Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

A Cascade Atomization and Drop Breakup Model for the Simulation of High-Pressure Liquid Jets

2003-03-03
2003-01-1044
A further development of the ETAB atomization and drop breakup model for high pressure-driven liquid fuel jets, has been developed, tuned and validated. As in the ETAB model, this breakup model reflects a cascade of drop breakups, where the breakup criterion is determined by the Taylor drop oscillator and each breakup event resembles experimentally observed breakup mechanisms. A fragmented liquid core due to inner-nozzle disturbances is achieved by injecting large droplets subject to this breakup cascade. These large droplets are equipped with appropriate initial deformation velocities in order to obtain experimentally observed breakup lengths. In contrast to the ETAB model which consideres only the bag breakup or the stripping breakup mechanism, the new model has been extended to include the catastrophic breakup regime. In addition, a continuity condition on the breakup parameters has lead to the reduction of one model constant.
Technical Paper

Lean Limit and Performance Improvements for a Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engine

1996-10-01
961939
Development of a heavy-duty natural gas engine to improve its lean operating characteristics is detailed in this paper. Testing to determine the lean misfire limit is described, as well as investigations into the cause of lean misfire in this engine. Details of engine modifications to improve the lean misfire limit are also included. The development process resulted in a significant improvement in the lean performance of the engine (i.e., an extended lean misfire limit, better combustion stability, and lower hydrocarbon emissions).
Technical Paper

Advanced Computational Methods for Predicting Flow Losses in Intake Regions of Diesel Engines

1997-02-24
970639
A computational methodology has been developed for loss prediction in intake regions of internal combustion engines. The methodology consists of a hierarchy of four major tasks: (1) proper computational modeling of flow physics; (2) exact geometry and high quality and generation; (3) discretization schemes for low numerical viscosity; and (4) higher order turbulence modeling. Only when these four tasks are dealt with properly will a computational simulation yield consistently accurate results. This methodology, which is has been successfully tested and validated against benchmark quality data for a wide variety of complex 2-D and 3-D laminar and turbulent flow situations, is applied here to a loss prediction problem from industry. Total pressure losses in the intake region (inlet duct, manifold, plenum, ports, valves, and cylinder) of a Caterpillar diesel engine are predicted computationally and compared to experimental data.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Control and Cylinder-Event-Based Logic for an Ultra-Low Emissions Vehicle

1997-02-24
970531
Improvements in several areas are required to convert current technology light-duty vehicles into low-emissions vehicles suitable for meeting California's Ultra-Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV) standards. This paper discusses one of those areas, the engine and aftertreatment control system algorithms. The approach was to use model-based air and fuel flow calculations to maintain accurate air-fuel ratio control, and to interface the aftertreatment requirements with engine air-fuel ratio control during the cold- and hot-start parts of the cycle. This approach was applied to a 1993 Ford Taurus operating on Ed85 (85% denatured alcohol, 15% gasoline).
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Ignition Quality as Determined in the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) - Part II

1997-05-01
971636
A combustion-based analytical method, initially developed by the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and referred to as the Constant Volume Combustion Apparatus (CVCA), has been further researched/developed by an SwRI licensee (Advanced Engine Technology Ltd.). This R&D has resulted in a diesel fuel Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) that permits rapid and precise determination of the ignition quality of middle distillate and alternative fuels. Its features, such as low fuel volume requirement, complete test automation, and self-diagnosis, make it highly suitable for commercial oil industry and research applications. A preliminary investigation, reported in SAE paper 961182, has shown that the IQT results are highly correlated to the ASTM D-613 cetane number (CN). The objective of this paper is to report on efforts to further refine the original CN model and report on improvements to the IQT fuel injection system.
Technical Paper

Performance of Different Cell Structure Converters A Total Systems Perspective

1998-10-19
982634
The objective of this effort was to develop an understanding of how different converter substrate cell structures impact tailpipe emissions and pressure drop from a total systems perspective. The cell structures studied were the following: The catalyst technologies utilized were a new technology palladium only catalyst in combination with a palladium/rhodium catalyst. A 4.0-liter, 1997 Jeep Cherokee with a modified calibration was chosen as the test platform for performing the FTP test. The experimental design focused on quantifying emissions performance as a function of converter volume for the different cell structures. The results from this study demonstrate that the 93 square cell/cm2 structure has superior performance versus the 62 square cell/cm2 structure and the 46 triangle cell/cm2 structure when the converter volumes were relatively small. However, as converter volume increases the emissions differences diminish.
Technical Paper

Modeling NOx Emissions from Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

1998-05-04
981389
A zero-dimensional cycle simulation model coupled with a chemical equilibrium model and a two-zone combustion model has been extended to predict nitric oxide formation and emissions from spark-ignited, lean-burn natural gas engines. It is demonstrated that using the extended Zeldovich mechanism alone, the NOx emissions from an 8.1-liter, 6-cylinder, natural gas engine were significantly under predicted. However, by combining the predicted NOx formation from both the extended Zeldovich thermal NO and the Fenimore prompt NO mechanisms, the NOx emissions were predicted with fair accuracy over a range of engine powers and lean-burn equivalence ratios. The effect of injection timing on NOx emissions was under predicted. Humidity effects on NOx formation were slightly under predicted in another engine, a 6.8-liter, 6-cylinder, natural gas engine. Engine power was well predicted in both engines, which is a prerequisite to accurate NOx predictions.
Technical Paper

A Study of Engine Sensitivity to Spark Plug Rim-Fire

1998-05-04
981453
A recent study of engine sensitivity revealed that spark plugs used in conventional spark-ignited gasoline-fueled engines do not always fire in the intended fashion. Rather than firing to the ground strap during each ignition event, the arc frequently travels to the “rim” or “shell” of the spark plug. This behavior is termed rim-fire and although observed by other researchers in industry, its effects on engine performance are not widely reported. This paper addresses some of the quantitative effects of rim-fire on engine performance. Combustion data were recorded for various repeat conditions on a Ford 1.8L Zetec engine. The first set of engine tests used four, new, conventional, automotive spark plugs. The second set of engine tests used four modified spark plugs that induced 100% rim-fire when the ground strap was permanently removed. The study focused on part- and full-load engine performance, EGR tolerance, and step-transient characteristics.
Technical Paper

Lower Explosion Limits and Compositions of Middle Distillate Fuel Vapors

1998-10-19
982485
Lower explosion limits (LEL) and the chemical compositions of JP-8, Jet A and JP-5 fuel vapors were determined in a sealed combustion vessel equipped with a spark igniter, a gas-sampling probe, and sensors to measure pressure rise and fuel temperature. Ignition was detected by pressure rise in the vessel. Pressure rises up to 60 psig were observed near the flash points of the test fuels. The fuel vapors in the vessel ignited from as much as 11°F below flash-point measurements. Detailed hydrocarbon speciation of the fuel vapors was performed using high-resolution gas chromatography. Over 300 hydrocarbons were detected in the vapors phase. The average molecular weight, hydrogen to carbon ratio, and LEL of the fuel vapors were determined from the concentration measurements. The jet fuel vapors had molecular weights ranging from 114 to 132, hydrogen to carbon ratios of approximately 1.93, and LELs comparable to pure hydrocarbons of similar molecular weight.
Technical Paper

A Heavy-Fueled Engine for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

1995-02-01
950773
The growing usage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for aerial surveillance and reconnaissance in military applications calls for lightweight, reliable powerplants that burn heavy distillate fuels. While mass-produced engines exist that provide adequate power-to-weight ratio in the low power class needed for UAVs, they all use a spark-ignited combustion system that requires high octane fuels. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has embarked upon an internal research effort to design and demonstrate an engine that will meet the requirements of high power density, power output compatible with small unmanned aircraft, heavy-fuel combustion, reliable, durable construction, and producible design. This effort has culminated in the successful construction and operation of a demonstrator engine.
Technical Paper

Relationships Between Fuel Properties and Composition and Diesel Engine Combustion Performance and Emissions

1994-03-01
941018
Five different diesel fuel feedstocks were processed to two levels of aromatic (0.05 sulfur, and then 10 percent) content. These materials were distilled into 6 to 8 narrow boiling range fractions that were each characterized in terms of the properties and composition. The fractions were also tested at five different speed load conditions in a single cylinder engine where high speed combustion data and emissions measurements were obtained. Linear regression analysis was used to develop relationships between the properties and composition, and the combustion and emissions characteristics as determined in the engine. The results are presented in the form of the regression equations and discussed in terms of the relative importance of the various properties in controlling the combustion and emissions characteristics. The results of these analysis confirm the importance of aromatic content on the cetane number, the smoke and the NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Ignition Quality as Determined in the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT)

1996-05-01
961182
A combustion-based analytical method, initially developed by the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) referred to as the Constant Volume Combustion Apparatus (CVCA), has been further researched/developed by an SwRI licensee (Advanced Engine Technology Ltd.) as an Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) for laboratories and refineries. The IQT software/hardware system permits rapid and precise determination of ignition quality for middle distillate fuels. Its features, such as low fuel volume requirement, complete test automation, and self-diagnosis, make it highly suitable for commercial oil industry and research applications. Operating and test conditions were examined in the context of providing a high correlation with cetane number (CN), as determined by the ASTM D-613 method. Preliminary investigation indicates that the IQT results are highly repeatable (± 0.30 CN), providing a high sensitivity to CN variation over the 33 to 58 CN range.
Technical Paper

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition of Diesel Fuel

1996-05-01
961160
A single-cylinder, direct-injection diesel engine was modified to operate on compression ignition of homogenous mixtures of diesel fuel and air. Previous work has indicated that extremely low emissions and high efficiencies are possible if ignition of homogeneous fuel-air mixtures is accomplished. The limitations of this approach were reported to be misfire and knock. These same observations were verified in the current work. The variables examined in this study included air-fuel ratio, compression ratio, fresh intake air temperature, exhaust gas recirculation rate, and intake mixture temperatures. The results suggested that controlled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is possible. Compression ratio, EGR rate, and air fuel ratio are the practical controlling factors in achieving satisfactory operation. It was found that satisfactory power settings are possible with high EGR rates and stoichiometric fuel-air mixtures.
Technical Paper

Development of a Fiber Reinforced Aluminum Piston for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

1994-03-01
940584
This paper discusses a joint customer-supplier program intended to further develop the ability to design and apply aluminum alloy pistons selectively reinforced with ceramic fibers for heavy duty diesel engines. The approach begins with a comprehensive mechanical properties evaluation of base and reinforced material. The results demonstrated significant fatigue strength improvement due to fiber reinforcement, specially at temperatures greater than 300°C. A simplified numerical analysis is performed to predict the temperature and fatigue factor values at the combustion bowl area for conventional and reinforced aluminum piston designs for a 6.6 liter engine. It concludes that reinforced piston have a life expectation longer than conventional aluminum piston. Structural engine tests under severe conditions of specific power and peak cylinder pressure were used to confirm the results of the cyclic properties evaluation and numerical analysis.
Technical Paper

Coal-Water-Slurry Autoignition in a High-Speed Detroit Diesel Engine

1994-10-01
941907
Autoignition of coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel in a two-stroke engine operating at 1900 RPM has been achieved. A Pump-Line-Nozzle (PLN) injection system, delivering 400mm3/injection of CWS, was installed in one modified cylinder of a Detroit Diesel Corporation (DI)C) 8V-149TI engine, while the other seven cylinders remained configured for diesel fuel. Coal Combustion was sustained by maintaining high gas and surface temperatures with a combination of hot residual gases, warm inlet air admission, ceramic insulated components and increased compression ratio. The coal-fueled cylinder generated 85kW indicated power (80 percent of rated power), and lower NOx levels with a combustion efficiency of 99.2 percent.
Technical Paper

Injection Pressure and Intake Air Density Effects on Ignition and Combustion in a 4-Valve Diesel Engine

1994-10-01
941919
Diesel engine optimization for low emissions and high efficiency involves the use of very high injection pressures. It was generally thought that increased injection pressures lead to improved fuel air mixing due to increased atomization in the fuel jet. Injection experiments in a high-pressure, high-temperature flow reactor indicated, however, that high injection pressures, in excess of 150 MPa, leads to greatly increased penetration rates and significant wall impingement. An endoscope system was used to obtain movies of combustion in a modern, 4-valve, heavy-duty diesel engine. Movies were obtained at different speeds, loads, injection pressures, and intake air pressures. The movies indicated that high injection pressure, coupled with high intake air density leads to very short ignition delay times, ignition close to the nozzle, and burning of the plumes as they traverse the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Nox Control in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines - What is the Limit?

1998-02-23
980174
Methods to reduce direct injected diesel engine emissions in the combustion chamber will be discussed in this paper. The following NOx emission reduction technologies will be reviewed: charge air chilling, water injection, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Emphasis will be placed on the development of an EGR system and the effect of EGR on NOx and particulates. The lower limit of NOx that can be obtained using conventional diesel engine combustion will be discussed. Further reductions in NOx may require changing the combustion process from a diffusion flame to a homogeneous charge combustion system.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Six Natural Gas Combustion Systems for LNG Locomotive Applications

1997-10-01
972967
An experimental program to develop a practical natural gas-fueled locomotive engine was conducted. Six natural gas-fueled combustion systems for an EMD 710-type locomotive engine were developed and tested. The six systems were evaluated in terms of NOx and CO emissions, thermal efficiency, knock tolerance, and other practical considerations. Each combustion system was tested at Notch 5, 100-percent load, Notch 8, 80-percent load, and Notch 8, 100-percent load conditions. In general, all of the technologies produced significantly lower NOx emissions than the baseline diesel engine. Based on the results of the tests and other analyses, a late cycle, high-injection pressure (LaCHIP) combustion system, using a diesel pilot-ignited, late cycle injection of natural gas with a Diesel-type combustion process, was determined to provide the most practical combustion system for a natural gas-fueled, EMD 710-powered locomotive.
Technical Paper

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) of Diesel Fuel

1997-05-01
971676
This paper describes the ongoing homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) research being carried out at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). Summaries of the results of testing to date are presented and discussed. HCCI is a process whereby a premixed charge of diesel fuel and air is admitted into the power cylinder and compression ignited. Ignition occurs homogeneously throughout the cylinder. HCCI reduces flame temperatures and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. The lack of fuel rich zones within the cylinder eliminates soot formation (1-pull Bosch smoke numbers of 0, 5-pull = 0). The limits of HCCI start of combustion timing are defined by knock before top dead center (BTDC) and misfire after top dead center (ATDC). Stable and repeatable HCCI combustion has been demonstrated over a wide range of air-fuel (A/F) ratios, intake temperatures, compression ratios (CR), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates, and for two fuels. A/F ratios of 14 to 80 are possible.
Technical Paper

An Intake Charge Cooling System for Application to Diesel, Gasoline and Natural Gas Engines

1991-02-01
910420
Low intake manifold temperature, well below ambient, has many applications in internal combustion engines. In diesel engines, it can reduce NOx to a level of 2.0 g/hp-hr or below, going beyond the 1994 heavy duty diesel engine emissions standards. In gasoline engines, it can allow high compression ratio, turbocharged operation without end gas knock. This will permit ready conversion of some heavy duty diesel engines to gasoline operation at increased power density and lower emissions. In natural gas engines, it will allow base diesel engine to be converted to stoichiometric natural gas operation without increasing thermal loads. A three way catalyst can then be used to reduce emissions.
X