Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Video

SCR Deactivation Kinetics for Model-Based Control and Accelerated Aging Applications

2012-06-18
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts are used to reduce NOx emissions from internal combustion engines in a variety of applications [1,2,3,4]. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) performed an Internal Research & Development project to study SCR catalyst thermal deactivation. The study included a V/W/TiO2 formulation, a Cu-zeolite formulation and a Fe-zeolite formulation. This work describes NH3 storage capacity measurement data as a function of aging time and temperature. Addressing one objective of the work, these data can be used in model-based control algorithms to calculate the current NH3 storage capacity of an SCR catalyst operating in the field, based on time and temperature history. The model-based control then uses the calculated value for effective DEF control and prevention of excessive NH3 slip. Addressing a second objective of the work, accelerated thermal aging of SCR catalysts may be achieved by elevating temperatures above normal operating temperatures.
Video

SCR Deactivation Study for OBD Applications

2012-06-18
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts will be used to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions from internal combustion engines in a number of applications [1,2,3,4]. Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI)® performed an Internal Research & Development project to study SCR catalyst thermal deactivation. The study included a V/W/TiO2 formulation, a Cu-zeolite formulation and an Fe-zeolite formulation. This work describes NOx timed response to ammonia (NH3) transients as a function of thermal aging time and temperature. It has been proposed that the response time of NOx emissions to NH3 transients, effected by changes in diesel emissions fluid (DEF) injection rate, could be used as an on-board diagnostic (OBD) metric. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and practicality of this OBD approach.
Video

Brief Investigation of SCR High Temperature N2O Production

2012-06-18
Nitrous Oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas with a Global Warming Potential (GWP) of 298-310 [1,2] (298-310 times more potent than carbon dioxide (CO2)). As a result, any aftertreatment system that generates N2O must be well understood to be used effectively. Under low temperature conditions, N2O can be produced by Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts. The chemistry is reasonably well understood with N2O formed by the thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate [3]. Ammonium nitrate and N2O form in oxides of nitrogen (NOx) gas mixtures that are high in nitrogen dioxide (NO2)[4]. This mechanism occurs at a relatively low temperature of about 200°C, and can be controlled by maintaining the nitric oxide (NO)/NO2 ratio above 1. However, N2O has also been observed at relatively high temperatures, in the region of 500°C.
Video

Evaluation of a NOx Transient Response Method for OBD of SCR Catalysts

2012-01-30
OBD requirements for aftertreatment system components require monitoring of the individual system components. One such component can be an NH3-SCR catalyst for NOx reduction. An OBD method that has been suggested is to generate positive or negative spikes in the inlet NH3 concentration, and monitor the outlet NOx transient response. A slow response indicates that the catalyst is maintaining its NH3 storage capacity, and therefore it is probably not degraded. A fast response indicates the catalyst has lost NH3 storage capacity, and may be degraded. The purpose of the work performed at Southwest Research Institute was to assess this approach for feasibility, effectiveness and practicality. The presentation will describe the work performed, results obtained, and implications for applying this method in test laboratory and real-world situations. Presenter Gordon J. Bartley, Southwest Research Institute
Video

Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel

2012-06-18
A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO2 oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.
Technical Paper

Impact of Lubricant Oil on Regulated Emissions of a Light-Duty Mercedes-Benz OM611 CIDI-Engine

2001-05-07
2001-01-1901
The Partnership for a New Generation Vehicle (PNGV) has identified the compression-ignition, direct-injection (CIDI) engine as a promising technology in meeting the PNGV goal of 80 miles per gallon for a prototype mid-size sedan by 2004. Challenges remain in reducing the emission levels of the CIDI-engine to meet future emission standards. The objective of this project was to perform an initial screening of crank case lubricant contribution to regulated engine-out emissions, particularly when low particulate forming diesel fuel formulations are used. The test engine was the Mercedes-Benz OM611, the test oils were a mineral SAE 5W30, a synthetic (PAO based) SAE 5W30, and a synthetic (PAO based) SAE 15W50, and the test fuels were a California-like certification fuel and an alternative oxygenated diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck In-Use Emission Test Program for Model Years 1950 through 1975

2001-03-05
2001-01-1327
Criteria pollutants were measured from ten Class 7 and 8 (i.e., gross vehicle weights > 33,000 lb) heavy-duty diesel trucks with engine model years between 1953 and 1975. The data was used by EPA to estimate that period's particulate matter emission rates for these type engines and will be used to develop dose response relationships with existing epidemiological data. Particulate samples were analyzed for sulfate and volatile organic fraction. Carbon soot was estimated. The trucks had particulate emissions of 2 to 10 g/mi as compared to 1 to 6 g/mi for trucks with model year engines from 1975 through the mid-1980s, and less than 1 g/mi for post-1988 trucks.
Technical Paper

Vektron® 6913 Gasoline Additive NOX Evaluation Fleet Test Program

2001-05-07
2001-01-1997
A 28-vehicle fleet test was executed to verify and quantify the NOX emissions reductions achieved through the use of Infineum's Vektron 6913 gasoline additive. The fleet composition and experimental design were finalized in collaborative discussions with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Transportation & Air Quality (OTAQ) and consultation / advice from several major US automotive manufacturers. The test was conducted over a period of five months at Southwest Research Institute. Statistical analysis of the emissions data indicated a 10% average fleet reduction in NOX emissions without any negative impact on other criteria pollutants (CO, HC) or fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Emissions Reduction Performance of a Bimetallic Platinum/Cerium Fuel Borne Catalyst with Several Diesel Particulate Filters on Different Sulfur Fuels

2001-03-05
2001-01-0904
Results of engine bench tests on a 1998 heavy-duty diesel engine have confirmed the emissions reduction performance of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) registered platinum/cerium bimetallic fuel borne catalyst (FBC) used with several different catalyzed and uncatalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPF's). Performance was evaluated on both a 450ppm sulfur fuel (No.2 D) and a CARB 50ppm low sulfur diesel (LSD) fuel. Particulate emissions of less than 0.02g/bhp-hr were achieved on several combinations of FBC and uncatalyzed filters on 450ppm sulfur fuel while levels of 0.01g/bhp-hr were achieved for both catalyzed and uncatalyzed filters using the FBC with the low sulfur CARB fuel. Eight-mode steady state testing of one filter and FBC combination with engine timing changes produced a 20% nitrogen oxide (NOx) reduction with particulates (PM) maintained at 0.01g/bhp-hr and no increase in measured fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Particle Size Distribution and Mass Emissions from a Mining Diesel Engine Equipped with a Dry System Technologies Emission Control System

2003-05-19
2003-01-1893
Particle size distribution, number, and mass emissions from the exhaust of a 92 kW 1999 Isuzu 6BG1 nonroad naturally aspirated diesel engine were measured. The engine exhaust was equipped with a Dry System Technologies® (DST) auxiliary emission control device that included an oxidation catalyst, a heat exchanger, and a disposable paper particulate filter. Particle measurement was taken during the ISO 8178 8-mode test for engine out and engine with the DST using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) in parallel to the standard filter method (SFM), specified in 40 CFR, Part 89. The DST efficiency of removing particles was about 99.9 percent based on particle number, 99.99 percent based on particle mass derived from number and size. However, the efficiency based on mass derived from the SFM was much lower on the order of 90 to 93 percent.
Technical Paper

Observation of Transient Oil Consumption with In-Cylinder Variables

1996-10-01
961910
Only a limited understanding of the oil consumption mechanism appears to exist, especially oil consumption under transient engine operating conditions. This is probably due to the difficulty in engine instrumentation for measuring not only oil consumption, but also for measuring the associated in-cylinder variables. Because of this difficulty, a relatively large number of experiments and tests are often necessary for the development of each engine design in order to achieve the target oil consumption that meets the requirements for particulate emissions standards, oil economy, and engine reliability and durability. Increased understanding and logical approaches are believed to be necessary in developing the oil-consumption reduction technology that effectively and efficiently accomplishes the tasks of low oil-consumption engine development.
Technical Paper

Lean Limit and Performance Improvements for a Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engine

1996-10-01
961939
Development of a heavy-duty natural gas engine to improve its lean operating characteristics is detailed in this paper. Testing to determine the lean misfire limit is described, as well as investigations into the cause of lean misfire in this engine. Details of engine modifications to improve the lean misfire limit are also included. The development process resulted in a significant improvement in the lean performance of the engine (i.e., an extended lean misfire limit, better combustion stability, and lower hydrocarbon emissions).
Technical Paper

Reactivity and Exhaust Emissions from an EHC-Equipped LPG Conversion Vehicle Operating on Butane/Propane Fuel Blends

1996-10-01
961991
This paper describes experiments conducted to determine Federal Test Procedure (FTP) exhaust emissions, ozone-forming potentials, specific reactivities, and reactivity adjustment factors for several butane/propane alternative fuel blends run on a light-duty EHC-equipped gasoline vehicle converted to operate on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Duplicate emission tests were conducted on the light-duty vehicle at each test condition using appropriate EPA FTP test protocol. Hydrocarbon speciation was utilized to determine reactivity-adjusted non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions for one test on each fuel.
Technical Paper

U.S. Army Investigation of Diesel Exhaust Emissions Using JP-8 Fuels with Varying Sulfur Content

1996-10-01
961981
Comparative emission measurements were made in two dynamometer-based diesel engines using protocol specified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB). A single JP-8 fuel with a sulfur level of 0.06 weight percent (wt%) was adjusted to sulfur levels of 0.11 and 0.26 wt%. The emission characteristics of the three fuels were compared to the 1994 EPA certification low-sulfur diesel fuel (sulfur level equal to 0.035 wt%) in the Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) 1991 prototype Series 60 diesel engine and in the General Motors (GM) 6.2L diesel engine. Comparisons were made using the hot-start transient portion of the heavy-duty diesel engine Federal Test Procedure. Results from the Army study show that the gaseous emissions for the DDC Series 60 engine using kerosene-based JP-8 fuel are equivalent to values obtained with the 0.035 wt% sulfur EPA certification diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Contamination Sensitivity of Automotive Components

1997-02-24
970552
System contamination caused by contaminates or small particles built-in, self-generated, or inhaled from environment presents severe problems. The problems include but are not limited to the malfunctioning of valves, pumps, seals and injectors or lock-up of these components; increased wear of bearings, piston rings, and other friction components; and degradated machine performance. In general, system contamination changes a deterministic system into a stochastic system and shortens machinery service life. In this paper, these contamination problems are discussed in categories and associated analysis, testing and computer modeling methodologies are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Control and Cylinder-Event-Based Logic for an Ultra-Low Emissions Vehicle

1997-02-24
970531
Improvements in several areas are required to convert current technology light-duty vehicles into low-emissions vehicles suitable for meeting California's Ultra-Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV) standards. This paper discusses one of those areas, the engine and aftertreatment control system algorithms. The approach was to use model-based air and fuel flow calculations to maintain accurate air-fuel ratio control, and to interface the aftertreatment requirements with engine air-fuel ratio control during the cold- and hot-start parts of the cycle. This approach was applied to a 1993 Ford Taurus operating on Ed85 (85% denatured alcohol, 15% gasoline).
Technical Paper

Coordinated Control of Multi-Degree-of Freedom Fuel Systems

1997-04-01
971559
This paper identifies potential performance benefits and computational costs of applying advanced multivariable control theory concepts to coordinate the control of a general multi-degree-of-freedom fuel system. The control variables are injection duration and pressure. The focus is on the design of a robust multi-input multi-output controller using H-infinity and mu synthesis methodology to coordinate the control of injection duration and pressure; reduce overshoots and system sensitivity to parameter variations caused by component aging. Model reduction techniques are used to reduce the order of the H-infinity controller to make it practically implementable. Computer simulation is used to test the robust performance of a generic engine and fuel system model controlled by the reduced order H-infinity controller and a traditional proportional plus integral controller.
Technical Paper

Performance of Different Cell Structure Converters A Total Systems Perspective

1998-10-19
982634
The objective of this effort was to develop an understanding of how different converter substrate cell structures impact tailpipe emissions and pressure drop from a total systems perspective. The cell structures studied were the following: The catalyst technologies utilized were a new technology palladium only catalyst in combination with a palladium/rhodium catalyst. A 4.0-liter, 1997 Jeep Cherokee with a modified calibration was chosen as the test platform for performing the FTP test. The experimental design focused on quantifying emissions performance as a function of converter volume for the different cell structures. The results from this study demonstrate that the 93 square cell/cm2 structure has superior performance versus the 62 square cell/cm2 structure and the 46 triangle cell/cm2 structure when the converter volumes were relatively small. However, as converter volume increases the emissions differences diminish.
Technical Paper

Effects of Water on Distillate Fuel Lubricity

1998-10-19
982568
The continuing trend toward “cleaner” distillate fuels has prompted concerns about the lubricity characteristics of current and future distillates. Since many U.S. Navy ships utilize seawater-compensated fuel tanks to maintain the ship's trim, the Navy performed a detailed study in order to better understand the relationship between fuel water content and lubricity characteristics. The lubricity test methods, modified for this study, were ASTM D 6078 (SLBOCLE), D 6079 (HFRR), and D 5001 (BOCLE). The results indicated that, with few exceptions, there was generally no evidence of a correlation between the water content of the fuels and the corresponding lubricity measurements as determined by the laboratory tests.
Technical Paper

High Performance Biodegradable Fluid Requirements for Mobile Hydraulic Systems

1998-04-08
981518
Technical groups worldwide have been actively developing specifications and requirements for biodegradable hydraulic fluids for mobile applications. These groups have recognized that an industry-wide specification is necessary due to the increase in environmental awareness in the agriculture, construction, forestry, and mining industries, and to the increasing number of local regulations primarily throughout Europe. Caterpillar has responded to this need by publishing a requirement, Caterpillar BF-1, that may be used by Caterpillar dealers, customers, and industry to help select high-performance biodegradable hydraulic fluids. This requirement was written with the input of several organizations that are known to be involved with the development of similar types of specifications and requirements.
X