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Technical Paper

The Effects of Different Input Excitation on the Dynamic Characterization of an Automotive Shock Absorber

2001-04-30
2001-01-1442
This paper deals with the dynamic characterization of an automotive shock absorber, a continuation of an earlier work [1]. The objective of this on-going research is to develop a testing and analysis methodology for obtaining dynamic properties of automotive shock absorbers for use in CAE-NVH low-to-mid frequency chassis models. First, the effects of temperature and nominal length on the stiffness and damping of the shock absorber are studied and their importance in the development of a standard test method discussed. The effects of different types of input excitation on the dynamic properties of the shock absorber are then examined. Stepped sine sweep excitation is currently used in industry to obtain shock absorber parameters along with their frequency and amplitude dependence. Sine-on-sine testing, which involves excitation using two different sine waves has been done in this study to understand the effects of the presence of multiple sine waves on the estimated dynamic properties.
Technical Paper

Regenerative Active Suspension on Rough Terrain Vehicles

1994-03-01
940984
Progress on the development of active suspension for improving mobility of rough terrain vehicles is being hindered by the potentially high energy requirements. A unique regenerative active suspension system has been conceived and is being developed to provide active suspension with very low energy requirements. Regenerative active suspension consists of multiple variable displacement pumps, each controlling flow to and from hydro-pneumatic struts to control a vehicle's low frequency body motions. When fluid is returned from a strut to a pump, energy is recovered or “regenerated” so that the total energy requirement is very low. This paper presents the results of a study showing the potential of the regenerative active suspension system to improve vehicle control and ride comfort of rough terrain vehicles enhancing mobility while requiring very little additional energy.
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of an Automatic Tire Inflation System for Drive Axles on Class 8 Tractors

1996-10-01
962213
An Automatic Tire Inflation System (ATIS) specifically designed for commercial use on trailer axles is currently being installed and utilized successfully by trucking companies, the military and owner/operators throughout the U.S. A need exists for an ATIS specifically designed for the drive axles of Class 8 over-the- road tractors. The addition of an ATIS for drive axles will expand automatic tire monitoring capability to all heavily loaded tires of the over-the-road truck/trailer rig. An ATIS for drive axles has been designed, fabricated and tested. Testing and evaluation of the prototype ATIS drive axle system indicates the system can be successfully installed on a typical tractor rig and operated for an extended period without problems. The testing included a 50,000 mile evaluation of the ATIS installed in a laboratory test fixture. The test fixture used stock axle parts and operated at 65 MPH. Environmental testing was conducted at temperatures ranging from -20 to +200 degrees F.
Technical Paper

Qualification of an Automatic Tire Inflation System for Long Haul Trucks

1994-11-01
942249
An Automatic Tire Inflation System (ATIS), specifically designed for use on commercial long haul trailers, requires modification of the axles to direct air to the tires. The ATIS requires a drilled hole through the axle tube for the installation of a pneumatic fitting. The trucking industry expressed concern about the modification and its impact upon the axle structure, and the general durability of the system over a long period. A three-phase test program was developed and conducted to satisfy the concerns of the industry.
Technical Paper

Design of an Emergency Tire Inflation System for Long Haul Trucks

1995-11-01
952592
An Emergency Tire Inflation System (ETIS) designed for use on commercial trucks was evaluated and tested. The ETIS is provided in kit form and designed to be installed by a truck operator to provide emergency air to inflate a low or punctured tire on tractor drive axles. The ETIS will continue to supply air to the tire until the system pressure falls below a safe air pressure level. The system is designed to allow the rig to be driven 500 miles to a tire repair station or to a safe location where tire repair service is available. The installation kit (Figure 1), which can fit under a truck seat, includes all the necessary equipment to install the system on the most common drive axles. The ETIS supplies air to the under-inflated tire through a previously qualified1 Rotary Union design. The Rotary Union is attached to the axle flange of the drive axle by a threaded adapter and two adjustable links that allow the Rotary Union to be placed at the center of rotation of the axle.
Technical Paper

Design Improvements of an Automatic Tire Inflation System for Long Haul Trucks

1995-11-01
952591
An Automatic Tire Inflation System (ATIS), specifically designed for use on commercial long haul trailers underwent complete testing and evaluation in 1993/1994.1 Testing and evaluation included a field test of a prototype system and a controlled laboratory evaluation of the Rotary Union which is the only component subject to wear. The testing of the prototype system indicated that design improvements were necessary before the system could be installed in fleet operations. The design improvements were completed and field installation of production ATIS began. The design improvements were intended to improve overall system durability, decrease installation time, to have less effect on the axle structure than the original design, implement the use of SAE or DOT Approved pressure components and increase overall dependability of the system. ATIS systems have now been developed and tested for most domestic trailer axle configurations.
Technical Paper

Electronic Data Acquisition and Analysis for the NHTSA ABS Fleet Evaluation

1990-10-01
902264
Antilock brake systems for air braked vehicles have been growing in popularity in Great Britain and Europe and appear to be candidates for extensive use in the United States as well. Previous mandated use in the United States during the 1970's was not successful, in part because of reliability problems, and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has decided that a thorough evaluation of air brake antilock systems is necessary prior to any decision about the appropriateness of future mandatory use in the United States. This paper describes the electronic data collection equipment and processing techniques which are being used in the NHTSA 200 truck evaluation project. Detailed maintenance histories for each truck are being recorded manually as a separate segment of the project. An average of 6 to 7 megabytes of data per week is being collected in the various cities in which fleets are operating test vehicles.
Technical Paper

The Development of Techniques to Measure Vehicle Spray on Wet Roads

1974-02-01
740526
Several techniques have been developed to measure the relative amount of splash and spray produced by vehicles when driven on wet roads at highway speeds under controlled conditions. This paper discusses considerations in the development of measurement techniques such as those utilizing photographs, a photometer, densitometer, spraymeter, and spray collector. The development of each technique is described. Some test data utilizing the photometer and densitometer techniques are presented in a comparison of two different trucks run on two different road surfaces with new and worn tires, fully loaded and unloaded, and under light and heavy road moisture conditions.
Technical Paper

Novel Approach to Integration of Turbocompounding, Electrification and Supercharging Through Use of Planetary Gear System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0887
Technologies that provide potential for significant improvements in engine efficiency include, engine downsizing/downspeeding (enabled by advanced boosting systems such as an electrically driven compressor), waste heat recovery through turbocompounding or organic Rankine cycle and 48 V mild hybridization. FEV’s Integrated Turbocompounding/Waste Heat Recovery (WHR), Electrification and Supercharging (FEV-ITES) is a novel approach for integration of these technologies in a single unit. This approach provides a reduced cost, reduced space claim and an increase in engine efficiency, when compared to the independent integration of each of these technologies. This approach is enabled through the application of a planetary gear system. Specifically, a secondary compressor is connected to the ring gear, a turbocompounding turbine or organic Rankine cycle (ORC) expander is connected to the sun gear, and an electric motor/generator is connected to the carrier gear.
Technical Paper

Maneuverability of Trailer Trains

1963-01-01
630491
This paper is concerned with an adjustable scale model capable of tracing maneuverability patterns of trailer trains. The transient kinematic paths of a multiple unit carrier of train configuration consisting of ten cargo units provided with conventional two wheel steering, conventional four wheel steering, and modified four wheel steering with a steering ratio and delayed steering action are investigated and discussed.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Wet-Brake Friction

1985-09-01
851575
An experimental program was designed to determine friction characteristics between brake pads and metal rotors that could indicate a brake fluid's propensity to cause chatter in wet-brakes. Friction was measured on a bench version of the John Deere wet-brake qualification system. Rotor and pad supports were made very rigid to avoid chatter in the simulator. One type of pad was run on cast-iron and mild steel rotors using two reference oils, one giving unacceptable levels of chatter and the other giving acceptable levels as previously determined in full-scale tests on the Deere system. The outstanding discriminating characteristic was the drop in friction from breakaway of the pad from the rotor. The ratio of the initial drop in the friction coefficient between unacceptable and acceptable oils for all conditions of the testing ranged from 1.7 to 2.0
Technical Paper

Navigation Control in an Urban Autonomous Ground Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-1037
Southwest Research Institute developed an Autonomous Ground Vehicle (AGV) capable of navigating in urban environments. The paper first gives an overview of hardware and software onboard the vehicle. The systems onboard are classified into perception, intelligence, and command and control modules to mimic a human driver. Perception deals with sensing from the world and translating it into situation awareness. This awareness is then fed into intelligence modules. Intelligence modules take inputs from the user to understand the need to navigate from its current location to another destination and, then, generate a path between them on urban, drivable surfaces using its internal urban database. Situational awareness helps intelligence to update the path in real time by avoiding any static/moving obstacles while following traffic rules.
Technical Paper

Mild Regenerative Braking to Enhance Fuel Economy via Lowered Engine Load Due to Alternator

2008-10-12
2008-01-2560
Brake energy recovery is one of the key components in today's hybrid vehicles that allows for increased fuel economy. Typically, major engineering changes are required in the drivetrain to achieve these gains. The objective of this paper is to present a concept of capturing brake energy in a mild hybrid approach without any major modifications to the drivetrain or other vehicular systems. With fuel costs rising, the additional component cost incurred in the presented concept may be recovered quickly. In today's vehicles, alternators supply the electrical power for the engine and vehicle accessories whenever the engine is running. As vehicle electrical demands increase, this load is an ever-increasing part of the engine's output, negatively impacting fuel economy. By using a regenerative device (alternator) on the drive shaft (or any other part of the power train), electrical energy can be captured during braking.
Technical Paper

Application of an Elastomeric Tuned Mass Damper for Booming Noise on an Off-highway Machine

2013-05-13
2013-01-2010
NVH is gaining importance in the quality perception of off-highway machine performance and operator comfort. Booming noise, a low frequency NVH phenomenon, can be a significant sound issue in an off-highway machine. In order to increase operator comfort by decreasing the noise levels and noise annoyance, a tuned mass damper (TMD) was added to the resonating panel to suppress the booming. Operational deflection shapes (ODS) and experimental modal analysis (EMA) were performed to identify the resonating panels, a damper was tuned in the lab and on the machine to the specific frequency, machine operational tests were carried out to verify the effectiveness of the damper to deal with booming noise.
Technical Paper

The Artificial Intelligence Application Strategy in Powertrain and Machine Control

2015-09-29
2015-01-2860
The application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the automotive industry can dramatically reshape the industry. In past decades, many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) applied neural network and pattern recognition technologies to powertrain calibration, emission prediction and virtual sensor development. The AI application is mostly focused on reducing product development and validation cost. AI technologies in these applications demonstrate certain cost-saving benefits, but are far from disruptive. A disruptive impact can be realized when AI applications finally bring cost-saving benefits directly to end users (e.g., automation of a vehicle or machine operation could dramatically improve the efficiency). However, there is still a gap between current technologies and those that can fully give a vehicle or machine intelligence, including reasoning, knowledge, planning and self-learning.
Technical Paper

Model Integration and Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) Simulation Design for the Testing of Electric Power Steering Controllers

2016-04-05
2016-01-0029
The Electronic Control Unit (ECU) of an Electric Power Steering (EPS) system is a core device to decide how much assistance an electric motor applies on a steering wheel. The EPS ECU plays an important role in EPS systems. The effectiveness of an ECU needs to be thoroughly tested before mass production. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation provides an efficient way for the development and testing of embedded controllers. This paper focuses on the development of a HiL system for testing EPS controllers. The hardware of the HiL system employs a dSPACE HiL simulator. The EPS plant model is an integrated model consisting of a Vehicle Dynamics model of the dSPACE Automotive Simulation Model (ASM) and the Nexteer Steering model. The paper presents the design of an EPS HiL system, the simulation of sensors and actuators, the functions of the ASM Vehicle Dynamics model, and the integration method of the ASM Vehicle Dynamics model with a Steering model.
Technical Paper

Finite Difference Heat Transfer Model of a Steel-clad Aluminum Brake Rotor

2005-10-09
2005-01-3943
This paper describes the heat transfer model of a composite aluminum brake rotor and compares the predicted temperatures to dynamometer measurements taken during a 15 fade stop trial. The model is based on meshed surface geometry which is simulated using RadTherm software. Methods for realistically modeling heat load distribution, surface rotation, convection cooling and radiation losses are also discussed. A comparison of the simulation results to the dynamometer data shows very close agreement throughout the fade stop trial. As such, the model is considered valid and will be used for further Steel Clad Aluminum (SCA) rotor development.
Technical Paper

An Engine Start/Stop System for Improved Fuel Economy

2007-04-16
2007-01-1777
During city traffic or heavily congested roads, a vehicle can consume a substantial amount of fuel idling when the vehicle is stopped. Due to regulation enforcement, auto manufacturers are developing systems to increase the mileage and reduce emissions. Turning off the engine at traffic lights and regenerative braking systems are simple ways to reduce emissions and fuel consumption. In order to develop strong manufacturer and consumer interest, this type of operation needs to be automated such that the stop/start functionality requires no driver interaction and takes place without the intervention of the vehicle operator. Valeo Electrical Systems has developed such a system that replaces the OEM engine alternator with a starter/alternator driven by a standard multi-ribbed V belt. To avoid a break and dual voltage network, this system is based on a 12V electrical system using an Enhanced Power Supply.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Dynamic Properties of Automotive Shock Absorbers for NVH

1999-05-17
1999-01-1840
This paper describes a project on the dynamic characterization of automotive shock absorbers. The objective was to develop a new testing and analysis methodology for obtaining equivalent linear stiffness and damping of the shock absorbers for use in CAE-NVH low- to- mid frequency chassis models. Previous studies using an elastomer test machine proved unsuitable for testing shocks in the mid-to-high frequency range where the typical road input displacements fall within the noise floor of the elastomer machine. Hence, in this project, an electrodynamic shaker was used for exciting the shock absorbers under displacements less than 0.05 mm up to 500 Hz. Furthermore, instead of the swept sine technique, actual road data were used to excite the shocks. Equivalent linear spring-damper models were developed based on least-squares curve-fitting of the test data.
Technical Paper

Post-Processing Analysis of Large Channel Count Order Track Tests and Estimation of Linearly Independent Operating Shapes

1999-05-17
1999-01-1827
Large channel count data acquisition systems have seen increasing use in the acquisition and analysis of rotating machinery, these systems have the ability to generate very large amounts of data for analysis. The most common operating measurement made on powertrains or automobiles on the road or on dynamometers has become the order track measurement. Order tracking analysis can generate a very large amount of information that must be analyzed, both due to the number of channels and orders tracked. Analysis methods to efficiently analyze large numbers of Frequency Response Function (FRF) measurements have been developed and used over the last 20 years in many troubleshooting applications. This paper develops applications for several FRF based analysis methods as applied for efficient analysis of large amounts of order track data.
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