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Overview of Southwest Research Institute Activities in Engine Technology R&D

The worldwide drive to improved energy efficiency for engine systems is being supported by several engine R&D programs at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). This research includes large programs in major-market engine categories, such as heavy-duty, non-road, and light-duty; and includes diesel, gasoline, and alternative fuel aspects. This presentation describes several key diesel engine programs being pursued under the SwRI Clean High Efficiency Diesel Engine consortium (CHEDE-VI), whose goal is to demonstrate future diesel technology exceeding 50% brake thermal efficiency. Additionally, SwRI?s High Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engines consortium (HEDGE-II), is reviewed, where advanced technology for ultra-high efficiency gasoline engines is being demonstrated. The HEDGE-II program is built upon dilute gasoline engine research, where brake thermal efficiencies in excess of 42% are being obtained for engines applicable to the light-duty market. Presenter Charles E.
Technical Paper

Material Damping Properties: A Comparison of Laboratory Test Methods and the Relationship to In-Vehicle Performance

This paper presents the damping effectiveness of free-layer damping materials through standard Oberst bar testing, solid plate excitation (RTC3) testing, and prediction through numerical schemes. The main objective is to compare damping results from various industry test methods to performance in an automotive body structure. Existing literature on laboratory and vehicle testing of free-layer viscoelastic damping materials has received significant attention in recent history. This has created considerable confusion regarding the appropriateness of different test methods to measure material properties for damping materials/treatments used in vehicles. The ability to use the material properties calculated in these tests in vehicle CAE models has not been extensively examined. Existing literature regarding theory and testing for different industry standard damping measurement techniques is discussed.
Technical Paper

Advanced Computational Methods for Predicting Flow Losses in Intake Regions of Diesel Engines

A computational methodology has been developed for loss prediction in intake regions of internal combustion engines. The methodology consists of a hierarchy of four major tasks: (1) proper computational modeling of flow physics; (2) exact geometry and high quality and generation; (3) discretization schemes for low numerical viscosity; and (4) higher order turbulence modeling. Only when these four tasks are dealt with properly will a computational simulation yield consistently accurate results. This methodology, which is has been successfully tested and validated against benchmark quality data for a wide variety of complex 2-D and 3-D laminar and turbulent flow situations, is applied here to a loss prediction problem from industry. Total pressure losses in the intake region (inlet duct, manifold, plenum, ports, valves, and cylinder) of a Caterpillar diesel engine are predicted computationally and compared to experimental data.
Technical Paper

An Overview of Current CVT Mechanisms, Forces and Efficiencies

Usage of CVTs in automotive applications has begun to increase, however because of their relative newness and previous usage in nonautomotive applications, a broad base of technical information on the various types of CVT's does not exist. Most importantly though, no comparison information exists on the different types of configurations. Currently, there are a number of CVT technologies that have been used in automotive, off-road and industrial applications. This paper will highlight the characteristics, design limitations and efficiencies of the following basic CVT types:
Technical Paper

Drawbeads in Sheet Metal Stamping - A Review

The paper reviews the role of drawbeads in sheet metal stamping. The design of drawbeads is discussed in depth, with treatment of different bead cross sections, bead end shapes, and bead materials. International standards and practices are included. This is followed by the historical development of the modeling of the drawbead restraining force, starting with basic equilibrium approaches, and leading to the use of the finite element method which permits the study of drawbead effects on sheet metal flow in three dimensions. Finally, the potential of active drawbeads is described based upon ongoing research which is directed toward closed-loop computer control of the stamping process through adjustment of the drawbead penetration.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Ignition Quality as Determined in the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) - Part II

A combustion-based analytical method, initially developed by the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) and referred to as the Constant Volume Combustion Apparatus (CVCA), has been further researched/developed by an SwRI licensee (Advanced Engine Technology Ltd.). This R&D has resulted in a diesel fuel Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) that permits rapid and precise determination of the ignition quality of middle distillate and alternative fuels. Its features, such as low fuel volume requirement, complete test automation, and self-diagnosis, make it highly suitable for commercial oil industry and research applications. A preliminary investigation, reported in SAE paper 961182, has shown that the IQT results are highly correlated to the ASTM D-613 cetane number (CN). The objective of this paper is to report on efforts to further refine the original CN model and report on improvements to the IQT fuel injection system.
Technical Paper

Process Control Standards for Technology Development

Engineering new technology and products challenges managers to balance design innovation and program risk. To do this, managers need methods to judge future results to avoid program and product disasters. Besides the traditional prediction tools of schedule, simulations and “iron tests”, process control standards (with measurements) can also be applied to the development programs to mitigate risks. This paper briefly discusses the theory and case history behind some new process control methods and standards currently in place at Caterpillar's Electrical & Electronics department. Process standards reviewed in this paper include process mapping, ISO9001, process controls, and process improvement models (e.g. SEI's CMMs.)
Technical Paper

High Performance Biodegradable Fluid Requirements for Mobile Hydraulic Systems

Technical groups worldwide have been actively developing specifications and requirements for biodegradable hydraulic fluids for mobile applications. These groups have recognized that an industry-wide specification is necessary due to the increase in environmental awareness in the agriculture, construction, forestry, and mining industries, and to the increasing number of local regulations primarily throughout Europe. Caterpillar has responded to this need by publishing a requirement, Caterpillar BF-1, that may be used by Caterpillar dealers, customers, and industry to help select high-performance biodegradable hydraulic fluids. This requirement was written with the input of several organizations that are known to be involved with the development of similar types of specifications and requirements.
Technical Paper

The Port Fuel Injector Deposit Test - A Statistical Review

The Port Fuel Injector (PFI) Deposit Test is a performance-based test procedure developed by the Coordinating Research Council and adopted by state and federal regulatory agencies for fuel qualification in the United States. To date, Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has performed over 375 PFI tests between 1991 and 1998 for various clients. This paper details the analyses of these tests. Of the 375 tests, 199 were performed as keep-clean tests and 176 were performed as clean-up tests. The following areas of interest are discussed in this paper: Keep-clean versus clean-up test procedures Linearity of deposit formation Injector position effects as related to fouling Dirtyup / cleanup phenomena Seasonal effects This paper draws the conclusion that it is easier to keep new injectors from forming deposits than it is to clean up previously formed deposits. It was found that injector deposit formation is generally non-linear.
Technical Paper

The Evolution of Electronic Engine Diagnostics

Software systems on electronically controlled diesel truck engines typically provide diagnostic features to enable the engine mechanic to identify and debug system problems. As future systems become more sophisticated, so will the diagnostic requirements. The advantages of serviceability and accuracy found in todays electronic systems must not be allowed to degrade due to this increased sophistication. One method of maintaining a high level of serviceability and accuracy is to place an even greater priority on diagnostics and servicing in the initial design phase of the product than is done today. In particular, three major goals of future diagnostic systems should be separation of component failures from system failures, prognostication of failures and analysis of engine performance. This paper will discuss a system to realize these goals by dividing the diagnostic task into the Electronic System Diagnostics, Engine System Diagnostics and the Diagnostic Interface.
Technical Paper

Army Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Estimate Selected Properties of Compression Ignition Fuels

The U.S. Army has long identified the need for rapid, reliable methods for analysis of fuels and lubricants on or near the battlefield. The analysis of fuels and lubricants under battlefield or near-battlefield conditions requires that the equipment be small, portable, rugged, quick, and easy to use. Over the past 15 to 20 years, several test kits and portable laboratories have been developed in response to this need. One instrumental technique that has been identified as a likely candidate to meet this need is near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR). To evaluate NIR as a candidate, a set of 280 fuel samples was used. This sample set contained samples of diesel fuel grades 1 and 2, Jet A-l, JP-5, and JP-8. Inspection data were collected on all the fuels as sample size permitted. Each sample was then scanned using a near-infrared spectrometer. Data analysis, model building, and calibration were conducted using a software package supplied with the instrument.
Technical Paper

SwRI-BMW N.A. Intake Valve Deposit Test - A Statistical Review

The SwRI/BMW N.A. Intake Valve Deposit Test procedure was the first performance-based test procedure adopted for fuels qualification in the United States. The initial fuel evaluations were begun in January 1988 with six 1985 BMW 318i vehicles. Since that time, the fleet has grown to include over 60 BMW cars, and more than 2000 tests have been performed. This paper gives a statistical summary of approximately 1800 tests performed over a four-year period. Performance data and possible sources of test variation are discussed. Data and analyses offered represent results of tests by all clients. However, data is presented such that no individual test or client is identified.
Technical Paper

Fuel Issues for Liquefied Natural Gas Vehicles

Natural gas vehicle (NGV) fuel energy storage density is a key issue, particularly in many heavy-duty applications where compressed natural gas may have unattractively low energy density. For these uses, benefits can be derived by using liquefied natural gas (LNG). From a market perspective, LNG can play a role for transportation because it is available in various areas of the United States and throughout the world. This paper provides a general overview of LNG use for vehicles and specifically an analysis of factors governing the behavior of this cryogenic fluid in a confined vessel. This is intended to provide an understanding of the cause/effect relation between LNG fuel composition, tank heat influx, and rate of fuel usage or storage time.
Technical Paper

Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods

The purpose in doing probabilistic structural analysis is to provide the designer with a more realistic ability to assess the importance of uncertainty in the structural response. This paper provides an overview of the methodology and discusses validation of modular structural analysis packages capable of predicting the probabilistic response distribution for key structural variables such as stress, displacement, natural frequencies, buckling loads, transient responses, etc. The structural analysis solution is in terms of the cumulative distribution function (CDF). Probabilistic structural analysis methods (PSAM) can be used to estimate structural safety and reliability, while providing the engineer with information on the confidence that should be given to the predicted behavior.
Technical Paper

On-Line Oil Consumption Measurement and Characterization of an Automotive Gasoline Engine by SO2 Method

An on-line oil consumption measurement system using the SO2 tracer method has characterized automotive gasoline engine oil consumption under various engine operating conditions, including a 200-hour durability test. An oil consumption map of total engine, individual cylinder, and valve train was produced for various speed and load ranges under both steady-state and step-transient operating conditions. The effect of spark timing as an additional engine parameter on the oil consumption was also investigated. Oil consumption maps have enlightened the conventional understanding of oil consumption characteristics and broadened the areas of concern for control technologies. This paper reports the benefit of the on-line oil consumption measurement system, the result of oil consumption history over the durability test, discrete measurement of oil consumption contribution within the engine, and various oil consumption characteristics affected by engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Electromagnetic Compatibility in the Off-Highway Vehicle Part II: Electromagnetic Immunity (EMI)

Electromagnetic immunity (EMI) for off-highway vehicles (OHV) is a vehicle's ability to resist radiated and conducted electromagnetic interference. Interference can originate within the OHV from the various systems designed to control its operational functions; external sources can also cause serious disruption of the electronic control mechanisms. Knowledge of how and where interferences originate gives the electronic designer insight into how to avoid the pitfalls which can cause malfunctions. Verification of designs through testing will ensure that safety and reliability are built into every OHV produced. This paper discusses the mechanisms that cause susceptibility of electronic circuits to electromagnetic interference, and presents test methods to help the designer improve circuit design and verify the immunity of the complete vehicle. This is the second in a series of papers on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in the off-highway vehicle.
Technical Paper

Electromagnetic Compatibility in the Off-Highway Vehicle Part III: Electromagnetic Emissions (EME)

Electromagnetic emissions (EME) from vehicles and their effect on broadcast radio and television were studied as early as 1944. Their original effect was significantly reduced by the early 1960s. Today, ignition noise (broadband) and vehicular micro-processor-controlled system noise (narrowband) are interfering with Land Mobile (two-way) communication services and other devices such as computers. Two SAE test methods, J551 and J1816, are used to measure this EME. Under development are methods to measure conducted EME on vehicle signal wiring and power input leads. This paper discusses EME measurement methods, provides insight into the sources of EME problems, and gives information on the test instrumentation used to make these measurements. This paper is the third in a series of papers on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in the off-highway vehicle. The first paper was an overview of a complete EMC program with discussion of several important segments.
Technical Paper

Low Heat Rejection Engines

The paper gives a general overview of the state-of-the-art in low heat rejection (LHR) engines. It also gives experimental results obtained at SwRI with a single-cylinder research engine using an electrically heated cylinder liner to simulate LHR operation and examine the effects of increased liner temperature. It was concluded that the improvement in fuel economy from LHR operation is negligible in naturally-aspirated (NA) engines, about 7 percent in turbocharged (TC) engines and about 15 percent in turbocompound (TCO) engines. LHR operation reduces power in NA engines only. It increases NOx emissions by around 15 percent, but reduces HC and CO emissions. LHR operation offers benefits in the reduction of noise and smoke, and in operation on low cetane fuels. Much more research is needed to overcome the practical problems before LHR engines can be put into production.
Technical Paper

Microcomputer Control System Design for a Tracked Amphibious Vehicle

A 14-ton tracked amphibious vehicle has been equipped with a hydrostatic drivetrain that consists of land drive and seaborne transmissions. The transmissions and the vehicle's engine are under microcomputer control. In addition, the microcomputer reads operator inputs and does operational checks of the vehicle's various subsystems. If arty of the subsystems is found to be degraded in their performance the microcomputer informs the operator. This paper presents an overview of the drivetrain systems and the implementation of the control and diagnostic systems.
Technical Paper

Application of a Commercially Available Process Control Computer to Engine Testing

This paper describes a distributed digital process control computer designed for large industrial processing plants that has been applied successfully to laboratory engine testing. Over the past two years several complete systems have been installed and adapted to control engines from 75 kW to over 1800 kW with various dynamometer/generator absorption devices. Control problems encountered, and solutions we have found, are discussed along with the wide range of capabilities this type of system can provide. A short comparison is made between distributed digital control systems and mini-computers, listing advantages and disadvantages of both.