity it produces is used to run a motor mounted on the engine crankshaft, recovering otherwise wasted energy in the exhaust gases. The electric turbocompound system also provides more control flexibility in that the amount of power extracted can be varied. This allows for control of engine boost and thus air/fuel ratio. The paper presents the status of development of an electric turbocompound system for a Caterpillar heavy-duty on-highway truck engine.
Technical Paper

A Bench Test Procedure for Evaluating the Cylinder Liner Pitting Protection Performance of Engine Coolant Additives for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Applications

1996-02-01
960879
Evaluations of the liner pitting protection performance provided by engine coolant corrosion inhibitors and supplemental coolant additives have presented many problems. Current practice involves the use of full scale engine tests to show that engine coolant inhibitors provide sufficient liner pitting protection. These are too time-consuming and expensive to use as the basis for industry-wide specifications. Ultrasonic vibratory test rigs have been used for screening purposes in individual labs, but these have suffered from poor reproducibility and insufficient additive differentiation. A new test procedure has been developed that reduces these problems. The new procedure compares candidate formulations against a good and bad reference fluid to reduce the concern for problems with calibration and equipment variability. Cast iron test coupons with well-defined microstructure and processing requirements significantly reduce test variability.
Technical Paper

Observation of Transient Oil Consumption with In-Cylinder Variables

1996-10-01
961910
Only a limited understanding of the oil consumption mechanism appears to exist, especially oil consumption under transient engine operating conditions. This is probably due to the difficulty in engine instrumentation for measuring not only oil consumption, but also for measuring the associated in-cylinder variables. Because of this difficulty, a relatively large number of experiments and tests are often necessary for the development of each engine design in order to achieve the target oil consumption that meets the requirements for particulate emissions standards, oil economy, and engine reliability and durability. Increased understanding and logical approaches are believed to be necessary in developing the oil-consumption reduction technology that effectively and efficiently accomplishes the tasks of low oil-consumption engine development.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of Advanced Control Techniques to Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engines

1996-10-01
961984
Advancements in natural gas engine control technology can result in natural gas engines which are more efficient, powerful, responsive, and durable than those currently available. The vast majority of hardware required to make these advancements exists or can be modified for application on natural gas engines. Given this, an investigation to develop and incorporate advanced natural gas engine control technology was completed. Advanced control techniques for equivalence ratio control, knock detection and control, misfire detection and control, and turbocharger transient surge supression are detailed in this paper. Control strategies were developed and applied to a heavy-duty on-highway natural gas engine using a personal computer-based prototyping control system. The engine control system advancements resulted in a natural gas engine with increased efficiency, power density, and response, along with reduced emissions over the current state-of-the-art in natural gas engines.
Technical Paper

Advanced Computational Methods for Predicting Flow Losses in Intake Regions of Diesel Engines

1997-02-24
970639
A computational methodology has been developed for loss prediction in intake regions of internal combustion engines. The methodology consists of a hierarchy of four major tasks: (1) proper computational modeling of flow physics; (2) exact geometry and high quality and generation; (3) discretization schemes for low numerical viscosity; and (4) higher order turbulence modeling. Only when these four tasks are dealt with properly will a computational simulation yield consistently accurate results. This methodology, which is has been successfully tested and validated against benchmark quality data for a wide variety of complex 2-D and 3-D laminar and turbulent flow situations, is applied here to a loss prediction problem from industry. Total pressure losses in the intake region (inlet duct, manifold, plenum, ports, valves, and cylinder) of a Caterpillar diesel engine are predicted computationally and compared to experimental data.
Technical Paper

Contamination Sensitivity of Automotive Components

1997-02-24
970552
System contamination caused by contaminates or small particles built-in, self-generated, or inhaled from environment presents severe problems. The problems include but are not limited to the malfunctioning of valves, pumps, seals and injectors or lock-up of these components; increased wear of bearings, piston rings, and other friction components; and degradated machine performance. In general, system contamination changes a deterministic system into a stochastic system and shortens machinery service life. In this paper, these contamination problems are discussed in categories and associated analysis, testing and computer modeling methodologies are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Control and Cylinder-Event-Based Logic for an Ultra-Low Emissions Vehicle

1997-02-24
970531
Improvements in several areas are required to convert current technology light-duty vehicles into low-emissions vehicles suitable for meeting California's Ultra-Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV) standards. This paper discusses one of those areas, the engine and aftertreatment control system algorithms. The approach was to use model-based air and fuel flow calculations to maintain accurate air-fuel ratio control, and to interface the aftertreatment requirements with engine air-fuel ratio control during the cold- and hot-start parts of the cycle. This approach was applied to a 1993 Ford Taurus operating on Ed85 (85% denatured alcohol, 15% gasoline).
Technical Paper

Characteristics of a Small Engine Equipped with an Electromagnetic Valve Actuation System

1998-08-11
981908
An electromagnetic valve actuation (EVA) system was developed and applied to a Kohler Command Series engine. Engine development and testing was conducted for the purpose of evaluating the performance of the EVA-equipped engine, running on natural gas, in an engine-test laboratory environment. As part of this effort, a personal computer-based engine control system, which managed the fueling, ignition, throttling, and intake/exhaust valve control functions, was developed. The evaluation included an investigation into increasing engine power output and full load efficiency, as well as increased part load efficiency. Techniques including optimized valve events as a function of operating condition, and throttleless operation using early and late intake valve closing are presented. Engine simulation results are compared with actual engine data and presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

Mixture Preparation Measurements

1995-02-01
950069
A technique was demonstrated that can quantify the state of mixture preparation during the critical periods of ignition and very early flame development in a “production” spark-ignited engine. To determine the degree of stratification and vaporization two fast-response hydrocarbon (HC) probes were placed in a specially adapted spark plug. Data from the HC analyzer was correlated with cylinder pressure data to relate changes in mixture preparation to classic engine measures, such as indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and ignition delay.
Technical Paper

A Heavy-Fueled Engine for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

1995-02-01
950773
The growing usage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for aerial surveillance and reconnaissance in military applications calls for lightweight, reliable powerplants that burn heavy distillate fuels. While mass-produced engines exist that provide adequate power-to-weight ratio in the low power class needed for UAVs, they all use a spark-ignited combustion system that requires high octane fuels. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has embarked upon an internal research effort to design and demonstrate an engine that will meet the requirements of high power density, power output compatible with small unmanned aircraft, heavy-fuel combustion, reliable, durable construction, and producible design. This effort has culminated in the successful construction and operation of a demonstrator engine.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of High-Temperature Diesel Engine Liquid Lubricants

1995-10-01
952544
High-temperature lubricant (HTL) requirements for future U.S. Army ground vehicles were investigated. A single-cylinder diesel engine (SCE-903) was successfully modified to operate at increased cylinder liner temperatures and to serve as a tool for HTL evaluation. Oil D, one of six lubricants evaluated, completed 200 test hours at an average cylinder wall temperature of 247°C and an oil sump temperature of 166°C with only minor oil degradation. However, improved piston cleanliness is desired.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Novel Two-Stroke Engine Scavenging Arrangement: The Neutron Engine

1995-09-01
952140
A unique two-stroke engine design is investigated in which fresh mixture is introduced into the cylinder through a valve in the piston crown, and exhausted through peripheral cylinder ports. The engine behaves as a free-piston engine through a portion of the cycle when the piston lifts off the valve seat. The fresh air jet rising along the cylinder centerline effectively displaces the burned gases with little mixing of the two streams. The concept was analyzed by a combination of dynamic cycle simulation and prediction of the in-cylinder flow characteristics by multidimensional modeling. The cycle simulation program considered the dynamics of the piston during its free motion as well as under the kinematic constraints of the crank system. A zero-dimensional thermodynamic model of the cylinder was used to predict cycle pressure and temperature, indicated power, fuel consumption, and flow in and out of the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Performance of Organic Acid Based Coolants in Heavy Duty Applications

1996-02-01
960644
Coolant formulations based on organic acid corrosion inhibitor technology have been tested in over 180 heavy duty engines for a total of more than 50 million kilometers. This testing has been used to document long life coolant performance in various engine types from four major engine manufacturers. Inspections of engines using organic acid based coolant (with no supplemental coolant additive) for up to 610,000 kilometers showed excellent protection of metal engine components. Improved protection was observed against cylinder liner, water pump, and aluminum spacer deck corrosion. In addition, data accumulated from this testing were used to develop depletion rate curves for long life coolant corrosion inhibitors, including tolyltriazole and nitrite. Nitrite was observed to deplete less rapidly in long life coolants than in conventional formulations.
Technical Paper

Development of Plasma Spray Coated Cylinder Liners

1996-02-01
960048
Improved fuel economy and reduction of emissions can be achieved by insulation of the combustion chamber components to reduce heat rejection. However, such insulation will also increase the operating temperature of the piston ring/cylinder liner interface from approximately 150°C to over 300°C. Since existing ring/liner materials cannot withstand these higher operating temperatures alternatives are needed for this critical tribological interface. This paper describes the development of a cost effective ID grinding technique for machining the bores of plasma sprayed diesel engine cylinder liners.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Time-Averaged Piston Temperatures and Surface Heat Flux Between a Direct-Fuel Injected and Carbureted Two-Stroke Engine

1998-02-23
980763
Time-averaged temperatures at critical locations on the piston of a direct-fuel injected, two-stroke, 388 cm3, research engine were measured using an infrared telemetry device. The piston temperatures were compared to data [7] of a carbureted version of the two-stroke engine, that was operated at comparable conditions. All temperatures were obtained at wide open throttle, and varying engine speeds (2000-4500 rpm, at 500 rpm intervals). The temperatures were measured in a configuration that allowed for axial heat flux to be determined through the piston. The heat flux was compared to carbureted data [8] obtained using measured piston temperatures as boundary conditions for a computer model, and solving for the heat flux. The direct-fuel-injected piston temperatures and heat fluxes were significantly higher than the carbureted piston. On the exhaust side of the piston, the direct-fuel injected piston temperatures ranged from 33-73 °C higher than the conventional carbureted piston.
Technical Paper

Development of a Fiber Reinforced Aluminum Piston for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

1994-03-01
940584
This paper discusses a joint customer-supplier program intended to further develop the ability to design and apply aluminum alloy pistons selectively reinforced with ceramic fibers for heavy duty diesel engines. The approach begins with a comprehensive mechanical properties evaluation of base and reinforced material. The results demonstrated significant fatigue strength improvement due to fiber reinforcement, specially at temperatures greater than 300°C. A simplified numerical analysis is performed to predict the temperature and fatigue factor values at the combustion bowl area for conventional and reinforced aluminum piston designs for a 6.6 liter engine. It concludes that reinforced piston have a life expectation longer than conventional aluminum piston. Structural engine tests under severe conditions of specific power and peak cylinder pressure were used to confirm the results of the cyclic properties evaluation and numerical analysis.
Technical Paper

Coal-Water-Slurry Autoignition in a High-Speed Detroit Diesel Engine

1994-10-01
941907
Autoignition of coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel in a two-stroke engine operating at 1900 RPM has been achieved. A Pump-Line-Nozzle (PLN) injection system, delivering 400mm3/injection of CWS, was installed in one modified cylinder of a Detroit Diesel Corporation (DI)C) 8V-149TI engine, while the other seven cylinders remained configured for diesel fuel. Coal Combustion was sustained by maintaining high gas and surface temperatures with a combination of hot residual gases, warm inlet air admission, ceramic insulated components and increased compression ratio. The coal-fueled cylinder generated 85kW indicated power (80 percent of rated power), and lower NOx levels with a combustion efficiency of 99.2 percent.
Technical Paper

A Non-Intrusive Method of Measuring PCV Blowby Constituents

1994-10-01
941947
A technique is presented that has been successfully demonstrated to non-intrusively and quickly sample gases typically found in PCV systems. Color Detection Tubes (CDTs) were used with a simple sampling arrangement to monitor CO2, NOx, O2, and H2O(g) at the closure line, crankcase, and PCV line. Measurements were accurate and could be made instantaneously. Short Path Thermal Desorbtion Tubes (SPTDTs) were used at the same engine locations for the characterization of fuel- and oil-derived hydrocarbon (HC) fractions and required only 50 cc samples. High engine loads caused pushover of blowby vapors as indicated by increased concentrations of CO2, NOx, H2O(g), and fuel HCs in the engines' fresh air inlets during WOT operation. Peak concentrations of blowby vapors were measured in the crankcase under no load and part throttle conditions. Oxygen concentrations always opposed the trends of CO2, NOx, and H2O(g).
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