Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Video

Overview of Southwest Research Institute Activities in Engine Technology R&D

2012-05-10
The worldwide drive to improved energy efficiency for engine systems is being supported by several engine R&D programs at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). This research includes large programs in major-market engine categories, such as heavy-duty, non-road, and light-duty; and includes diesel, gasoline, and alternative fuel aspects. This presentation describes several key diesel engine programs being pursued under the SwRI Clean High Efficiency Diesel Engine consortium (CHEDE-VI), whose goal is to demonstrate future diesel technology exceeding 50% brake thermal efficiency. Additionally, SwRI?s High Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engines consortium (HEDGE-II), is reviewed, where advanced technology for ultra-high efficiency gasoline engines is being demonstrated. The HEDGE-II program is built upon dilute gasoline engine research, where brake thermal efficiencies in excess of 42% are being obtained for engines applicable to the light-duty market. Presenter Charles E.
Technical Paper

Material Damping Properties: A Comparison of Laboratory Test Methods and the Relationship to In-Vehicle Performance

2001-04-30
2001-01-1466
This paper presents the damping effectiveness of free-layer damping materials through standard Oberst bar testing, solid plate excitation (RTC3) testing, and prediction through numerical schemes. The main objective is to compare damping results from various industry test methods to performance in an automotive body structure. Existing literature on laboratory and vehicle testing of free-layer viscoelastic damping materials has received significant attention in recent history. This has created considerable confusion regarding the appropriateness of different test methods to measure material properties for damping materials/treatments used in vehicles. The ability to use the material properties calculated in these tests in vehicle CAE models has not been extensively examined. Existing literature regarding theory and testing for different industry standard damping measurement techniques is discussed.
Technical Paper

Control Strategies for a Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2001-03-05
2001-01-1354
Living in the era of rising environmental sensibility and increasing gasoline prices, the development of a new environmentally friendly generation of vehicles becomes a necessity. Hybrid electric vehicles are one means of increasing propulsion system efficiency and decreasing pollutant emissions. In this paper, the series-parallel power-split configuration for Michigan Technological University's FutureTruck is analyzed. Mathematical equations that describe the hybrid power-split transmission are derived. The vehicle's differential equations of motion are developed and the system's need for a controller is shown. The engine's brake power and brake specific fuel consumption, as a function of its speed and throttle position, are experimentally determined. A control strategy is proposed to achieve fuel efficient engine operation. The developed control strategy has been implemented in a vehicle simulation and in the test vehicle.
Technical Paper

Measurement of the Instantaneous Distribution of Momentum in Diesel Injection Nozzle Fuel Jets

1996-10-01
962004
Because of its dominant role in diesel engine performance and emissions, the fuel injection process has become an area of very active research and development. It is now clear that location, shape, rate of development, and mass flow distribution within each fuel jet are all important in controlling fuel air mixing, wall interactions, combustion rate, and the resulting levels of emissions. The objective of this project was to develop an instrument for measurement of the instantaneous fuel mass and momentum distribution in the jets issuing from diesel injection nozzles. The goal was to develop an instrument concept that can be used in the laboratory for fundamental measurements, as well as a quality control system for use in manufacture of the injection nozzles. The concept of the instrument is based on the measurement of the instantaneous momentum of the fuel jet as it impacts on a surface equipped with pressure sensitive elements.
Technical Paper

Advanced Computational Methods for Predicting Flow Losses in Intake Regions of Diesel Engines

1997-02-24
970639
A computational methodology has been developed for loss prediction in intake regions of internal combustion engines. The methodology consists of a hierarchy of four major tasks: (1) proper computational modeling of flow physics; (2) exact geometry and high quality and generation; (3) discretization schemes for low numerical viscosity; and (4) higher order turbulence modeling. Only when these four tasks are dealt with properly will a computational simulation yield consistently accurate results. This methodology, which is has been successfully tested and validated against benchmark quality data for a wide variety of complex 2-D and 3-D laminar and turbulent flow situations, is applied here to a loss prediction problem from industry. Total pressure losses in the intake region (inlet duct, manifold, plenum, ports, valves, and cylinder) of a Caterpillar diesel engine are predicted computationally and compared to experimental data.
Technical Paper

An Overview of Current CVT Mechanisms, Forces and Efficiencies

1997-02-24
970688
Usage of CVTs in automotive applications has begun to increase, however because of their relative newness and previous usage in nonautomotive applications, a broad base of technical information on the various types of CVT's does not exist. Most importantly though, no comparison information exists on the different types of configurations. Currently, there are a number of CVT technologies that have been used in automotive, off-road and industrial applications. This paper will highlight the characteristics, design limitations and efficiencies of the following basic CVT types:
Technical Paper

Drawbeads in Sheet Metal Stamping - A Review

1997-02-24
970986
The paper reviews the role of drawbeads in sheet metal stamping. The design of drawbeads is discussed in depth, with treatment of different bead cross sections, bead end shapes, and bead materials. International standards and practices are included. This is followed by the historical development of the modeling of the drawbead restraining force, starting with basic equilibrium approaches, and leading to the use of the finite element method which permits the study of drawbead effects on sheet metal flow in three dimensions. Finally, the potential of active drawbeads is described based upon ongoing research which is directed toward closed-loop computer control of the stamping process through adjustment of the drawbead penetration.
Technical Paper

Coordinated Control of Multi-Degree-of Freedom Fuel Systems

1997-04-01
971559
This paper identifies potential performance benefits and computational costs of applying advanced multivariable control theory concepts to coordinate the control of a general multi-degree-of-freedom fuel system. The control variables are injection duration and pressure. The focus is on the design of a robust multi-input multi-output controller using H-infinity and mu synthesis methodology to coordinate the control of injection duration and pressure; reduce overshoots and system sensitivity to parameter variations caused by component aging. Model reduction techniques are used to reduce the order of the H-infinity controller to make it practically implementable. Computer simulation is used to test the robust performance of a generic engine and fuel system model controlled by the reduced order H-infinity controller and a traditional proportional plus integral controller.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Ignition Quality as Determined in the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) - Part II

1997-05-01
971636
A combustion-based analytical method, initially developed by the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and referred to as the Constant Volume Combustion Apparatus (CVCA), has been further researched/developed by an SwRI licensee (Advanced Engine Technology Ltd.). This R&D has resulted in a diesel fuel Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) that permits rapid and precise determination of the ignition quality of middle distillate and alternative fuels. Its features, such as low fuel volume requirement, complete test automation, and self-diagnosis, make it highly suitable for commercial oil industry and research applications. A preliminary investigation, reported in SAE paper 961182, has shown that the IQT results are highly correlated to the ASTM D-613 cetane number (CN). The objective of this paper is to report on efforts to further refine the original CN model and report on improvements to the IQT fuel injection system.
Technical Paper

Process Control Standards for Technology Development

1998-04-08
981502
Engineering new technology and products challenges managers to balance design innovation and program risk. To do this, managers need methods to judge future results to avoid program and product disasters. Besides the traditional prediction tools of schedule, simulations and “iron tests”, process control standards (with measurements) can also be applied to the development programs to mitigate risks. This paper briefly discusses the theory and case history behind some new process control methods and standards currently in place at Caterpillar's Electrical & Electronics department. Process standards reviewed in this paper include process mapping, ISO9001, process controls, and process improvement models (e.g. SEI's CMMs.)
Technical Paper

High Performance Biodegradable Fluid Requirements for Mobile Hydraulic Systems

1998-04-08
981518
Technical groups worldwide have been actively developing specifications and requirements for biodegradable hydraulic fluids for mobile applications. These groups have recognized that an industry-wide specification is necessary due to the increase in environmental awareness in the agriculture, construction, forestry, and mining industries, and to the increasing number of local regulations primarily throughout Europe. Caterpillar has responded to this need by publishing a requirement, Caterpillar BF-1, that may be used by Caterpillar dealers, customers, and industry to help select high-performance biodegradable hydraulic fluids. This requirement was written with the input of several organizations that are known to be involved with the development of similar types of specifications and requirements.
Technical Paper

The Port Fuel Injector Deposit Test - A Statistical Review

1998-10-19
982713
The Port Fuel Injector (PFI) Deposit Test is a performance-based test procedure developed by the Coordinating Research Council and adopted by state and federal regulatory agencies for fuel qualification in the United States. To date, Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has performed over 375 PFI tests between 1991 and 1998 for various clients. This paper details the analyses of these tests. Of the 375 tests, 199 were performed as keep-clean tests and 176 were performed as clean-up tests. The following areas of interest are discussed in this paper: Keep-clean versus clean-up test procedures Linearity of deposit formation Injector position effects as related to fouling Dirtyup / cleanup phenomena Seasonal effects This paper draws the conclusion that it is easier to keep new injectors from forming deposits than it is to clean up previously formed deposits. It was found that injector deposit formation is generally non-linear.
Technical Paper

Survey of Low Sulfur Diesel Fuels and Aviation Kerosenes from U.S. Military Installations

1995-10-01
952369
In support of the Department of Defense goal to streamline procurements, the Army recently decided to discontinue use of VV-F-800D as the purchase specification for diesel fuel being supplied to continental United States military installations. The Army will instead issue a commercial item description for direct fuel deliveries under the Post-Camp-Station (PCS) contract bulletin program. In parallel, the Defense Fuel Supply Center and the U.S. Army Mobility Technology Center-Belvoir (at Ft. Belvoir, VA) initiated a fuel survey with the primary objective to assess the general quality and lubricity characteristics of low sulfur diesel fuels being supplied to military installations under the PCS system. Under this project, diesel fuel delivery samples were obtained from selected military installations and analyzed according to a predetermined protocol.
Technical Paper

Comparison Between Real-Life Dust Samples and Standardized Test Dusts

1994-03-01
940322
Soil samples were collected from various geographical areas in the United States and Saudi Arabia. The samples were obtained from U.S. military installations at which off-road maneuvers are conducted. Saudi Arabia samples were obtained from the deserts surrounding Riyadh. The samples were characterized using particle size distributions, elemental analysis, mineral composition and particle angularity. Particle size distributions were determined for simulated fuel cells with intermittent and continual mixing. The results obtained from the world-wide soil sample analyses were compared against AC and PTI SAE fine and coarse test dust results.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Ignition Quality as Determined in the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT)

1996-05-01
961182
A combustion-based analytical method, initially developed by the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) referred to as the Constant Volume Combustion Apparatus (CVCA), has been further researched/developed by an SwRI licensee (Advanced Engine Technology Ltd.) as an Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) for laboratories and refineries. The IQT software/hardware system permits rapid and precise determination of ignition quality for middle distillate fuels. Its features, such as low fuel volume requirement, complete test automation, and self-diagnosis, make it highly suitable for commercial oil industry and research applications. Operating and test conditions were examined in the context of providing a high correlation with cetane number (CN), as determined by the ASTM D-613 method. Preliminary investigation indicates that the IQT results are highly repeatable (± 0.30 CN), providing a high sensitivity to CN variation over the 33 to 58 CN range.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Diesel Spray Structure and Spray/Wall Interactions in a Constant Volume Pressure Vessel

1994-10-01
941918
High-speed movie films, and laser-diffraction drop sizing were used to evaluate the structure, penetration rate, cone angle, and drop size distribution of diesel sprays in a constant volume pressure vessel. As further means of evaluating the data, comparisons are made between the film measurements, and calculations from a dense gas jet model. In addition to the high-speed film data that describes the overall structure of the spray as a function of time, a laser diffraction instrument was used to measure drop size distribution through a cross-section of the spray. In terms of the growth of the total spray volume (a rough measure of the amount of air entrained in the spray), spray impingement causes an initial delay, but generally the same overall growth rate as an equivalent unimpeded spray. Agreement between measurements and calculations is excellent for a diesel spray with a 0.15 mm D orifice and relatively high injection pressures.
Technical Paper

Filtration Requirements and Evaluation Procedure for a Rotary Injection Fuel Pump

1997-10-01
972872
A cooperative research and development program was organized to determine the critical particle size of abrasive debris that will cause significant wear in rotary injection fuel pumps. Various double-cut test dusts ranging from 0-5 to 10-20 μm were evaluated to determine which caused the pumps to fail. With the exception of the 0-5-μm test dust, all other test dust ranges evaluated caused failure in the rotary injection pumps. After preliminary testing, it was agreed that the 4-8-μm test dust would be used for further testing. Analysis revealed that the critical particle size causing significant wear is 6-7 μm. This is a smaller abrasive particle size than reported in previously published literature. A rotary injection pump evaluation methodology was developed. During actual operation, the fuel injection process creates a shock wave that propagates back up the fuel line to the fuel filter.
Technical Paper

The Evolution of Electronic Engine Diagnostics

1990-10-01
901158
Software systems on electronically controlled diesel truck engines typically provide diagnostic features to enable the engine mechanic to identify and debug system problems. As future systems become more sophisticated, so will the diagnostic requirements. The advantages of serviceability and accuracy found in todays electronic systems must not be allowed to degrade due to this increased sophistication. One method of maintaining a high level of serviceability and accuracy is to place an even greater priority on diagnostics and servicing in the initial design phase of the product than is done today. In particular, three major goals of future diagnostic systems should be separation of component failures from system failures, prognostication of failures and analysis of engine performance. This paper will discuss a system to realize these goals by dividing the diagnostic task into the Electronic System Diagnostics, Engine System Diagnostics and the Diagnostic Interface.
Technical Paper

A Next-Generation Emission Test Procedure for Small Utility Engines - Part 1, Background and Approach

1990-09-01
901595
Measurement of emissions from small utility engines has usually been accomplished using steady-state raw emissions procedures such as SAE Recommended Practice J1088. While raw exhaust measurements have the advantage of producing modal exhaust gas concentration data for design feedback; they are laborious, may influence both engine performance and the emissions themselves, and have no provision for concurrent particulate measurements. It is time to consider a full-dilution procedure similar in principle to automotive and heavy-duty on-highway emission measurement practice, leading to improvements in many of the areas noted above, and generally to much higher confidence in data obtained. When certification and audit of small engine emissions become a reality, a brief dilute exhaust procedure generating only the necessary data will be a tremendous advantage to both manufacturers and regulatory agencies.
Technical Paper

Electromagnetic Compatibility in the Off-Highway Vehicle

1991-09-01
911791
The key words in the marketplace for off-highway vehicles are durability, performance, and efficiency. A manufacturer of these vehicles recognizes that one way to successfully address these needs is by a well thought through electronics design. With the computer sophistication now being incorporated into off-highway vehicles, engineers must work closely to assure electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of the entire system. A properly established EMC program extending from concept to final design will support each of a product's specified operations and still function as an integrated whole. This paper describes the process for designing the EMC for an off-highway vehicle.
X